果酱:英国人的痴迷
Marmalade: A Very British Obsession
4591字
2021-03-06 16:06
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火星译客

Captain Scott took jars to the Antarctic with him, and Edmund Hillary took one up Everest. Marmalade is part of the British national myth. Livvy Potts wants to know why.

斯科特船长和他一起把罐子带到南极,埃德蒙·希拉里(Edmund Hillary)接了一个珠穆朗玛峰。果酱是英国民族神话的一部分。 Livvy Potts想知道为什么。

The dark wood-panelled dining room is quiet, heavy with concentration. Around the room, six pairs of judges sit at tables crowded with glass jars. As the light catches the jars they glow amber, saffron, primrose. The only real sounds are the murmurs as the pairs of judges consult, and the regular pop! of sterilized jars as they open. Occasionally, there is the tap of a pen against glass, signifying that a gold medal has been awarded, followed by quiet applause or cheers depending on how sugar-drunk the judges are.

深色木镶板的饭厅安静而沉迷。在房间周围,六对法官坐在挤满了玻璃罐子的桌子旁。当光线捕捉到罐子时,它们会发出琥珀色,藏红花色,樱草花色。唯一真正的声音是成对的法官们抱怨的杂音,还有普通的流行声!开罐时的消毒罐。有时候,用笔在玻璃上轻拍一下,表示已经颁发了金牌,然后根据法官喝彩程度,喝彩或一喝彩。

This is the judging room of the World's Original Marmalade Awards, an annual event in Penrith, England, in the English Lake District. I'm here because I'm obsessed with marmalade. Not with making or eating it — although I enjoy both — but the enigma it represents. I suppose I'm obsessed with those obsessed with it: what is the appeal? Marmalade is made from a sour, bitter fruit that doesn't grow in the UK; a fruit that requires days of preparation to render remotely edible. And yet, marmalade holds a central role in British life and British culture. It appears in the diaries of Samuel Pepys; James Bond and Paddington Bear eat it. Officers that served in British wars received jars of marmalade to remind them of their home country. Captain Scott took jars to the Antarctic with him, and Edmund Hillary took one up Everest. Marmalade is part of our national myth. I want to know why.

这是世界原始果酱大奖的评选室,该奖项每年在英格兰彭里斯的英语湖区举行。我在这里是因为我沉迷于果酱。不是制作或食用它-虽然我俩都喜欢-但它代表着谜。我想我痴迷于那些痴迷于此的人:上诉是什么?橘子果酱是用酸味苦涩的水果制成的,这种水果在英国没有种植。一种水果,需要几天的准备才能使其可以远程食用。然而,橘子果酱在英国生活和英国文化中仍扮演着重要角色。它出现在塞缪尔·佩皮斯(Samuel Pepys)的日记中。詹姆士·邦德和帕丁顿熊在英国战争中服役的军官收到了果酱罐,以使他们想起自己的祖国。斯科特船长和他一起把罐子带到南极,埃德蒙·希拉里(Edmund Hillary)接了一个珠穆朗玛峰。果酱是我们民族神话的一部分。我想知道为什么。

***卜

***卜

Marmalade in Britain is overwhelmingly made from citrus aurantium, the bitter orange grown in the Spanish city of Seville. This city produces over 4 million kilos of the orange a year, almost entirely for export to Britain for the marmalade market. How on earth did that happen?

英国的橘子果酱绝大多数是用柑桔制成的,这是西班牙城市塞维利亚种植的苦橙。这个城市每年生产超过400万公斤的橙子,几乎全部用于出口到英国的果酱市场。这到底是怎么发生的?

James Bond and Paddington Bear eat it. Officers that served in British wars received jars of marmalade to remind them of their home country. Captain Scott took jars to the Antarctic with him, and Edmund Hillary took one up Everest. Marmalade is part of our national myth. I want to know why.

詹姆士·邦德和帕丁顿熊在英国战争中服役的军官收到了果酱罐,以使他们想起自己的祖国。斯科特船长和他一起把罐子带到南极,埃德蒙·希拉里(Edmund Hillary)接了一个珠穆朗玛峰。果酱是我们民族神话的一部分。我想知道为什么。

Some would have you believe that marmalade was born in a vacuum. That, like Post-it notes or penicillin, it was invented all of a sudden, brought about by a confluence of unlikely factors. The story goes like this: it was a dark and stormy night. The rain fell in torrents, and a Spanish cargo ship was forced to take an unscheduled dock in Dundee, though it could as well have been anywhere; any port in a storm. Its cargo: oranges. A Dundee grocer, James Keiller, rashly buys up the whole load of them. He quickly discovers these oranges aren't sweet and fleshy, but face-puckering sour and bitter, more pip than fruit. His mother, Janet, in an attempt to produce something, boils them up with tons of sugar. And so, marmalade was born.

