我不是战士,但我受过杀人的训练
I Am Not a Soldier, but I Have Been Trained to Kill
6118字
2021-03-02 08:55
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火星译客

1. ‘Our Numbers Grow Every Year'

1.“我们的人数每年都在增长”

On a misty November morning just after sunrise, I pulled up to a shooting range in central Texas with a borrowed AR-15 and a few hundred rounds of dubious-quality Russian ammunition that I'd ordered over the internet. I followed a pickup down a gravel road and over two cattle guards to the far end of the property. Then I parked in a field ringed by trees whose bark was scarred by stray bullets.

十一月份的一个雾蒙蒙的早晨,在日出后,我用借来的AR-15和我在网上订购的数百发可疑的俄罗斯弹药来到了德克萨斯州中部的一个射击场。我跟着一辆小货车沿着一条砾石路走去,还有两名看守牛的人走到了庄园的另一头。然后我把车停在一片被树木包围的田野里,那里的树皮被流弹留下了伤疤。

A handful of men had already arrived, and they were loading ammunition into their magazines as the morning birds chittered overhead. After a while, a decorated US Army veteran named Eric Dorenbush gathered us into a circle and gave a short safety briefing—don't point your barrel at anything you're not willing to destroy, act as if every gun is loaded—then asked us not to share any images or videos on social media. We didn't want information falling into the hands of terrorists or other bad actors, he explained. Plus there could be social repercussions. “This activity is considered … off-mainstream,” one of my fellow students, an orthopedist from Indiana, told me.

一小撮人已经到了,他们正往杂志里装弹药,这时早晨的鸟儿在头顶上叽叽喳喳地叫着。过了一会儿,一位名叫埃里克·多伦布希(Eric Dorenbush)的美国退伍军人召集我们围成一圈,做了一个简短的安全简报--不要用枪管指着任何你不愿摧毁的东西,表现得好像每把枪都装了子弹--然后要求我们不要在社交媒体上分享任何图片或视频。我们不希望信息落入恐怖 分子或其他坏人手中,他解释道。而且可能会产生社会影响。“这个活动被认为是…。我的一个同学,一个来自印第安纳州的整形外科医生告诉我。

We had all signed up for a two-day tactical firearms course, where we'd be learning how to shoot as if we were engaged in small-unit armed combat. Once the purview of law enforcement officers and military operators, these kinds of skills are increasingly being passed down to ordinary, armed Americans by a sprawling and diffuse industry. Gun ranges and private facilities around the country teach the art of tactical shooting, in setups that range from the fly-by-night to the elaborate: At a Texas resort, you can schedule a combat training scenario inspired by the Iraq War after your trail ride; at an invitation-only facility in Florida, you can practice taking down a mass shooter at the Liberal Tears Café; at Real World Tactical, a former Marine will teach you how to survive “urban chaos through armed tactical solutions.”

我们都报名参加了为期两天的战术枪械课程,在那里我们将学习如何射击,就像我们在进行小规模的武装战斗一样。这些技能曾经是执法人员和军事操作者的职权范围,如今正越来越多地被一个庞大而分散的行业传授给普通武装的美国人。美国各地的枪支练习场和私人设施传授战术射击的艺术,从夜间飞行到精心制作:在德克萨斯州的一个度假胜地,你可以在试驾后安排一个受伊拉克战争启发的作战训练场景;在佛罗里达州的一个只有邀请的设施里,你可以在咖啡馆练习干掉一名群众射击者;在真实世界战术(Real World Tactical),一名前海军陆战队员将教你如何通过武装战术解决方案从“城市混乱”中生存下来。

Under the aegis of his one-man company, Green Eye Tactical, Dorenbush says he trains SWAT teams and military contractors, but that about half of his students are people who don't carry a gun professionally. In recent weeks, he'd worked with a 22-year-old mechanic who'd been robbed at work, a teenage girl, and several married couples. “Everyone has different things they're preparing for, different threats,” he said.

在他的一人公司绿眼战术公司的主持下,多伦布希说,他训练特警队和军事承包商,但他的学生中大约有一半是不专业携带枪支的人。最近几周,他和一个22岁的技工一起工作,他在工作中被抢劫,一个十几岁的女孩,还有几对已婚夫妇。“每个人都有不同的准备,不同的威胁,”他说。

Even before the recent siege on the Capitol by men wearing body armor and carrying zip ties, the idea of civilians learning tactical skills may have conjured up images of militias and far-right violence—and not entirely without reason. The men who allegedly plotted to kidnap Michigan governor Gretchen Whitmer last summer prepared by running their own tactical training camp. In leaked private chats associated with the Boogaloo movement, a fringe group advocating for a second US civil war, a gun store employee brags about recruiting customers to join his tactical training group. “Everything is set up in order for our boog squad,” he wrote. “Our numbers grow every year.”

甚至在最近被身穿防弹衣、带着拉链的人围攻国会大厦之前,平民学习战术技能的想法可能会让人联想到民兵和极右翼暴力的形象,而且并非完全没有理由。据称,去年夏天密谋绑架密歇根州州长格雷琴·惠特默(GretchenWhitmer)的人通过管理自己的战术训练营做准备。在与鼓吹第二次美国内战的边缘组织博格鲁运动(Boogaloo)有关的泄密私人谈话中,一名枪械店员工吹嘘要招募顾客加入他的战术训练小组。“一切都是为了我们的布格阵容,”他写道。“我们的人数每年都在增长。”

But the tactical shooting world also attracts a much wider range of people: gun bros and gamers, preppers and adr-enaline junkies, LARPers who want to spend their weekends cosplaying as commandos, and crime victims seeking a particular flavor of empowerment. Women make up a growing proportion of students, and the industry is increasingly catering to preachers and teachers who want to know how to face a mass shooter. “We're getting a lot of nontraditional gun owners, and some people who don't want people to know they're learning to shoot guns,” says Ken Campbell, the CEO of Gunsite, which claims to be the country's oldest tactical training facility.

但战术射击世界也吸引了更多的人:枪支兄弟和游戏玩家、预备队和阿德鲁--狂热的瘾君子,想在周末扮演突击队的LARPers,以及犯罪受害者寻求一种特殊的权力。女性在学生中所占的比例越来越大,这个行业越来越多地迎合那些想知道如何面对大规模枪击者的传教士和教师。Gunsite公司的首席执行官肯·坎贝尔(Ken Campbell)表示:“我们得到了很多非传统的枪支拥有者,还有一些人不想让人们知道他们在学射击。”该公司号称是美国最古老的战术训练机构。

As we head into an era that seems destined to be marked by escalating vigilantism and political violence—or, if we're very lucky, just the fear of them—it's time to reckon with the whole of American tactical culture. For all its power to shape this moment, that culture has roots that long precede it. The tactical world is a byproduct of years of rampant mass shootings and of our nation's longest wars, the conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan. It's a space where paramilitary ideas thrive and where ordinary gun owners learn to see themselves as potential heroes; but it's also where many Americans have simply gone looking for a way to negotiate living in a country where there are more firearms than people. To try to understand it better, I spent this fall absorbing its mix of skills training, political indoctrination, and camaraderie. Sometimes it felt like CrossFit with bullets; sometimes it was more alarming than that.

当我们进入一个似乎注定要以升级的私刑主义和政治暴力为标志的时代--或者,如果幸运的话,仅仅是对它们的恐惧--是时候考虑一下整个美国战术文化了。尽管它拥有塑造这一时刻的所有力量,但这种文化有其源远流长的根基。战术世界是多年猖獗的大规模枪击事件和我国最长的战争、伊拉克和阿富汗冲突的副产品。这是一个准军事思想蓬勃发展的空间,普通的枪支拥有者学会将自己视为潜在的英雄;但也有许多美国人只是去寻找一种方式,通过谈判生活在一个火器比人多的国家。为了更好地理解它,今年秋天我吸收了它的技能训练、政治灌输和友谊的混合。有时感觉就像被子弹击中一样,有时更令人震惊。

The entrance to Gunsite Academy, one of first US facilities set up to teach tactical firearm skills to civilians. 