有些人会让您相信果酱是在真空中诞生的。就像便利贴或青霉素一样,它是突然间被发明的,它是由不大可能的因素汇聚而成的。故事是这样的:那是一个黑暗而暴风雨的夜晚。暴雨倾盆而下,一艘西班牙货船被迫登上邓迪一个计划外的码头,尽管它本来可以在任何地方。风暴中的任何港口。它的货物:橘子。邓迪杂货店的詹姆斯·基勒(James Keiller)轻率地买了他们的全部食物。他很快发现这些橙子并不甜美多肉,但皱巴巴的酸味和苦味比水果味更重。他的母亲珍妮特(Janet)为了生产某种东西,用大量糖将它们煮沸。橘子果酱就这样诞生了。卜

The truth, I'm afraid, is rather more prosaic. We know that Seville orange marmalade in Britain predates this charming tale: there are British recipes for conserves of Seville oranges as far back as the 1587 A Book of Cookrye, and a marmalade very much like the one we eat today appears in a recipe book by Eliza Cholmondeley published around 1677. The Keiller family probably were the first to produce Seville orange marmalade on a commercial scale, but the Spanish ship story was and is just good PR. It is likely, according to C. Anne Wilson's The Book of Marmalade,that the cargo ship would only have been carrying large quantities of Seville oranges because there was a ready market for them in Scotland, and that Janet Keiller would not have needed to invent a recipe for the orange marmalade, as many were in circulation by that point in England and Scotland. The expansion of the railways came at just the right time for the Keillers, and when Queen Victoria took a shine to the stuff, it quickly became fashionable in London. Once commercial production was underway, marmalade became a celebrated British export, perfect for overseas trade, able to travel long distances preserved by its sugar content, and capable of withstanding extremes of temperature.

恐怕,事实真相比较平淡。我们知道,英国的塞维利亚橘子果酱早于这个迷人的故事:早在1587年的《库克瑞书》中就有英国保存塞维利亚橘子的食谱,而果酱就像今天我们所吃的那样艾丽莎·乔蒙德利(Eliza Cholmondeley)大约在1677年出版。凯勒家族可能是第一个以商业规模生产塞维利亚橙果酱的人,但西班牙的船只故事过去也很不错。根据安妮·威尔逊(C. Anne Wilson)的《橘子果酱书》 ,这艘货船可能只载有大量塞维利亚橙子,因为它们在苏格兰有现成的市场,珍妮特·基勒不需要发明当时橘子果酱的食谱已经在英格兰和苏格兰广为流传。铁路的扩张恰逢Keillers的正确时机,当维多利亚女王(Queen Victoria)对这些东西大放异彩时,它很快就在伦敦变得时尚起来。一旦开始商业生产,橘子果酱就成为了英国著名的出口产品,非常适合海外贸易,由于糖分含量高,因此可以长途跋涉,并且能够承受极端的温度。

In any event, marmalade was also made with other things long before it was made with the Seville orange. Early marmalades were often made from quince, and closely resembled what we now call membrillo: a thick paste that could be moulded and would hold its shape. A recipe from 1587 reads “stir it till it be thick or stiff that your stick will stand upright of itself.” Like membrillo, this marmalade was eaten after dinner, alongside sweetmeats, and as a digestion aid (one thing the Scottish did do in the nineteenth century was move marmalade from dinner to the breakfast table). It was a luxury item, sometimes flavored with prized ambergris, rose, and musk. It was given as gifts as a show of generosity and riches: Henry VIII received “one box of marmalade” from Hull of Exeter in 1524.

无论如何,果酱也很早就已经用塞维利亚橙制成。早期的果酱通常是用木瓜制成的,与我们现在所说的薄膜非常相似:一种可以模制并保持其形状的浓稠糊状物。 1587年的食谱写着“搅拌直到棒变厚或变硬以使其直立。”就像果酱一样,这种果酱在晚餐后与甜食一起食用,并作为一种消化助剂(苏格兰在19世纪所做的一件事就是将果酱从晚餐转移到早餐桌上)。这是一种奢侈品,有时还带有珍贵的龙涎香,玫瑰和麝香。它是作为慷慨大方的礼物赠与的:1524年,亨利八世从埃克塞特的赫尔收到了“一盒果酱”。

Quinces also gave marmalade its name: the world comes from the Portuguese name for the fruit, marmelo. Indeed, early port records tell us that marmalade first arrived in the UK from Portugal, though our appetite for the stuff meant it was soon coming from Spain and Italy too. It didn't take long for English travellers to discover the recipe — a happy occurrence, since quinces grow very well on our temperate isle. We were, for a short time at least, an independent marmalade-making nation, until we got a taste for the foreign bitter orange.

ces也给橘子果酱起了个名字:这个世界来自水果的葡萄牙语名称marmelo 。确实,早期的港口记录告诉我们,橘子果酱首先是从葡萄牙到达英国的,尽管我们对这种果酱的胃口也意味着它很快也将来自西班牙和意大利。很快,英国游客就发现了这个菜谱,这很高兴,因为木瓜在我们温带的小岛上长得很好。至少在短时间内,我们是一个独立的果酱制造国,直到我们尝到了外国苦橙的味道。

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通过在每个星期五下午将本周最佳的Longreads发送到您的收件箱中,开始您的周末阅读。

Only in English does marmalade connote a citrus-based preserve containing peel. In Greek (marmelada), French (marmalade), and Italian (marmellata), the word just means “jam,” with the fruit added afterward to distinguish. Thus marmellata di arance is orange jam: sweet, pulpy. Only marmellata di arance amare is what the English think of as marmalade. And it's not just Romance languages: marmelad in Swedish, Marmelade in German, and marmelade in Danish, all generic terms for any fruit cooked in sugar. The British clearly think of marmalade differently from the rest of the world.

果酱只用英语表示含有果皮的柑橘类蜜饯。在希腊语( marmelada ),法语(果酱)和意大利语( marmellata )中,该词仅表示“果酱”,其后添加了水果以进行区分。因此, marmellata di arance是橙色果酱:甜,稀烂。英国人认为唯一的果酱就是marmellata di arance amare。不仅仅是浪漫语言:瑞典语中的marmelad ,德语中的Marmelade和丹麦语中的marmelade ,所有糖类水果的统称。英国人显然对果酱的看法与世界其他地方不同。

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There are many ways to make marmalade. Some boil the fruit whole; others prefer to cut the peel first. The merits of pressure-cooking are fiercely debated. But broadly speaking, marmalade is made by separating the citrus fruit into its different components — pips, peel, pith, juice — and boiling, before adding sugar and boiling again. Generally, the pith, pips, and flesh are tied up in a muslin bag. The peel is sliced into equal sized strips or chips. The muslin bag and peel are left to soak overnight in the water. The following day, the peel is cooked until tender. Sugar is added, along with any reserved juice, and heated gently until it dissolves, before the heat is ratcheted up to bring the mixture to a rolling boil. In 10-15 minutes, the mixture should have reached 105°C/220°F — jam temperature — meaning that it will set once cool. If you make it with Seville oranges, it's something of a nose-to-tail preserve: the pips and the pith contain enough natural pectin, a gelling agent, to set the marmalade without additional ingredients. Nothing is wasted. In theory, it's a straightforward process; in practice it is riddled with possible unforced errors. You can overboil it, underboil it, add too much acid, add too little acid; you can burn the syrup in the same batch you undercook the peel. You can pot too hot, you can pot too cool. Over the years, my husband, Sam, has encountered every one of them.

制作果酱的方法很多。有些将整个水果煮沸;有些则煮沸了。其他人则喜欢先剪果皮。压力烹饪的优点受到了激烈的争论。但从广义上讲,橘子果酱是通过将柑橘类水果分成不同的成分-点,果皮,髓,果汁和煮沸,然后再添加糖和煮沸来制成的。通常,髓,点和肉被绑在平纹细布袋中。将果皮切成相等大小的条或片。将平纹细布袋和果皮在水中浸泡过夜。第二天,将果皮煮至嫩。加入糖以及任何保留的汁液,然后慢慢加热直至其溶解,然后再加热,以使混合物滚滚沸腾。在10-15分钟内,混合物应达到105°C / 220°F(果酱温度),这意味着一旦冷却,它将凝固。如果用塞维利亚橘子做的话,那是从头到尾的蜜饯:点子和髓中含有足够的天然果胶(一种胶凝剂),可以在不添加其他成分的情况下将果酱制成果酱。没有浪费。从理论上讲,这是一个简单的过程。实际上,它充满了可能的非强制性错误。您可以将其煮沸,煮沸,添加过多的酸,添加过多的酸;您可以在煮果皮的同一批次中燃烧糖浆。锅太热,锅太凉。多年来,我的丈夫山姆遇到了其中的每一个。

It was Sam who properly brought marmalade into my life. He was late for one of our early dates because he was waiting for his marmalade to set. He arrived, clutching a sticky, still-warm jar of Seville orange marmalade, in lieu of flowers. Back then, I didn't even really eat marmalade. I certainly would never have countenanced making my own. Why would anyone bother? Was he aware that you can buy it in the supermarket? I was a criminal barrister, and the point in my life where I would ditch criminal law in favor of retraining in pâtisserie was still years in the future.

是山姆恰当地将橘子果酱带入了我的生活。他迟到了我们的早期约会之一,因为他正在等待果酱。他带着一瓶仍然温暖的塞维利亚橘子果酱,代替鲜花,来到了那里。那时,我什至没有真正吃过果酱。我当然不会容忍自己做的。为什么有人会打扰?他是否知道您可以在超市购买?我曾是一名刑事大律师,而在我的生活中,未来几年仍会抛弃刑法,以支持对糕点店进行再培训。

It was Sam who properly brought marmalade into my life. He was late for one of our early dates because he was waiting for his marmalade to set.

是山姆恰当地将橘子果酱带入了我的生活。他迟到了我们的早期约会之一,因为他正在等待果酱。

But Sam came from a long line of marmalade lovers and marmalade makers. In marmalade season —  in the UK, Seville oranges are only available for a few brief weeks from the end of December to mid-February — it's all his family talks about, with long WhatsApp threads devoted to techniques, yields, sets. Sam was a good cook, but not an especially enthusiastic one: he cooked simple, functional meals. But marmalade was different. Marmalade making was, for him, non-negotiable. Even if we had shelves packed full of the previous years' labors, when January rolled around, more must be made.

但是山姆来自一连串的果酱爱好者和果酱制造商。在橘子酱季节,在英国,从12月底到2月中旬,塞维利亚橘子只供应了短短几周的时间。这是他全家人谈论的话题,WhatsApp的长线程专门讨论技术,产量和设置。山姆是一位好厨师,但不是一个特别热情的厨师:他烹制简单,实用的饭菜。但是橘子果酱是不同的。对他来说,果酱制作是无法商量的。即使我们的货架上堆满了前几年的工作,一月份来临时,也必须做更多的工作。

(It's not just Sam and his family who are fanatics. So devoted are the marmalade makers of the UK that it's possible to buy canned, prepared Seville orange peel and pulp, “Ma Made,” the marmalade equivalent of a cake mix box — just in case you get that marmalade-making hankering outside of season.)

(不仅是Sam和他的家人是狂热分子。英国的果酱制造商非常投入,可以购买罐装的,准备好的塞维利亚橙皮和果肉,“ Ma Made”,相当于果酱盒的果酱—以防您在季节以外渴望做果酱。)

For the first few years of our relationship, this was something I simply endured. Love the man, love his marmalade. As I got into cooking, I tried to make my own a few times, with varying success, but never quite caught the bug. (Besides which, we had an awful lot to get through. Even a small batch is a lot of marmalade for two people.) It all seemed so unpredictable; some years, whole batches had to be reboiled as Sam muttered darkly about it being a “low-pectin year.”