这是美国第一批为向平民传授战术枪械技能而设立的设施之一--枪械学院的入口处。

Photograph: Jesse Rieser

图片:杰西·里瑟

2. ‘Is My World Safe?'

2.“我的世界安全吗?”

My first stop in the tactical world was Arizona's Gunsite Academy, which describes itself as “Disneyland for gun lovers.” The 3,200-acre facility includes a number of indoor and outdoor simulators where students are trained in how to stop a home invasion or engage an assailant in a parking lot or perform emergency medical care in the field. There are classes on night shooting, church defense, active shooter threats, tactical tracking, and fighting with edged weapons. A host of military and law enforcement organizations, including the California Highway Patrol and the CIA, have trained at Gunsite, as have some high-profile figures, including the actor Tom Selleck, the founder of GoDaddy, and King Abdullah II of Jordan. But as with the much smaller Green Eye Tactical, Gunsite's bread and butter are what Campbell, a former sheriff from Indiana, calls “earth people”—regular folks who, for a variety of reasons, want to learn how to fight with a firearm.

我在战术世界的第一站是亚利桑那州的枪支学院,该学院自称是“枪支爱好者的迪斯尼乐园”。这个占地3200英亩的设施包括一些室内和室外模拟器,学生们在那里接受了如何阻止入室入侵、如何让袭击者进入停车场或在现场进行紧急医疗护理的培训。有关于夜间射击,教堂防御,主动射击威胁,战术跟踪,和与边缘武器战斗的课程。包括加州公路巡警和中央情报局在内的许多军事和执法组织都在贡斯德受训,一些知名人物也是如此,其中包括影星汤姆·塞勒克(Tom Selleck)、戈爹地的创始人,以及约旦国王阿卜杜拉二世(King Abdullah II)。但是,就像小得多的绿眼战术一样,冈赛德的面包和黄油也是来自印第安纳州的前治安官坎贝尔(Campbell)所说的“地球人”--那些出于各种原因想要学习如何使用枪支的普通人。

Since 2015, Gunsite has had a run of record-breaking enrollment. When Covid-19 hit, Campbell expected rampant cancellations; instead, Gunsite had one of its best years ever. Firearm sales surged as the pandemic hit last spring, then skyrocketed as protests against racial injustice spread across the country; by the end of 2020, the United States had an estimated 8.4 million more gun owners than it did at the year's start.

自2015年以来,Gunsite的注册人数达到了创纪录的水平。当新冠肺炎上市时,坎贝尔预计会有猖獗的取消;相反,Gunsite有其历史上最好的一年之一。随着去年春天大流行的爆发,枪支销售猛增,随后随着反对种族不公的抗 议活动在全国范围内蔓延,枪支销售猛增;到2020年年底,美国的枪支拥有者估计比今年年初增加了840万人。

Many states require minimal or no training to carry a concealed weapon, but new gun owners still need guidance. Private facilities like Gunsite and instructors like Dorenbush fill an important gap, doing more than just teaching people to use their guns safely. “Gun instructors are some of the gatekeepers of gun culture,” Jennifer Carlson, an associate professor of sociology at the University of Arizona and author of Citizen-Protectors: The Everyday Politics of Guns in an Age of Decline, told me. “They're teaching what it means to own and carry a gun, what it means to move through the world as a gun owner.”

许多州需要最少或根本不需要训练才能携带隐藏的武器,但新的枪支拥有者仍然需要指导。像Gunsite这样的私人设施和Dorenbush这样的教官填补了一个重要的空白,不仅仅是教人们安全地使用枪支。亚利桑那大学社会学副教授詹妮弗·卡尔森(Jennifer Carlson)告诉我说:“枪支教官是枪支文化的守护者之一。”詹妮弗·卡尔森(Jennifer Carlson)是亚利桑那大学社会学副教授,著有“公民-保护者:枪炮时代的日常政治”一书。“他们在教导拥有和携带一支枪意味着什么,作为一个拥有枪支的人在世界上移动意味着什么。”

On my first morning at Gunsite, which happened to be the day before the presidential election, I was issued a rental Glock 17, three high-capacity magazines, and a cardboard box containing a thousand rounds of 9-mm ammunition. (Most students bring their own firearms.) Campbell, a chatty man in his sixties, stopped by to welcome our class. “Anyone here from California? Or Washington? Or any of those states that aren't pro gun?” he asked. “Welcome to free America. I hope you all voted before you got here.” Covid was widespread in Arizona in early November. Gunsite had instituted daily temperature checks for students and staff, but Campbell told us he saw the virus as an issue of personal responsibility, and that we were free to wear a mask if we wanted to; no one did.

第一天早上,正好是总统大选的前一天,我收到了一份Glock 17的租金,三本大容量的杂志,还有一个装有一千发9毫米弹药的纸板箱。(大多数学生都带着自己的武器。)坎贝尔,一个六十多岁的喋喋不休的人,过来欢迎我们班。“这里有人从加利福尼亚来吗?还是华盛顿?或者那些不支持枪支的州?“他问。“欢迎来到自由的美国。我希望你们都在来之前投票。“11月初,科维德在亚利桑那州蔓延开来。Gunsite对学生和教职员工进行了每日体温检查,但坎贝尔告诉我们,他认为这种病毒是个人责任的问题,如果我们愿意的话,我们可以自由戴口罩;没有人这样做。

Gunsite's clientele that week was mostly but not entirely white, male, and middle-aged, with an air of moderate affluence; they included roofers, anesthesiologists, a homeschooling mom, and a number of retired contractors, engineers, and consultants. One tightly-wound retiree in his sixties who was practically vibrating with excitement told me that training at Gunsite had been on his bucket list for years. Tactical shooting is not an inexpensive hobby: Gunsite's introductory five-day course costs around $1,800, and that's not including gear, ammunition, and travel expenses. For many students, the costs are well worth it. A man in his seventies told me he'd brought his son and son-in-law for some family bonding, but also because “they've got to learn to keep their families safe.” Our head instructor and rangemaster for the week, a lanky Special Forces veteran named Walt Wilkinson, made it clear that we were here to accomplish serious business: “We're not teaching you how to shoot,” he said sternly. “We're teaching you how to fight when death comes to your door.”

上周,Gunsite的客户大多但不完全是白人、男性和中年,他们有中等富裕的气氛;他们包括屋顶工、麻醉师、在家上学的母亲,以及一些退休的承包商、工程师和顾问。一位60多岁的退休人员,几乎兴奋得浑身发抖,他告诉我,在冈赛德的训练已经列在他的遗愿清单上好几年了。战术射击不是一种廉价的爱好:Gunsite的入门式五天课程花费约1800美元,这不包括装备、弹药和旅行费用。对许多人学生们,这些费用是值得的。一个七十多岁的男人告诉我,他带着他的儿子和儿媳来建立家庭关系,也是因为“他们必须学会保护他们的家庭安全。”本周我们的首席教练和护林员,一位身材矮小的特种部队老兵沃尔特·威尔金森(Walt Wilkinson)明确表示,我们来这里是为了完成一项严肃的任务:“我们不是在教你怎么开枪,”他严厉地说。“我们在教你如何在死亡来临的时候战斗。来说

We spent most of the first two days learning systematized processes for simple-seeming movements: how to draw from the holster, how to turn and aim at someone approaching from behind, how to press the trigger. I'd gotten in some practice at my local shooting range before showing up to Gunsite, but it didn't do me much good. Tactical shooting is more dynamic than simple marksmanship, meant to mimic real-world action— you're not just trying to hit a bull's-eye, you're doing so while moving or at night or from behind an obstacle. We practiced the signature Gunsite “failure drill”: two rounds to the upper chest followed by a head shot (in case those body shots failed), firing at paper targets over and over and over again from 3 and 5 and 7 and 10 and 15 yards, until the muscles in my forearms twitched with fatigue.