在我们关系的最初几年中,我只是忍受了这一点。爱这个人,爱他的果酱。当我开始做饭时,我尝试过几次自己的尝试,取得了不同的成功,但从未完全发现错误。 (除此之外,我们还有很多困难要解决。即使是一小批人,对两个人来说都是果酱。)这一切似乎太不可预测了。几年来,整批产品必须重新煮沸,因为Sam暗暗地说这是“低果胶年”。

Once you're hooked, of course, this is all part of the appeal. Lucy Deedes is a veteran of both the homemade and artisan classes of the World's Original Marmalade Awards, scoring three gold medals in the artisan. “You have to get things right at the right time. I've never made jam because it's not much of a challenge. Marmalade only has three ingredients, but every batch is different, and sometimes it just doesn't turn out.”

当然,一旦上钩,这就是吸引力的全部。露西·迪德斯(Lucy Deedes)是世界原始果酱大奖的自制和手工艺人的资深人士,在手工艺人中获得了三枚金牌。 “您必须在正确的时间把事情做好。我从来没有做过果酱,因为这不是一个很大的挑战。果酱只含有三种成分,但每批都是不同的,有时却没有。”

In other words: the tricky, maddening nature of marmalade is precisely why people love making it. It's a bit like sourdough: if you're going to get into it, you have to really get into it. Even then, failure lurks around every corner —  but so does the possibility of improvement. That's irresistible to a certain sort of person; marmalade attracts the obsessive. Helena Atlee, author of The Land Where Lemons Grow puts it more bluntly. “Marmalade attracts bigots. They believe in one true product made from the sour oranges the British call Sevilles, and coming most probably from a steamy Scottish kitchen in Dundee.”

换句话说:果酱的棘手,令人发疯的本质恰恰是人们喜欢制作果酱的原因。这有点像酸面团:如果您要加入其中,就必须真正加入其中。即使那样,失败仍潜伏在每个角落,但改善的可能性也是如此。这对于某些人是无法抗拒的;果酱吸引了人们。海伦娜·阿特利(Helena Atlee), 《柠檬生长的土地》一书的作者直言不讳。橘子果酱吸引了顽固的拥护者。他们相信一种真正的产品是用酸橙制成的,英国人称其为塞维利亚,最有可能来自邓迪一个闷热的苏格兰厨房。”

For the first few years of our relationship, this was something I simply endured. Love the man, love his marmalade.

在我们关系的最初几年中,我只是忍受了这一点。爱这个人,爱他的果酱。

I want to meet some of these obsessives, and understand the hold that marmalade has over so many. And I think I know where to find them: the World's Original Marmalade Awards.

我想见识其中的一些强迫症,并了解橘子果酱的应用范围之广。我想我知道在哪里可以找到:世界原始果酱大奖。

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I arrived at Dalemain, where the awards are held, against the odds, having battled Storm Ciara to make it to the flooded and snowbound Lake District. At that point, I was fairly sure that extreme weather conditions would be the biggest challenge the awards would face this year. How much February Olivia had to learn. I first spoke to Jane Hasell-McCosh, who is the founder of the awards over the phone, asking if I could interview her and perhaps a couple of the judges for this piece. ‘“We can do one better than that,” she told me. “Would you like to help us judge?”

我到达了Dalemain,在那里兑现了赔率,他与Storm Ciara进行了战斗,使其到达了被水淹没的大雪湖区。到那时,我相当确定,极端天气条件将是该奖项今年将面临的最大挑战。奥利维亚二月必须学习多少。我首先通过电话与奖项的创立者简·哈塞尔-麦科什(Jane Hasell-McCosh)进行了交谈,问我是否可以采访她以及也许是两位法官。她告诉我:““我们可以做得更好。” “您想帮助我们判断吗?”卜

I agreed on the spot, but afterward, I began to worry that I didn't know enough about marmalade for the gig. Thanks to Sam, I eat it far more than I used to, and would tend to choose it over jam. But is that enough? Well, it was too late for that. On my way up to the judging, I braced myself for the marmalade obsessives of which Helena Atlee writes — if not bigots, then at least fundamentalists. I was ready to be told there is only one true way to make and enjoy marmalade, and that any deviation from it is an aberration and, possibly, a perversion.

我当场表示同意,但是之后,我开始担心自己对果酱的了解不多。多亏了山姆,我吃得比以前多得多,并且倾向于选择果酱而不是果酱。但是够了吗?好吧,为时已晚。在进行评判的过程中,我为海伦娜·阿特利(Helena Atlee)撰写的橘子果酱迷恋作好准备-如果不是顽固主义者,那么至少是原教旨主义者。我已经准备好被告知,只有一种真正的方法可以制作和享用果酱,而与果酱的任何偏离都是一种畸变,甚至可能是一种变态。

Dalemain is astonishing. The main frontage is Georgian, built in 1744, with the old hall dating far further back to the 12th century. It has been in the family for over 300 years. Although from the outside the house looks like a National Trust property, when you step inside you immediately realize it is a family home. Laundry hangs in the huge stone kitchen, dogs weave between legs, and back copies of Vogue spill out from under a table in the hallway. On the walls, portraits of distant ancestors mingle with recent family photos. In one of the guest rooms, a bed gifted by Queen Anne still resides. (The mattress, I am told, has been changed.)