在最初的两天里,我们花了大部分时间来学习简单动作的系统化过程:如何从枪套中提取,如何转向和瞄准后面接近的人,如何按动扳机。在来到冈赛德之前,我在当地的射击场做了一些练习,但这对我没有多大好处。战术射击比简单的枪法更有活力,目的是模仿现实世界的行动--你不仅仅是在试图击中靶心,而是在移动或在夜间或从障碍物后面这样做。我们练习了标志性的枪战“失败演练”:两发子弹射向胸部上部,然后是头部射击(以防身体射击失败),从3、5、7、10和15码开始,一次又一次地向纸上的目标射击,直到我前臂的肌肉因疲劳而抽搐。

The range was rigged with dynamic targets that faced forward for only a second or two, barely long enough to get your shots in. Wilkinson paced behind us, shaking his head at our fumblings. He seemed to have a sixth sense for when I wasn't taking the exercise seriously. “You should feel angry at the target,” he growled in my ear. “It's gonna make you do something you're gonna feel for the rest of your life.” To get our adr-enaline going, Wilkinson would throw out a scenario: Our adversary was charging at us, brandishing an axe; our adversary was inside our house, wearing a hockey mask. Someone flubbed his tactical reload? Too bad, the adversary was now eating his liver. After we shot, Wilkinson taught us to scan for other targets, then reload in anticipation of further confrontations. “You ask yourself, ‘Is my world safe?'” he said. “And only then do you put your gun back in the holster.”

射程被 操纵的动态目标,只面对一两秒钟,仅仅够长,让你的投篮。威尔金森在我们身后踱来踱去,对我们的失足者摇头。他似乎有第六感,因为当我没有认真对待这个练习的时候。“你应该对目标感到愤怒,”他在我耳边咆哮着。“这会让你做一些你余生都会感觉到的事情。”为了让我们的adr-enine启动,Wilkinson会抛出一个场景:我们的对手向我们冲来,挥舞着斧头;我们的对手在我们的房子里,戴着曲棍球面具。有人搞砸了他的战术重装?可惜的是,对手现在正在吃他的肝脏。我们开枪后,威尔金森教我们扫描其他目标,然后重新装填,以期待进一步的对抗。“你问自己,‘我的世界安全吗?’”他说。“然后你才把枪放回枪套里。”

The heft of the Glock on my hip, which had felt foreign at first, soon became familiar, almost comforting. When we broke for lunch, I was the only one who unloaded my weapon. One of our instructors shook his head, disappointed in me. “Where will you find a better opportunity to get used to it?” he asked.

我屁股上的格洛克的重物,一开始感觉很陌生,很快就变得熟悉起来,几乎让人感到安慰。当我们一起吃午饭的时候,我是唯一一个卸下武器的人。我们的一个教员摇了摇头,对我很失望。“你在哪里能找到更好的机会去适应呢?”他问。

Gunsite CEO Ken Campbell in his office, next to a cutout of Gunsite founder Jeff Cooper.

Gunsite首席执行官肯·坎贝尔(KenCampbell)在他的办公室里,旁边是Gunsite创始人杰夫·库珀(JeffCooper)

Photograph: Jesse Rieser

图片:杰西·里瑟

The gun world we live in today, in which millions of Americans don't blink an eye at the idea of eating lunch with a loaded pistol on their hip, is a relatively recent invention, and part of the credit goes to Gunsite's founder, Jeff Cooper. Cooper, who died in 2006, is revered at Gunsite, where his photo hangs on the classroom wall and his house is preserved as a museum. An upright, broad-chested man with a stern, scholarly manner, Cooper was a veteran of World War II and the Korean War with a degree from Stanford and a library full of history books.

今天,我们生活的枪支世界里,数百万美国人不眨眼地看着吃午餐时屁股上有子弹的手枪,这是一个相对较新的发明,部分归功于Gunsite的创始人杰夫·库珀(Jeff Cooper)。2006年去世的库珀在贡斯德受到尊敬,他的照片挂在教室的墙上,他的房子被保存成博物馆。库珀是一个正直、胸怀宽广、态度严肃、学院派的人,他是二战和朝鲜战争的老兵,拥有斯坦福大学的学位和一本充满历史书籍的图书馆。

Cooper was proudly old-fashioned, a fan of Teddy Roosevelt, Rudyard Kipling, and African safaris. After he returned from Korea, he began to apply his systematic, critical mind to one of his other passions: shooting. He concluded that the then-typical posture for firing a handgun—one-handed, from the hip—was inefficient in a real-world context. He helped develop a new methodology, the “modern technique of pistolcraft,” where the gun was shot two-handed, at eye level. Just as important as the mechanics, though, was the mindset. As Cooper saw it, the world was a dangerous place, full of potential threats. He stressed the importance of remaining vigilant at all moments—of cultivating, as he put it, “a tactical approach to life.”

库珀很自豪,他是泰迪·罗斯福、鲁迪亚德·吉卜林和非洲狩猎的粉丝。当他从韩国回来后,他开始把他的系统的,批判的头脑运用到他的另一种激 情:射击。他的结论是,在现实世界中,当时典型的手枪射击姿势--从臀部单手射击--效率很低。他帮助开发了一种新的方法,即“现代手枪技术”,在这种方法中,枪是用双手瞄准的。然而,与机械一样重要的是思维方式。在库珀看来,世界是一个危险的地方,充满了潜在的威胁。他强调了时刻保持警惕的重要性--正如他所说的,培养“一种生活的战术方法”的重要性。

Cooper founded Gunsite, then called the American Pistol Institute, in Paulden, Arizona, in 1976 to spread the tactical gospel. It was the first facility in the US with the express purpose of teaching civilians tactical firearm skills, and word traveled quickly. Civilians trained alongside police officers, who visited Gunsite on their own dime and began disseminating its techniques to fellow law enforcement officers. After two LAPD SWAT Team officers took the Gunsite pistol class in 1980, they brought the failure drill back to their department, where a modified version was incorporated into their training.

1976年,库珀在亚利桑那州的保尔登创建了冈赛德,当时名为美国活塞研究所(AmericanPistolInstitute),目的是传播战术福音。这是美国第一家专门教授平民战术武器技能的设施,消息传得很快。平民与警察一起接受培训,警察用自己的一角钱访问了枪支场,并开始向其他执法人员传播其技术。1980年,两名洛杉矶警察局特警队军官参加了枪战手枪班,他们把失败演习带回了他们的部门,在那里他们的训练中加入了一个修改版本。

Cooper was at the vanguard of a major shift in attitudes toward firearms, what Wake Forest University sociologist David Yamane calls Gun Culture 2.0. Rhetoric around gun rights increasingly aligned with law-and-order politics that focused on the individual right to armed resistance against crime. A politicized National Rifle Association lobbied for more permissive concealed-carry and stand-your-ground laws. Underlying the policy arguments was the belief that the armed citizen—the proverbial Good Guy With a Gun—was a bulwark against anarchy and disorder. Cooper, who was on the NRA's board for several years, was a strong advocate for this worldview. “Read the papers. Watch the news. These people have no right to prey upon innocent citizens … They are bad people and you are quite justified in resenting their behavior to the point of rage,” he wrote in the early 1970s. By 1983, Cooper insisted, crime and chaos was so bad that “we are in WWIII now.” He suggested that the nation's top shooters should be presented with a Bernie Goetz trophy, named after the so-called “subway vigilante” who shot four Black teenagers who attempted to rob him.

库珀是对枪支态度发生重大转变的先锋,这是维克森林大学社会学家大卫·亚马内(DavidYamane)所说的枪支文化2.0(Gun Cultural2.0)。围绕枪支权利的言论越来越多地与法律和秩序政治相一致,这种政治侧重于个人对犯罪进行武装抵抗的权利。一个政治化的国家步枪协会游说要求更宽容的、隐蔽的、携带的和站不住脚的法律。这些政策论据的基础是这样一种信念,即武装公民--俗话说的好家伙--是反对无政府状态和混乱的堡垒。库珀曾在NRA的董事会工作了为了这个世界观。“看报纸。看新闻。这些人无权掠夺无辜的公民…他们是坏人,你很有理由对他们的行为感到愤慨,“他在20世纪70年代初写道。到了1983年,库珀坚持认为,犯罪和混乱是如此糟糕,以至于“我们现在已经进入了第三次世界大战”。他建议,美国最好的枪 手应该被授予伯尼戈茨奖杯,以所谓的“地铁义务警员”的名字命名,他枪杀了四名企图抢劫他的黑人青少年。年,他是一位坚定的拥护者

Cooper had some definite opinions about why the world was, as he saw it, devolving into chaos. As he wrote in his newsletter and his monthly column for Guns & Ammo magazine, equality was a biological impossibility, “and liberty is only obtainable in homogeneous populations very thinly spread.” Diversity was a weakness, he believed, and Africa “was a far better place for both black and white” when it was ruled by colonial powers. He was vocal about his distaste for LGBTQ people and regularly used slurs when referring to Muslims and Asians. Gunsite has scrubbed most of Cooper's overt bigotry from its curriculum, although it still screens a video of him talking about Black Africans who'd robbed a gun store, men he refers to as “apes.”

库珀对为什么在他看来,这个世界会演变成混乱有一些明确的看法。正如他在时事通讯和“枪械与Ammo”杂志的每月专栏中所写的那样,平等在生物学上是不可能的,“而自由只能在非常微弱的传播的同质人群中获得。”他认为,多样性是一个弱点,而当非洲被殖民国家统治时,它“对黑人和白人来说都是一个更好的地方”。他表达了对LGBTQ人的厌恶,并经常在提到穆斯 林和亚洲人时使用诽谤。Gunsite已经将库珀的大部分明显的偏执从课程中清除了,尽管它仍在播放一段关于库珀谈论黑人抢劫枪支商店的视频,他把这些人称为“猿猴”。

When Cooper founded Gunsite, hunting was the most popular reason to own a firearm, and the right to carry a concealed weapon was tightly controlled throughout most of the US. (Earlier concealed-carry bans were put in place in the Reconstruction era, largely to prevent immigrants and formerly enslaved people from bearing arms in public.) Now most gun owners say they're motivated by a desire to protect themselves and their families, and thanks to heavy lobbying from the NRA, nearly every state in the nation has liberalized its concealed-carry policies. By 1999, 2.7 million Americans had concealed-carry permits; today, when violent crime rates are half what they were at their peak in the early '90s, some 20 million do. If you exclude California and New York, which have highly restrictive gun laws, nearly 10 percent of the adu-lt population has a concealed-carry permit, and nearly two-thirds of Americans think having a gun in the house makes it a safer place to be. In the tactical world, the spectacle of police shootings of unarmed suspects amounts to an argument for more, rather than less, police funding; if every officer had the kind of training I was receiving at Gunsite, the argument goes, they would keep cooler heads and be less likely to fire in panic.

当库珀创立Gunsite时,打猎是拥有枪支的最普遍原因,而在美国大部分地区,携带隐藏武器的权利受到严格控制。 (早期的隐蔽携带禁令是在重建时代实施的,主要是为了防止移民和以前被奴役的人在公共场合携带武器。)现在,大多数枪支拥有者都表示,他们受到保护自己和家人的愿望的驱使。由于NRA的大力游说,该国几乎每个州都放开了其隐蔽式运载工具政策。到1999年,已有270万美国人拥有了隐藏携带许可证;如今,当暴力犯罪率仅为90年代初期最高水平的一半时,大约有2000万人。如果您排除对枪支法律有严格限制的加利福尼亚州和纽约州,则将近10%的成年人口有隐蔽携带许可证,并且将近三分之二的美国人认为在房子里拥有枪支会使它成为一个更安全的地方成为。在战术世界中,警察对未武装嫌疑犯开枪的场面等于是要增加而不是减少警察的经费。论据认为,如果每位军官都接受了我在Gunsite接受的那种培训,他们将保持冷静,不会因恐慌而开枪。

The day after the 2020 presidential election, my third day at Gunsite, the mood was subdued. The fate of the presidency was still up in the air, but Fox News had called Gunsite's home state for Joe Biden. “Welcome to the new, blue state of Arizona,” one of my classmates said glumly. He suggested that, in order to get into the proper mindset, we could imagine that the target was Nancy Pelosi. Someone else made a joke about how it wasn't legal to shoot the media—yet!—and then, remembering my presence, apologized.

在2020年总统大选后的第二天,我在冈赛德的第三天,情绪被压抑了。总统的命运仍然悬而未决,但福克斯新闻社称冈赛德的家乡是乔·拜登的家乡。“欢迎来到新的,蓝色的亚利桑那州,”我的一个同学闷闷不乐地说。他建议,为了进入正确的心态,我们可以想象目标是南希·佩洛西(NancyPelosi)。另一个人开了个玩笑,说开枪打媒体是不合法的--现在!--然后,想起我在场,就道歉了

At lunch, I chatted with Brian Mack, an anesthesiologist from Santa Barbara, California, who's been making annual trips to Gunsite with his coworkers for eight years. In 2017 he missed the yearly visit. That October, Mack and his wife were attending an outdoor country music festival in Las Vegas—their first weekend away from their kids in over a decade—when a gunman holed up on the 32nd floor of the Mandalay Bay hotel opened fire on the crowd. “I heard a pop-pop-pop, and after you've been here, you know what a gunshot sounds like,” Mack told me. He was shot in the stomach, his wife in the head; they were saved by strangers, including a former Mr. California. Being shot didn't change Mack's relationship with guns, he told me: “For me, guns are associated with good things. It's me and my friends, we're shooting at steel targets.” His wife, however, had never handled a gun before deciding to join her husband at Gunsite in November. “My wife is very strong—she's a buck-up person, she gets tired of everyone saying, ‘How are you guys?'” Mack told me. “But then she heard the first shot here, and I looked over and her eyes were watery—she was trying not to cry. She was just like, ‘I want to go.' She had a smack in the face of PTSD. But she got through it fine. I don't think she's going to be a big gun person. But she's not scared of it anymore.”