达勒曼令人惊讶。主要的正面是乔治亚风格的建筑,建于1744年,古老的大厅可以追溯到12世纪。它已经存在于家庭中300多年了。尽管从外面看房子看起来像是国家信托财产,但是当您走进屋子时,您会立即意识到这是一个家庭住宅。洗衣店挂在巨大的石头厨房里,狗在两腿之间编织,后背的Vogue副本从走廊的桌子下面散落开来。在墙上,远距离祖先的肖像与最近的全家福相融合。在其中一间客房中,仍然安放着一张由安妮女王赠予的床。 (我被告知床垫已被更换。)

The awards began as a one-off. Fifteen years ago, rural Britain was still struggling after being decimated four years earlier by the outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease, a highly infectious disease which affects cows and other cloven-footed animals, and generally requires widespread culling of livestock. Jane wanted to do something to bring her local community together, something cheering. There was never any plan for it to become a regular event.

该奖项是一次性的。 15年前,英国农村地区在四年前因口蹄疫暴发而致死后仍在挣扎,这种口蹄疫是一种高度传染性疾病,会影响牛和其他偶蹄动物,并且通常需要广泛宰杀牲畜。简想做点什么使她的当地社区团结起来,有些欢呼。从来没有任何计划使其成为常规活动。

The fact that it did is perhaps down to Jane's formidable organizational nouse, though I believe her when she tells me how much the growth and success of the event took her by surprise. That first year, around 60 jars were received, almost exclusively from local competitors. This year, there are more than 3,000 entrants from 40 countries around the world, plus spin-off festivals in Japan and Australia. During the time I spent at Dalemain, two separate production companies were filming.

这样做的事实可能归功于Jane的强大组织幻想,尽管我相信她告诉我事件的发展和成功在多大程度上令她感到惊讶。第一年,大约收到了60个罐子,几乎都是本地竞争对手提供的。今年,来自全球40个国家/地区的3,000多名参赛者,以及在日本和澳大利亚举办的衍生音乐节。在Dalemain期间,有两家独立的制作公司正在拍摄。

After 15 years, judging has been honed to a fine art. The way it works is this: the marmalades are tasted on plastic spoons (never double-dipped), without the interference of bread, oatcakes or any other vehicle. Bath Oliver biscuits (a savory cracker) are on the table as a palate cleanser. Each entry has a scorecard and is judged on its appearance, texture and flavor, with points available for lack of smudges on the jar, color, brightness, peel distribution, jar filled to the top, balance of jelly to peel, set, size of peel, texture of peel, balance of flavors, balance of acidity, length of finish, and “overall harmony.” The marmalades can receive a commended, a bronze, a silver, a gold, or nothing at all. Those which have scored top marks are then re-judged: there is a Best in Show awarded to the top homemade marmalade, and a “Double Gold” award given to a handful of the very best across the categories. The winner of the best homemade marmalade is sold in the luxury London department store, Fortnum & Mason.

15年过去了,评判已经成为一种美术。它的工作方式是这样的:果酱是在塑料勺子上蘸过的(切勿双蘸),而不会受到面包,燕麦饼或任何其他媒介的干扰。桌上的巴斯奥利弗饼干(咸饼干)作为上颚清洁剂。每个条目都有一个记分卡,并根据其外观,质地和风味进行评判,要点包括瓶子上是否有污迹,颜色,亮度,果皮分布,罐子装满顶部,果冻到果皮的平衡,凝固,大小等方面的得分。果皮,果皮质地,风味平衡,酸度平衡,光洁度的长短和“整体和谐”。果酱可以得到称赞,青铜,银,金或什至什么都没有。那些获得最高分的人将被重新评判:顶级自制果酱被授予“最佳表演奖”,并且在少数类别中被授予最佳“双金”奖。最好的自制果酱的获胜者在伦敦的豪华百货公司Fortnum&Mason中出售。

After a short briefing, and armed with our spoons, we were ready to start judging.

简短介绍后,带着我们的汤匙武装起来,我们准备开始进行评判。

There are more categories than you could shake a stick at: in the homemade category, as well as the standard Seville orange (which have two sub-categories), dark and chunky marmalade and “other citrus,” there are categories for children, first-timers, men, gardeners (where the predominant ingredient beyond the citrus was grown by the competitor), octogenarians, and campanologists (bell-ringers). Special categories of former years have included everything from peers, political & clergy, to hairdressers.

类别比您可以动摇的要多:在自制类别中,还有标准的塞维利亚橙(有两个子类别),深色和厚厚的橘子果酱和“其他柑橘类”,其中有儿童类别,首先是儿童类别。 -计时器,男士,园丁(其中的主要成分是柑橘,而竞争对手则是这种植物的主要成分),八十岁以上的人和露营者(钟形铃)。往年的特殊类别包括从同龄人,政治和神职人员到美发师的所有内容。

The range is mind-boggling: a sweet potato and coffee marmalade from Taiwan sat alongside a lime glitter marmalade, which looked like something a teenage girl would daub on her eyelids. A coconut and chocolate marmalade elicited groans when it was plucked from a crate, followed by raised eyebrows and “not bad!”s once actually tasted. I tasted fruits I've never even heard of, let alone tried: daidai (the Japanese equivalent of the Seville orange, bitter, pocked, and pithy), tachibana (a wild mandarin found in Southern Taiwan and Japan), kawachi bankan (a Japanese pomelo), and tangelo (a sweet tangy orange that tastes, to me at least, like jelly beans).