午餐时,我和布莱恩·麦克(BrianMack)聊天,他是加州圣巴巴拉市的麻醉师,他每年都和同事一起去冈赛特。2017年,他错过了一年一度的访问。去年10月,麦晋桁和妻子在拉斯维加斯参加户外乡村音乐节,这是他们十多年来第一个远离孩子的周末。当时,一名持枪歹徒躲在曼德勒湾酒店(Mandalay Bay)32楼,向人群开火。麦克对我说:“我听到了一声砰的一声,在你来了之后,你知道枪声听起来是什么样子的。”他的胃中枪,妻子头部中弹;他们被陌生人救了,其中包括一位前加州先生。被枪击并没有改变我,枪和好事有关。是我和我的朋友们,我们在向钢铁目标射击。“然而,他的妻子从来没有拿过枪,然后才决定在11月与丈夫在冈赛德会合。“我妻子很坚强--她是个自强不息的人,她厌倦了每个人说‘你们好吗?’”麦克告诉我的。“但是后来她听到了这里的第一声枪响,我回头看了看,她的眼睛是水汪汪的--她尽量不哭。”她就像,“我想去。”她在PTSD面前挨了一巴掌。但她挺过来了。我不认为她会成为一个持枪的人。但她不再害怕了。“麦克与枪支的关系,他告诉我:“因为

One of the practice ranges at Gunsite Academy.

其中一个练习范围在冈赛德学院。

Photograph: Jesse Rieser

图片:杰西·里瑟

By the end of the week, the drills became faster and more complex. Finally, it was time to enter the “fun house,” a reinforced, roofless structure rigged with photorealistic targets, where we were supposed to show off our mastery of everything we'd learned. One of our instructors gave us the scenario: Timmy, a “blond-haired, blue-eyed” child, was being held hostage in the fun house by an outlaw biker gang. Timmy was screaming as “unspeakable things” were being done to him, but the police were at least half an hour away. It was up to us to burst through the door, shoot the bad guys (that is, photorealistic targets depicting armed aggressors), avoid shooting the good guys (targets depicting unarmed civilians), and save Timmy.

到本周末,演习变得更快和更复杂。最后,是时候进入“有趣的房子”了,这是一座强化的、没有屋顶的结构,上面安装着照片真实感的目标,我们应该在那里展示我们对所学到的一切的掌握。我们的一个老师给了我们一个场景:蒂米,一个“金发蓝眼睛”的孩子,被一个无法无天的骑车人团伙扣为人质。提米正在尖叫,因为“无法形容的事情”正在对他做,但警察至少还有半个小时的路程。我们应该冲破大门,射杀坏人(即描绘武装侵略者的逼真目标),避免射杀好人(描绘手无寸铁的平民的目标),以及拯救蒂米。

This scenario situated us firmly in the role of what sociologist Jennifer Carlson calls the citizen-protector—the armed figure who finds “authority and relevance by embracing the duty to protect themselves and police others.” As institutions crumble and people lose faith in traditional sources of security, the citizen-protector sees themselves as even more essential to maintaining order. No wonder, then, that Americans responded to a year marked by pandemic, protest, and election uncertainty by buying guns in record numbers.

这种情景让我们牢牢地扮演了社会学家詹妮弗·卡尔森(Jennifer Carlson)所称的公民--保护者--武装人物的角色,他通过接受保护自己和保护他人的义务,找到了“权威和相关性”。随着制度崩溃,人们对传统的安全来源失去信心,公民保护者认为自己对维持秩序更为重要。因此,难怪美国人以创纪录的数量购买枪支,以应对大流行、抗 议和选举不确定性为标志的一年。

The citizen-protector's arch nemesis is the stranger with ill intent, a figure that was often invoked at Gunsite and that is a staple of cable news and right-wing social media. A widely syndicated column sponsored by the NRA focuses on stories of “armed citizens” who use guns against menacing criminals. The Active Self-Protection YouTube channel features daily footage of “real defensive encounters”—bank robberies, holdups, attempted kidnappings—analyzed by gun instructor John Correia; its videos have been viewed nearly a billion times.

公民保护者的死对头是怀有恶意的陌生人,这一形象在Gunsite经常被引用,也是有线新闻和右 翼社交媒体的主要内容。由全国步枪协会赞助的一个广泛的联合专栏关注“武装公民”使用枪支对付威胁罪犯的故事。活跃的自我保护yo utube频道每天都会播放“真正的防御性遭遇”--银行抢劫案、抢劫、绑架未遂--由枪支教练约翰·科雷亚(JohnCorreia)分析;它的视频已经被观看了近十亿次。

There was also a newer threat on many of my classmates' minds: protesters and rioters. “The gun is a deterrent,” one of my classmates said as we waited for our turn in the fun house. “That's what we did with BLM here in Prescott. We just stood there, and they went back in their bus. They were peaceful because there were heavily armed people there.” (He later clarified that he hadn't actually been at the protest, he'd just read about it on social media.)

我的许多同学的脑海中也出现了一个新的威胁:抗 议者和暴徒。“这把枪是一种威慑,”我的一位同学一边说,一边等着轮到我们去找乐子。“这就是我们在普雷斯科特对BLM所做的。我们就站在那里,他们坐着车回去了。他们是和平的,因为那里有全副武装的人。“(后来他澄清说,他并没有真正参加抗 议活动,他只是在社交媒体上看到了这件事。)

“They were peaceful,” someone else said, “because they had to be.”

“他们是和平的,”另一个人说,“因为他们必须是和平的。”

Danger, of course, doesn't usually take the form of a rioter or a guy in a ski mask crawling in your bedroom window. A white man killed by a firearm in the US is much more likely to be a victim of suic-ide than of murder; if a woman dies from a gunshot, it is probably at the hands of her current or former partner. But we didn't talk about either possibility at Gunsite.

当然,危险通常不会以暴徒或戴着滑雪面具在卧室窗户爬行的人的形式出现。在美国,被枪械杀害的白人男子更有可能是Suic-ide的受害者,而不是谋杀的受害者;如果一名妇女死于枪弹,很可能是她的现任或前任伴侣之手。但我们并没有在冈赛德谈过这两种可能性。

When it was my turn, I stood outside the fun house's front door, my hand gripping the pistol and my heart scudding in my chest. At Gunsite, the scenarios were fake but the bullets were real, and it was difficult to know how nervous to be. I flung open the door and began to move through the house, taking down bad guys. A month earlier, just being in the same room as a gun would have been enough to put me on edge. Over the past five days, though, I had shot many hundreds of rounds; I could now draw from the holster in one fluid movement and reload the Glock without looking. I still had a bad habit of jerking the trigger in anticipation of recoil, but at certain moments, like when I stepped across the threshold of the fun house's final room and saw a swarthy man holding a gun to little Timmy's head, my focus narrowed and my hands and eyes and weapon synced up in a benevolent conspiracy, and I shot the bad guy right in the ocular cavity. It was hugely satisfying, and it felt—I don't know how else to describe it—like being right.

轮到我的时候,我站在游乐屋的前门外,我的手握着手枪,我的心在我的胸口蠕动。在贡斯德,场景是假的,但子弹是真实的,很难知道有多紧张。我猛地打开门,开始穿过房子,干掉了坏人。一个月前,仅仅在同一个房间里和枪在一起就足以让我心烦意乱。然而,在过去的五天里,我已经开了几百发子弹,现在我可以从枪套中抽出一枚子弹了流体运动和重新装填格洛克没有看。我仍然有一个坏习惯,就是在准备后坐力的时候扣动扳机,但在某些时候,比如当我跨过游乐馆最后一间屋子的门槛,看到一个皮肤黝黑的男人拿着枪指着小蒂米的头时,我的注意力缩小了,我的双手、眼睛和武器在一个仁慈的阴谋中同步出现,然后我就把那个坏蛋射进了眼洞。它令人非常满意,而且我觉得--我不知道怎么形容它--就像是对的。。

In my final hours at Gunsite, I noticed that the one other woman in my class, a homeschooling mom from a nearby town, seemed fretful. In a whisper, she told me she'd learned that both her parents had come down with Covid. “I don't understand how this could've happened,” she kept saying. She left early, before the rest of us visited the Sconce, the house Cooper and his wife, Janelle, built in the 1970s and which is preserved as a kind of memorial. Their daughter, Lindy, showed us all the defensive features Cooper had built into his home: how the walls were designed to withstand small arms fire; how the kitchen had a narrow slit hidden by a flounced curtain, positioned so that if anyone knocked at the door, Cooper could point his rifle at the back of their head. “He liked to say that if an intruder showed up, he would call the police,” Lindy said, “but only so they could help him clean up the mess.” She'd heard that a few other members of the Gunsite community were incorporating similar features into their homes. “In these times we're living in,” she said, “his training seems more relevant than ever.”