范围令人难以置信:台湾的红薯和咖啡橘子果酱坐在石灰闪闪发光的橘子果酱旁边,看起来像是十几岁的女孩会在眼皮上涂抹些东西。当从箱子里拔出椰子和巧克力果酱时,会发出吟,然后抬起眉毛,并曾尝过“不错!”。我尝到了从未闻所未闻的水果,更不用说尝试了:daidai(相当于塞维利亚橙,苦涩,麻子和小豆蔻的日文),tachibana(在台湾南部和日本发现的野生国语),kawachi bankan(一种日本柚子)和橘栾果(一种甜的橘子味,至少对我来说就像软心豆粒一样)。

It is no coincidence that some of the most striking and delicious citrus fruits previously unknown to me come from Japan, and that the Japanese tend to enjoy particular success at the awards. Marmalade is big news in Japan, despite the absence of Seville oranges. Two years ago, Seiko and Yoriko Ninomiya, Japanese marmalade makers, received a double-gold award for their marmalade, a yuzu and ginger and, suspended in the jelly, tiny yuzu peel stars. They came to marmalade as a hobby after they retired from careers in the airline industry. They have been involved in the inaugural Japanese Marmalade Awards, which are held at Yawatahama, where the citrus groves tumble down the hills to the ocean. This year, they have come to the Lake District to help judge the World awards.

我以前不知道的一些最引人注目的,最美味的柑橘类水果来自日本,这并非巧合,日本人在获得奖项时往往会获得特别的成功。尽管没有塞维利亚橘子,橘子果酱在日本还是个大新闻。两年前,日本果酱制造商精工和二宫洋子(Yoriko Ninomiya)因其果酱,柚子和生姜而获得了双金奖,并悬浮在果冻中的小柚子果皮星中。从航空业退休后,他们就成为了橘子果酱的一种爱好。他们参加了在八w滨举行的首届日本果酱大奖,柑桔树林从山坡上跌落到大海。今年,他们来到湖区帮助评选世界奖项。

I was told by more seasoned judges that when I tasted a full mark, gold marmalade, I would know immediately. And they were right. I was the first person to try one of the marmalades that ultimately won the Double Gold International Marmalade award in the artisan category, and it was stop-you-in-your-tracks good. It too was a Japanese marmalade, made from the endangered tachibana fruit, which tastes like a Seville orange crossed with a mandarin — but it's not just the flavor that set it apart. This was a reduced sugar marmalade, which often results in a loose, syrupy set, but here was a set so perfect that many full-sugar marmalades fail to achieve; crystal clear, wibbly jelly; identical, perfectly cooked peel was suspended throughout the jar. How could a marmalade be so clever? I wanted to ring everyone I know and tell them about this stuff.

经验丰富的法官告诉我,当我品尝到金橘果酱时,我会立刻知道。他们是对的。我是第一个尝试其中一种果酱的人,该果酱最终获得了手工艺类别的双金国际果酱奖,而且这是您在旅途中停停的好方法。这也是日本的橘子果酱,它是由濒临灭绝的橘子果实制成的,味道像塞维利亚橙子和普通话,不过,不仅仅是使它与众不同的味道。这是一种减少了糖的橘子果酱,通常会导致松散的糖浆味,但是这里的糖味太完美了,以至于许多全糖橘子果酱都无法实现。晶莹剔透的果冻;同样,完全煮熟的果皮悬浮在整个广口瓶中。果酱怎么会这么聪明?我想打电话给我认识的每个人,并告诉他们有关这方面的信息。

…here was a set so perfect that many full-sugar marmalades fail to achieve; crystal clear, wibbly jelly; identical, perfectly cooked peel was suspended throughout the jar. How could a marmalade be so clever?

……这里的美食太完美了,以至于许多全糖果酱都无法实现;晶莹剔透的果冻;同样,完全煮熟的果皮悬浮在整个广口瓶中。果酱怎么会这么聪明?

***

***

It's hard to comprehend when you're sitting in the stone kitchen of Dalemain, but marmalade's appeal is not what it once was. Thane Prince, a British cookery writer, preserves specialist and judge of The Big Allotment Challenge, tells me that British tastes and customs have moved on. “It's old-fashioned. I think the appeal was that it was exotic. A luxury product, and these things always have caché. But now it's just old-fashioned. And people don't have breakfast in the same way.” During the height of marmalade's popularity, a cooked “Full English” breakfast, accompanied by toast and marmalade was standard. But Britain's marmalade consumption has been in decline since the 1960s. Perhaps establishing marmalade as a breakfast food was actually sealing its fate. We have less time for breakfast now; we pick something up on the go, from a coffee shop. More and more of us avoid sugar, or carbs in general. None of this bodes well for marmalade's future.

当您坐在Dalemain的石制厨房中时,很难理解,但是果酱的吸引力已不再是以前。英国烹饪作家塔恩·普林斯(Thane Prince)保留着《大分配挑战》的专家兼法官的形象,他告诉我,英国的口味和习俗在不断发展。 “它是老式的。我认为吸引力在于它是异国情调的。奢侈品,而这些东西总是带有咖啡。但是现在它只是老式的。人们不会以同样的方式吃早餐。”在果酱盛行的最盛时期,标准的是煮熟的“英式”早餐,配以吐司和果酱。但是自1960年代以来,英国的果酱消费量一直在下降。也许将果酱用作早餐食品实际上是在解决命运。现在我们吃早餐的时间减少了。我们随时随地从咖啡店拿东西。我们中越来越多的人避免食用糖或碳水化合物。这些都不是果酱的未来的好兆头。

Its bitterness probably doesn't help, either. We are programmed to dislike bitterness, as Jennifer McLagan explains in her book Bitter: A Taste of the World's Most Dangerous Flavor. In nature, bitterness often suggests something poisonous, which is why babies screw up their faces at bitter tastes. As we age, we lose taste buds, and learn to like bitter things: coffee, cigarettes, Campari, dark chocolate. But each is a struggle. And with marmalade, many of us seemingly never get off the ground, plumping instead for jam, or peanut butter. It is certainly true that peanut butter and chocolate spread are gaining ground in the share of the spreads market, where marmalade resides. Marmalade sales were in steady decline from 2013.