在刚开始的最后几个小时里,我注意到我们班的另一个女人,一个来自附近城镇的在家上学的妈妈,似乎很烦躁。她低声告诉我,她知道她的父母都和科维德在一起。“我不明白这是怎么回事,”她不停地说。她很早就离开了,在我们其他人参观斯康斯之前,库珀和他的妻子詹妮尔(Janelle)在20世纪70年代建造的房子,作为一种纪念被保存下来。他们的女儿林迪向我们展示了库珀在他的家里建立的所有防御手臂着火了;厨房的狭缝是如何被弹射的窗帘遮住的,这样,如果有人敲门,库珀就可以用步枪指着他们的后脑勺。“他喜欢说,如果有入侵者出现,他会报警,”林迪说,“但只有这样,他们才能帮他收拾烂摊子。”她听说枪 手社区的其他几个成员在他们的家里也加入了类似的功能。“在我们生活的这个时代,”她说,“他的训练似乎比以往任何时候都更有意义。”特征:墙是如何设计来抵挡小的。

Image may contain Soil Ground Human Person Outdoors Nature Sand Desert and Dune Image may contain Finger Human and Person Image may contain Wood Human Person Plywood Gerardo Fernndez Noroa and Furniture Image may contain Finger Human and Person Image may contain Wood Human Person Plywood Gerardo Fernndez Noroa and Furniture Image may contain Wood Human Person Plywood Gerardo Fernndez Noroa and Furniture

Photograph: Jesse Rieser 

图片:杰西·里瑟

“Timmy” and his assailant: Inside the the “fun house” at Gunsite Academy.

“提米”和袭击他的人:在冈赛德学院的“有趣的房子”里面。

3. ‘Serious Times Require Serious Americans'

3.“严肃的时代需要严肃的美国人”

Although Gunsite is widely respected in the gun world, it's also considered a little old-fashioned—your dad's bucket-list destination, or maybe your granddad's. The fresher face of tactical training has a different style and attitude from Jeff Cooper's manly erudition; it's not Kipling-quoting devotees of the Colt 45 but rather guys who love MMA, listen to Joe Rogan, decorate their pickups with Punisher skulls, and display an affinity for long guns.

虽然枪支网站在枪械界广受尊敬,但它也被认为是一种老掉牙的东西--你父亲的遗愿清单,或者你爷爷的目标。战术训练的新鲜面孔与杰夫·库珀(Jeff Cooper)的博学风格和态度不同;它不是吉卜林--引用的是科尔特45的拥趸,而是喜欢MMA的人,听乔·罗根(Joe Rogan)的话,用她的头盖骨装饰他们的皮卡,并展现出对长枪的亲和力。

To get a better understanding of how tactical training has evolved, I signed up for a Small Unit Tactics course taught by Eric Dorenbush of Green Eye Tactical. Dorenbush, like many of his contemporaries, prefers the AR-style semiautomatic rifles like the ones he carried while deployed in Iraq, Afghanistan, and Kosovo. Green Eye Tactical is a one-man operation without a permanent facility, and the courses are strictly BYO-firearm. After I unpacked the weapon I'd borrowed for the weekend, Dorenbush fiddled with it for a few minutes before decreeing it was not up to snuff—there were issues with the scope—and instead lent me his own custom rifle. That's a $3,000 gun, he said as I slung it around my neck. He handed me a binder emblazoned with his logo—a green-eyed skull over what looked like an Iron Cross—and a quotation attributed to Hemingway: “Certainly there is no hunting like the hunting of man and those who have hunted armed men long enough and liked it, never really care for anything else thereafter.”

为了更好地理解战术训练是如何发展的,我报名参加了一个由绿眼战术的埃里克·多伦布希教授的小单位战术课程。多伦布希和他的许多同龄人一样,更喜欢AR风格的半自动步枪,就像他在伊拉克、阿富汗和科索沃部署时所携带的那样。绿眼战术是一个人的行动,没有永久设施,课程严格BYO-火器.在我打开我周末借的武器后,多伦布希用它摆他把他自己的来复枪借给了我。“那是一支3,000美元的枪,”我把枪挂在脖子上时,他说。他递给我一本印有他的徽标的活页夹--一个绿眼睛的头骨,上面是一个铁十字--还有一句海明威的名言:“当然,没有人像猎杀人类那样狩猎,那些长期猎杀武装分子并喜欢它的人,此后再也不关心其他任何事情了。”弄了几分钟,然后就宣布它不够用了

My three classmates were all repeat Dorenbush customers who had driven in from the Midwest. One, an orthopedist who asked me not to use his name, had taken 15 Dorenbush classes spanning everything from countersurveillance to close-quarters combat. “I get bored as hell at Disney World, and this is cheaper,” he said. His van's Hillary 2016 sticker confused me until he explained that it was “urban camouflage.” “Does it look like this car has an arsenal in it?” he asked proudly. Jody, a nurse-anesthetist who could quote long passages of George Washington speeches from memory, described himself as “more on the prepper side of things.” Nate, a thoughtful journalist turned UPS driver, bought his first firearm five years ago. “I was getting into arguments about guns on Facebook, and I figured I should learn something about it firsthand. And I have a little problem with moderation, so …” he said, gesturing shyly at the trove of weapons in the back of his Tacoma. Nate's mild affect was misleading; over the years, his hobbies had also included cage fighting and cave diving. “My wife is relieved about the gun fighting. It's the safest one,” he said.

我的三个同学都是从中西部开车来的多伦布希的顾客。其中一个是整形外科医生,他叫我不要用他的名字,他参加了15个多伦布希班,从反监视到近距离战斗,无所不包。他说:“我在迪斯尼世界感到无聊,这更便宜。”他的面包车2016年希拉里贴纸让我感到困惑,直到他解释说这是“城市伪装”。“这辆车里面有武器库吗?”他骄傲地问。乔迪,一位护士麻醉师,他可以引用乔治华盛顿演讲的长回忆,形容自己“更多的是在事物的优势方面”。纳特是一位深思熟虑的记者,后来成为UPS的司机,五年前买下了他的第一支枪。“我在脸书上讨论枪支问题,我想我应该直接了解这方面的情况。”我对温和派有个小问题,所以…“他说着,羞怯地指着塔科马后面的武器宝库说。内特的轻微情感是误导;多年来,他的爱好还包括打笼子和洞穴潜水。“我妻子对枪战如释重负。这是最安全的,“他说。篇。

“Pistol range day” at Gunsite. Founder Jeff Cooper helped devise modern pistol-firing techniques. 

“手枪射程日”在冈赛德。创始人杰夫·库珀(JeffCooper)帮助设计了现代手枪射击技术。

Photograph: Jesse Rieser

图片:杰西·里瑟

Dorenbush, a strong, stout man whose dark, pointed beard was laced with silver, surrounded his military career in a certain amount of mystery; while he regularly alluded to his time in “the Unit,” an elite, clandestine special operations force, he asked me not to name it specifically.