它的苦味可能也无济于事。正如詹妮弗·麦克拉根(Jennifer McLagan)在她的《苦味:世界上最危险的味道》一书中所解释的那样,我们被编程为不喜欢苦味。在自然界中,苦味通常暗示着某种有毒物质,这就是为什么婴儿以苦涩的口味拧脸。随着年龄的增长,我们会失去味蕾,学会喜欢苦的东西:咖啡,香烟,金巴利和黑巧克力。但是每一次都是一场斗争。加上果酱,我们中的许多人似乎永远都不会掉下来,而是饱食果酱或花生酱。的确,花生酱和巧克力酱在果酱所在的酱油市场中占有越来越大的份额。自2013年以来,果酱的销售量一直稳定下降。

Even in decline, though, marmalade has sway in the supermarkets because of its status as a basket item: one that shoppers use to judge where to shop. As such, it is a common loss leader, meaning retailers sell it at a rock-bottom price to get people through their doors. At the time of writing, a one-pound jar of marmalade can be had for as little as 27p (34¢), an impossible price on which to make a profit.

但是,即使价格下降,橘子果酱也因其作为篮子商品的地位而在超市中占主导地位:购物者用来判断在哪儿购物的果酱。因此,它是一个常见的亏损领导者,这意味着零售商以最低价格出售它,以吸引人们上门。在撰写本文时,一罐果酱的价格仅为27便士(34美分),这是赚钱的不可能的价格。

But, the tide may be turning. The 2017 release of Paddington 2 — which involved a set piece showing Paddington making marmalade in prison — increased marmalade sales by 3 percent in the UK after a steady four-year decline, according to supermarket data collected by research firm Kantar. It's fitting, perhaps, that Britain's distinctly un-British national preserve might be saved by a bear from darkest Peru.

但是,潮流可能正在转变。根据研究公司Kantar收集的超市数据,2017年发布的《帕丁顿2》 (Paddington 2)(其中一件作品展示了帕丁顿在监狱里制造果酱)在经历了连续四年的下滑之后,在英国的果酱销售额增长了3%。也许合适的是,英国最明显的非英国国家保护区可能被最黑暗的秘鲁的一只熊拯救了。

***

***

I didn't get the conclusion I expected to when I began researching marmalade. I thought my marmalade journey would end with the festival that accompanies the World's Original Marmalade Awards: a festival festooned in orange and oranges which celebrates this absurd tradition, as well as the people who perpetuate it. In a normal year, there are classes and presentations, tastings and exhibitions, a church service, all devoted to marmalade. Even the sheep go orange: 50 were dyed in readiness for this year's festival (it was supposed to be fewer but Jane tells me they “got carried away.”) At the judging in Dalemain in February, the excitement for the festival was palpable. But of course, it was not to be: COVID-19 swept in far more comprehensively and destructively than Storm Ciara. A festival that attracts hundreds of international visitors and involves repeated tastings was off the table long before we went into lockdown.

当我开始研究果酱时,没有得到我期望的结论。我认为我的果酱之旅将以举世闻名的橘子果酱颁奖典礼结束:以橙和橘子为花彩的节日,以庆祝这种荒诞的传统以及使它永存的人们。正常情况下,每年都有班级和演讲,品酒会和展览,教堂礼拜,全部用于果酱。甚至绵羊都变成橘子了:为今年的节日准备了50头染色(本来应该少一些,但简告诉我,他们“被带走了。”)2月份在达勒曼的评审中,节日的兴奋显而易见。但是,当然不是这样:COVID-19比Storm Ciara更全面,更具破坏力。在我们锁定之前,一个吸引了数百名国际游客并反复品尝的节日就已经摆在餐桌旁了。

Even as a peripheral player in the awards, it was deflating. But then I came home and made marmalade.

即使作为奖项的外围玩家,它也在萎缩。但是后来我回家做果酱。

***

***

I am standing in my kitchen in London in front of a large pan full of orange jelly, trying to put all the advice and tips that I was given over my four days in Dalemain into practice. I need to make sure the peel is fully cooked before adding the sugar. I need to avoid squeezing the muslin bag so the jelly doesn't become cloudy. Despite my best efforts, I turn my back for one second (OK, two minutes) to wash out my jars for sterilizing, and turn back to find that the marmalade has whooshed up and spilled all over my hobs in a big sticky puddle. I soldier on, undeterred. Fifteen sticky minutes later, my marmalade is approaching the magic 105ºC. I deploy the wrinkle test — twice, just to be sure — which involves cooling a spoonful of the mixture on a frozen plate, to see if it forms a skin which wrinkles. I leave the marmalade a few minutes before potting, determined not to make the classic “potting too hot” error (which introduces tiny air bubbles into the finished product). And, although no one but me or Sam will ever see this batch, I make sure each jar is filled right to the top.

我站在伦敦的厨房里,那是一个装满橙子冻的大盘子,试图将我在达勒曼(Dalemain)四天中得到的所有建议和技巧付诸实践。在添加糖之前,我需要确保果皮已完全煮熟。我需要避免挤压平纹细布袋,以免果冻变得混浊。尽管我尽了最大的努力,但我还是转了一秒钟(可以,两分钟)洗净了罐子进行消毒,然后转身发现果酱已经掉了下来,洒在了整个炉灶上,变成了一个大的粘性水坑。我继续前进,坚守不移。黏黏的十五分钟后,我的果酱正逼近神奇的105ºC。我进行了皱纹测试-可以肯定的是-进行了两次-包括将一匙混合物在冷冻板上冷却,以查看其是否形成了会皱纹的皮肤。我在浇注前几分钟离开果酱,决心不犯经典的“浇注太热”错误(这会在成品中引入微小的气泡)。而且,虽然没有人,但我还是山姆永远不会看到这一批,我要确保每个瓶子填满顶端。

I stand back and admire my five-and-a-half jars and… I get it. Of course I do. How could I not? My jelly isn't quite crystal clear, but it is basketball orange, bright and glowing. I dropped saffron strands into a couple of the jars, stirring last minute, and they hang, suspended in the jelly, perfect threads. It may not be award-winning, but it is the best I have ever made. It really does feel like I've potted sunshine, a moment in time.