多伦布希身材魁梧,蓄着黑而尖的胡须,蓄着银带。他在军事生涯中一直有着某种神秘色彩;他经常提到自己在“部队”(The Unit)中的经历,这是一支精锐、秘密的特种部队,他让我不要具体说出它的名字。

Many tactical trainers invoke their combat experience as a marketing tool, which is just one way our wars don't stay overseas. Historian Kathleen Belew writes about the Vietnam War's “spillover effect” on American culture in the 1980s and '90s: It was the era of Soldier of Fortune magazine, Rambo, paintball, and combat fatigues—as well as a restive, violent militia movement. “There was some crossover between people engaging in paramilitary spaces for fun and very radical elements using those spaces deliberately to operationalize violent activism,” Belew told me. In the wake of the Oklahoma City bombing in 1995, paramilitary culture fell out of favor. But in recent years, a new militarized aesthetic and worldview has seeped into our pop culture, a downstream effect of the conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan.

许多战术训练师援引他们的战斗经验作为营销工具,这只是我们的战争不停留在海外的一种方式。历史学家凯瑟琳·贝勒夫(Kathleen Belew)描述了越南战争在上世纪80年代和90年代对美国文化产生的“溢出效应”:这是“财富”杂志(Fortune)、“蓝波”(Rambo)、“彩弹”和“作战服”士兵的时代,也是一场动荡不安的暴力民兵运动。Belew对我说:“为了好玩而进入准军事空间的人和非常激进的分子之间有一些交叉,他们故意利用这些空间来实施暴力激进主义。”在1995年俄克拉荷马城爆炸案发生后,准军事文化开始失宠。但近年来,一种新的军事化美学和世界观渗透到我们的流行文化中,这是伊拉克和阿富汗冲突的下游影响。

Those contemporary wars are disproportionately fought by special operations teams, the elite units that knock down doors and conduct midnight raids. Today's tactical aesthetic is essentially operator culture aimed at the mass market; its signifiers include Call of Duty, digital camouflage, wrap-around Oakleys, Black Rifle coffee (which has been described as a “tactical caffeine delivery system”), and the AR-15. A number of Special Operations veterans have built brands on the back of their wartime experiences, peddling tactical sponcon on Instagram, landing brand partnerships with energy drink companies and firearm manufacturers—and, of course, teaching tactical firearms courses. Like any lifestyle industry, the tactical world is self-conscious about authenticity. No one wants to be called out as “tacticool,” a wannabe who thinks wearing a black vest with lots of pockets makes him an elite operator.

这些当代战争不成比例地是由特别行动小组进行的,他们是击倒大门并进行午夜突袭的精英部队。今天的战术美学本质上是针对大众市场的经营者文化;它的意义包括使命召唤、数字伪装、环绕奥克利(Oakley)、黑步枪咖啡(被描述为“战术咖  啡因传递系统”)和AR-15。一些特种作战老兵凭借战时经验打造了品牌,在Instagram上兜售战术海绵,与能源饮料公司和枪支制造商建立品牌合作关系,当然还教授战术火器课程。就像任何生活方式行业一样,战术世界对真实性有着自我意识。没有人愿意被称为“触觉酷”,一个认为穿一件有很多口袋的黑色背心的人会让他成为一名精英经营者。

Earlier this year, my classmates at Green Eye had taken a Close Quarters Battle course, where they learned to fight an armed opponent inside a building—essentially learning to clear rooms and rescue hostages. In this weekend's Small Unit Tactics course, Dorenbush explained, we'd learn strategies for fighting outside. “People will say, oh, that's military training, we don't need that. But there are plenty of use cases for law enforcement, or for a civilian,” he said: for cops, a routine traffic stop that turns violent; for civilians, a shooter in a Target parking lot or in the driveway of your home. After Dorenbush's preamble, Nate pulled me aside. He wanted to assure me that even though he owned two AR-style rifles, he wasn't a typical gun nut; he wasn't even conservative. “If you believe you have a right to use lethal force to defend yourself, your family, your community against a threat,” he asked me, his brow furrowed, “why the hell would you want it to be a fair fight?”

今年早些时候,我在绿眼的同学们参加了一个近距离战斗课程,在那里他们学会了在一栋大楼内对抗一个武装的对手--实质上是学习清理房间和营救人质。在这个周末的小单位战术课程中,多伦布希解释说,我们会学习在外面战斗的策略。“人们会说,哦,这是军事训练,我们不需要。他说:“对于警察来说,常规的交通拦截会变得暴力;对于平民,在塔吉特停车场或你家的车道上有枪 手。”在多伦布什的开场白之后,内特把我拉到了一边。他想向我保证,尽管他拥有两支AR式步枪,但他并不是一个典型的枪支疯子;他甚至不保守。“如果你相信你有权利使用致命的武力来保护自己、你的家庭、你的社区免受威胁,”他皱着眉头问我,“你为什么要让这场公平的战斗?”

Dorenbush had set up half a dozen steel targets at the far end of the field. Next to them was an ad hoc maze made of orange netting stretched between door frames and meant to mimic a house; it was left over from the Close Quarters Battle course. We spent the morning on an assault drill, simulating how to advance on the targets while under fire: Drop into a prone position, shoot, leap up, bound forward, drop down, and shoot again. The exercise was akin to doing burpees with a high-powered rifle clamped to your side. The intensity may have been artificial, but it was effective. “Cover me while I move!” Nate shouted; “I got you covered!” I hollered back, and as he sprinted I aimed down the field and felt my focus sharpen. The ping of the steel target, when I managed to hit it, was viscerally satisfying. It wasn't until I returned to my hotel room that night and the adr-enaline began to leach out of my body that I discovered my hands were scraped from the dried grass and a bruise was blooming on my clavicle where I'd absorbed the rifle's recoil.

多伦布希在战场的另一端设置了六个钢铁目标。在他们旁边是一个特殊的迷宫,由橙色的网组成,挂在门框之间,意在模仿一所房子;它是从近距离战役过程中遗留下来的。我们花了一个上午的攻击演习,模拟如何推进目标时,在炮火:下降到一个俯卧的位置,射击,跳跃,捆绑向前,下高功率步枪卡在你的一侧。强度可能是人为的,但它是有效的。“我行动时掩护我!”内特喊道,“我掩护你!”我吼了起来,当他冲刺时,我瞄准了场地,感觉我的注意力更集中了。钢铁靶的击打,当我设法击中它,是发自内心的满足。直到那天晚上我回到我的旅馆房间,阿霉素开始从我的身体里渗出,我才发现我的手从干草上刮了下来,我的锁骨上有一处瘀伤,我在那里吸收了步枪的后坐力。,并再次射击。这个练习类似于用

Spent shell casings on the ground at Gunsite.

枪战现场地上的弹壳。

Photograph: Jesse Rieser

图片:杰西·里瑟

And when regular folks learn military and police tactics from the same people who teach professionals, sometimes alongside those professionals, it's easy for them to feel that they, too, are charged with protecting the social order—or what they see as the social order. The danger is that training for combat implies an enemy, and that militarized civilians, like militarized law enforcement, increasingly identify that enemy among their fellow Americans. Carlson, the sociologist, pointed out that many of the men who paraded with guns at this summer's protests described what they were doing as a form of community defense. “Community sounds really great, but it is not an inclusive concept,” she told me. “People within it are protected, and people outside it are not only not worthy of protection but worthy of violence. And in this country, community has been drawn in terms of class, but primarily in terms of race.”