我退后一步,欣赏我的五个半罐子……我明白了。我当然是了。我怎么会不呢我的果冻不是很透明,但是是篮球橙色,明亮而发光。我将藏红花线放到几个广口瓶中,在最后一分钟搅拌,然后将它们悬挂在果冻中,悬挂在完美的线中。它可能不会屡获殊荣,但这是我有史以来最好的。确实,我感觉自己像在一段时间里沐浴着阳光。

It really does feel like I've potted sunshine, a moment in time.

确实,我感觉自己像在一段时间里沐浴着阳光。

British food writer Diana Henry describes preserving as “holding onto a season, a particular mood” — she calls it “one of the most poetic branches of cooking.” I love this idea. Simone de Beauvoir felt similarly. “The housewife has caught duration in the snare of sugar, she has enclosed life in jars.” There are few fruits for which this is more true than the Seville orange, which you can find in the shops for a handful of weeks; the ability to pot and revisit that season six months down the line is its own breed of kitchen magic. Each jar tells the story of both the season and the maker. When I spoke to fellow judge Will Torrent about the nature of the marmalade awards, he found that this emotional quality seeped into the judging as well as making of the marmalade. ‘There will be a story that has led to that marmalade maker entering at that point. Food awards can sometimes become very serious. It becomes very technical, and yes there is a technical element to this, but at the same time — and I think this is the way I judge — it's, ‘How does it make me feel?' And it brings such joy, and it rubs off on everyone else.”

英国美食作家戴安娜·亨利(Diana Henry)将保存描述为“坚持一个季节,一种特殊的心情”,她称其为“烹饪中最诗意的分支之一”。我喜欢这个主意。西蒙娜·德·波伏娃也有类似的感觉。 “家庭主妇陷入了糖笼罩的陷阱,她把生活封闭在罐子里。”没有什么比塞维利亚橙更真实的了,在商店里可以买到好几个星期。能够在下个月的六个月内进行罐装和重访的能力是其自身的厨房魔力品种。每个罐子都讲述了季节和制造商的故事。当我与法官同志威尔·托伦特(Will Torrent)谈论果酱大奖的性质时,他发现这种情感特质渗入了果酱的评判和制作过程中。将会有一个故事,导致那个果酱制造商进入这一点。食品奖励有时会变得非常严重。它变得非常技术性,是的,它具有技术性元素,但是同时-我认为这是我的判断方式-是,“它给我的感觉如何?”它带来了如此的喜悦,并在其他所有人身上产生了影响。”

But right now, since global lockdown, it's more than that. There is something inherently optimistic about preservation, about putting something away for your future. You are saying, “I will be here in a year's time, and so will this marmalade.” Making marmalade is a lot of effort, and by that token, it is a commitment. Marmalade is a tether to your own future, it's a savings account. It is shoring yourself up against the instability and uncertainty of life. You do not make marmalade without a small optimism, a hope of orange-colored happiness in your future.

但是现在,自从全球锁定以来,不仅如此。对于保存来说,内在地有一些乐观的想法,为了您的未来而保留一些东西。您说的是:“一年后我会在这里,这个果酱也一样。”做果酱是很多努力,因此,这是一种承诺。果酱是您自己的未来的纽带,是一个储蓄帐户。它使自己摆脱了生活的不稳定和不确定性。乐观的想法会让您无法做出橘子果酱,这是您未来的橙色幸福的希望。

Marmalade is something stable in an uncertain world. It has survived plagues and wars, fires and uprisings. I know that the marmalade I make today will still be there tomorrow. It doesn't actually need a festival — it doesn't even need supermarket sales. Marmalade has staying power. That is surely why the British love marmalade so much: because tomorrow everything will be different, but marmalade will be the same.

果酱在不确定的世界中是稳定的。它在瘟疫,战争,火灾和起义中幸存下来。我知道我今天做的果酱将在明天仍然存在。它实际上不需要节日-它甚至不需要超市销售。果酱具有持久力。无疑是为什么英国人如此喜欢果酱的原因:因为明天一切都会不同,但是果酱会一样。

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Olivia Potts is a food writer and chef. After a career as a criminal barrister, she retrained in patisserie at Le Cordon Bleu. Her first book, A Half Baked Idea: How grief, love and cake took me from the courtoom to Le Cordon Bleu won the Fortnum & Mason Debut Food Book Award and is published by Fig Tree, Penguin. She is the Guild of Food Writers Food Writer of the Year 2020

奥利维亚·波茨(Olivia Potts)是一位美食作家和厨师。在从事刑事大律师的职业之后,她在蓝带国际学院的法式蛋糕店接受了培训。她的第一本书《半熟的想法:悲痛,爱情和蛋糕如何使我从考场发展到蓝带》获得了Fortnum&Mason首次亮相美食书奖,并由企鹅无花果树出版。她是食品作家协会的2020年年度食品作家

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Editor: Krista Stevens

编辑:克里斯塔·史蒂文斯(Krista Stevens)

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