当普通人从那些教授专业人士的人那里学习军事和警察战术时,他们很容易感到他们也有责任保护社会秩序--或者他们所认为的社会秩序。危险在于,战斗训练意味着一个敌人,而军事化的平民,就像军事化的执法人员一样,越来越多地在他们的美国同胞中识别出这个敌人。社会学家卡尔森指出今年夏天的抗 议活动称他们所做的是一种社区防御。“社区听起来真的很棒,但这不是一个包容性的概念,”她告诉我。“它里面的人受到保护,外面的人不仅不值得保护,而且值得暴力。而在这个国家,社区被划分为阶级,但主要是种族。“,许多拿枪游 行的人

Proposed legislation promises to give even further legitimacy to self-deputized individuals. Over the past two decades, NRA-backed laws expanded the scope and circumstances in which people can use deadly force to defend their private property. Now lawmakers are attempting to extend those rights further into public space, particularly during times of protest. In 2020, Florida governor Ron DeSantis drafted legislation that would allow armed citizens to use deadly force against anyone they suspect of looting; a proposed Ohio law would permit anyone escaping a “riot” to kill protesters if they felt threatened.

拟议的立法承诺给予自我代理的个人更多的合法性。在过去的二十年里,由nra支持的法律扩大了人们使用致命武力保护私有财产的范围和环境。现在,立法者正试图将这些权利进一步扩展到公共空间,特别是在抗 议期间。2020年,佛罗里达州州长罗恩·德桑蒂斯起草了一项法案,允许武装公民对任何他们怀疑抢劫的人使用致命武力;俄亥俄州一项拟议的法律将允许任何人在感到受到威胁时,逃离“暴乱”,杀死抗 议者。

After the election, some of these latent strains in the tactical world became more overt. Texas-based tactical trainer and special operations veteran Paul Howe, who teaches both law enforcement and civilians (as well as other tactical instructors), announced a special Patriot Tactical Training course, which would “cover actions that may be needed during these dangerous times.” He declared in his newsletter that Biden's election was illegitimate. “This means Use of Force rules are out and it will be up to individuals and groups to determine what is ‘Reasonable,'” he wrote. “Serious times require serious Americans.”

选举后,战术界的一些潜在压力变得更加明显。德克萨斯州的战术训练师和特种作战老兵保罗·豪伊(PaulHowe)教授执法和平民(以及其他战术指导员),他宣布了一项特殊的爱国者战术训练课程,该课程将“涵盖在这些危险时期可能需要采取的行动”。他在时事通讯中宣称拜登的当选是不合法的。他写道:“这意味着使用武力规则是不存在的,将由个人和团体来决定什么是‘合理的’。”“严重的时代需要严肃的美国

On Sunday afternoon, the final day of my Green Eye Tactical course, Dorenbush announced he'd be testing our skills with an improvisatory exercise. The scenario: A bunch of meth heads had kidnapped his son. We had to track them through the field, moving as a unit, then enter a wooded area and react to what we found there. He appointed me team leader over my objections (which were, essentially, that I didn't really know what I was doing).

战术课,多伦布希宣布他将通过一次即兴练习来测试我们的技能。场景:一群冰 毒头绑架了他的儿子。我们必须通过田野追踪它们,作为一个整体移动,然后进入一个树木茂密的区域,并对我们在那里发现的东西做出反应。他任命我为组长,反对我的反对意见(本质上说,我并不知道自己在做什么)。

I used what I remembered of the hand signals Dorenbush had taught us to move the group into a wedge formation as we advanced silently toward the trees, our rifles held at the ready. At the far end of the field, we entered the woods, descending into a gully clogged with downed branches. Ahead of us I could see parts of photo-realistic targets peeking through the trees. Nate gave me an encouraging look, and I shouted the command to begin engagement. Within seconds, the situation felt like it had spiraled out of control; I got overwhelmed and forgot to give commands, and the other guys started bounding forward and shooting on their own. The woods filled with gunfire and shouting, the percussive sound of bullets meeting targets. The shots seemed to be coming from everywhere around me. I understood that Dorenbush was keeping tabs on us so we wouldn't accidentally wound one another, but my body didn't believe it. I huddled behind a tree stump, too frightened to move, and felt the sharp taste of panic on my tongue.

我用我记得的手信号多伦布希教我们移动成楔形,当我们默默地走向树木,我们的步枪在准备就绪。在田野的另一端,我们走进了树林,掉进了一条布满枯枝的沟壑里。在我们前面,我可以看到一些照片真实的目标透过树木窥视。内特给了我一个鼓舞人心的眼神,我高喊着命令开始订婚。几秒钟内,局势就像是失控了;我不知所措,忘了指挥,他们自己的。树林里充满了枪声和喊叫声,子弹的撞击声击中了目标。枪声似乎来自我周围的任何地方。我知道多伦布希一直在盯着我们,这样我们就不会意外地互相伤害,但我的身体不相信。我蜷缩在树桩后面,吓得动弹不得,我感到舌头上有一股惊慌失措的味道。其他人开始向前冲,继续射击。

It was over fast—we'd secured the hostage, Dorenbush declared. During the debrief, I cried. Dorenbush stood next to one of the targets, a visibly pregnant woman gripping a pistol. “You just shot a pregnant female—how does that make you feel?” he asked Jody. Realistic training was important because it helped acclimate the body to stressful situations, he explained. “You're taking steps to help yourself so it's not such a drastic departure from your reality. You inoculate yourself to trauma. It takes time to build that up to where it's not bothering you that much anymore.”

事情很快就结束了--我们保护了人质,多伦布希宣称。在汇报期间,我哭了。多伦布希站在一个目标旁边,一个明显的孕妇拿着手枪。“你刚刚射杀了一位怀孕的女性--这让你有什么感觉?”他问乔迪。他解释说,现实的训练很重要,因为它帮助身体适应紧张的环境。“你正在采取措施帮助自己,所以这并不是一个与你的现实如此剧烈的背离。”你给自己接种了创伤疫苗。这需要时间才能建立到不再困扰你的地方。“

We replayed the scenario and did another exercise after that, but I'd lost my spirit and took my shots half-heartedly. As the afternoon turned chilly and the wind picked up, Dorenbush handed out certificates of completion. Along with mine, I got a speech about how I should believe in myself. But it wasn't my failure that had upset me that afternoon in the woods. My panic had been partly an animal terror of bullets and chaos, but I'd also been paralyzed by a deeper dread—the fear that in preparing for combat, we were training ourselves to see opportunities for it all around us. That by rehearsing for a situation, we were, in a small way, calling it into being.

我们重播了场景,在那之后又做了一次练习,但我失去了我的精神,半心半意地投篮。下午很冷,风也刮起了,多伦布希发出了完工证书。和我的一样,我也得到了一个关于我应该如何相信自己的演讲。但那天下午在树林里让我心烦意乱的并不是我的失败。我的恐慌在一定程度上是一种动物对子弹和混乱的恐惧,但我也被一种更深层次的恐惧所麻痹--害怕在为战斗做准备时,我们在训练自己,让自己看到周围的一切机会。通过排练某一种情况,我们在很小的程度上就把它变成了现实。

The sun was setting and Dorenbush's energy was clearly flagging, but my classmates wanted to get in more practice. Dorenbush agreed to let them run hostage-rescue scenarios in the Close Quarters Battle “house.” They gathered at the door with their night-vision helmets on, ARs at the ready. Nate gave the command and they burst in, each turning to a different corner and firing at the target there. It was fascinating to watch, in a way, this tightly choreographed dance of violence. When I drove away into the lowering evening, they were still at it, charging into rooms in a house that wasn't there.

太阳下山了,多伦布希的精力明显减弱了,但我的同学们想多练习一下。多伦布希同意让他们在近距离作战的“房子”中进行人质营救。他们聚集在门口,戴着夜视头盔,阿尔斯准备好了.内特下了命令,他们冲了进来,每个人都转向一个不同的角落,向那里的目标开火。从某种程度上看,这种精心编排的暴力舞蹈令人着迷。当我驱车进入低沉的夜晚时,他们还在那里,冲进一所不在那里的房子里的房间。


 

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