中国产商业无人机
Commercial drone of made-in-China
900字
2020-12-06 20:31
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火星译客

The Skywalker X-8 commercial drone, made by China's Skywalker Technologies and with a wingspan of more than two meters, is a favorite of hobbyists and enthusiasts for aerial photography.

中国武汉思凯沃克科技有限公司(Skywalker Technologies)生产的、机翼翼展超过两米的天行者X-8商用无人机,是业余爱好者和航空摄影发烧友的最爱。

  But the aircraft, which can be bought for just a few hundred dollars, is also perfect for military reconnaissance, artillery spotting and even aerial bombing, as soldiers fighting against Isis in Iraq and Syria have discovered.

但是,这款几百美元就可买到的无人机也是军事侦察、弹着观测、甚至空中轰炸的完美设备,在伊拉克和叙利亚打击伊 斯兰国(ISIS)的士兵已经在战场上发现了这款无人机。

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  The first X-8 in a conflict zone was spotted in 2015 by Kurdish forces near the Mosul Dam in Iraq, while in October 2016 a bomb-laden X-8 killed two Kurdish soldiers and injured two French commandos in the same area, according to Sahan Research, a UK-based think-tank.

据英国智库沙汗研究与发展组织(Sahan Research)提供的信息,2015年,库尔德武装在伊拉克摩苏尔大坝(Mosul Dam)附近发现天行者X-8,这是首次在冲突地区发现该款无人机;2016年10月,一架载有炸弹的X-8在同一地区炸死了两名库尔德士兵,炸伤两名法国突击队队员。

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  China’s world-leading drone industry faces a burgeoning problem: its recreational aircraft, in addition to taking breathtaking clifftop selfies, are being used by terrorists to kill people.

  全球领先的中国无人机行业遇上了一个新问题:本来是用于休闲娱乐的无人机,除了被用于令人屏息的悬崖自拍外,还成为了恐 怖分子杀人的工具。

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  As of the end of last year, 32 models from six countries had been identified in the Syria and Iraq conflict, according to research by the Center for the Study of the Drone at Bard College in New York state.

纽约州巴德学院(Bard College)无人机研究中心的研究发现,截至去年年底,在叙利亚和伊拉克冲突中,共发现了由6个国家生产的32个型号的无人机。

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  While most are military drones such as the US Predator and its Chinese copy the Caihong CH-4, the conflict has seen the first widespread use of hobby drones as weapons — and almost all were Chinese brands.

虽然冲突中发现的无人机多数是军用无人机,如美国的“捕食者”(Predator)无人机、及其中国仿造版“彩虹CH-4”无人机,但是,消遣用的无人机在此次冲突中首次被广泛用作武器——而且此类无人机几乎全部是中国品牌。

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  Their introduction marks a “milestone in the widespread proliferation of aerial surveillance platforms among insurgent and terrorist groups”, the center said.

消遣型无人机的采用,成为了“叛乱分子和恐怖组织空中监视平台大规模扩散的一个里程碑”,上述无人机研究中心说。

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  Isis revealed its weaponised drone capabilities in a January video. Since then, says Steve Stalinsky of Memri, a Middle East media think-tank, “we have been seeing almost daily Isis drone attacks, sometimes several times a day, against many different targets”.

ISIS在一月份发布的一个视频中展示了其武装无人机的能力。从那时起,“我们几乎每天都会看到ISIS利用无人机进行袭击的消息,有时甚至每天几次,针对多个不同目标,”中东媒体研究院(Memri)的史蒂文?斯坦林斯基(Steve Stalinsky)说。

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  Bombmaking workshops run by Isis have weaponised X-8s and other drones such as the Phantom, made by Shenzhen-based DJI, the world’s largest commercial dronemaker. Some hobby drones now boast formidable capabilities, with 7km ranges and payloads up to 40kg.

ISIS的炸弹制造工厂已经将天行者X-8和其他型号的无人机改装成了武器,其中包括由全球最大的商用无人机制造公司深圳大疆创新科技有限公司(DJI)生产的大疆精灵(Phantom)。现在,一些消遣型无人机号称具备强大性能,续航距离可达7公里,有效载荷可达40公斤。

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  The Kurdish government claims to have recorded at least two instances of Isis-controlled drones dropping hand grenades on its forces.

库尔德自治政府声称,他们至少记录了两起ISIS控制的无人机向其武装部队投掷手榴弹的事件。

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  The founder of one Shenzhen-based armed drone manufacturer says that while military drones are strictly regulated, consumer drones are not — and unmanned aerial vehicles “can be retrofitted with one to two hand grenades very easily”.

深圳一家武装无人机制造商的创始人说,军用无人机受到严格监管,但民用无人机却没有,而且给无人驾驶飞行器“加装一到两个手榴弹简单至极”。

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  Chinese consumer drones figure prominently in the arsenals of terror groups for the same reasons they have grabbed market share all over the world, according to Robert Garbett, chairman of Drone Major, a UK-based consultancy: “They are cheap and readily available.”

英国咨询公司Drone Major的董事长罗伯特 加伯特(Robert Garbett)认为,中国民用无人机在全球市场抢占份额,同时在恐怖组织武器库中占据重要位置,都出于同一个原因。他说:“它们价格低廉,很容易买到。”

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  Chinese dronemakers say there is nothing they can do to prevent their wares from being hijacked. DJI laments the use of its drones in warfare as “deplorable” and an “abuse of the technology”.

中国的无人机制造商表示,对于自己的产品被恐怖分 子“劫持”,他们无能为力。大疆创新科技痛惜地表示,在战场上使用其生产的无人机“应受到谴责”,“是对技术的滥用”。

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  “As a manufacturer, we are unable to control what people do with them similar to the manufacturers of pick-up trucks, cars or other items that have been weaponised in conflict zones,” the company told the Financial Times.

“与在冲突地区被用作武器的皮卡、小汽车和其他物品的制造商一样,作为无人机的生产商,我们也无法控制人们如何使用我们的产品,”大疆创新科技对英国《金融时报》说。

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  Skywalker Technologies likewise said it did not “have the power to require customers make no modifications to our products”.

思凯沃克科技公司同样表示,其“无权要求客户不得改装我们的产品”。

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  Other manufacturers appeared to have no idea their products were being used for purposes outside of recreation.

其他制造商似乎对他们的产品被用于娱乐以外的目的并不知情。

  “We have never heard of anything like this happening,” said Chen Minfang, a manager at Tensho, a Fujian-based toy aircraft and dronemaker. “We do not know anything about this. How would Isis be using our products? We only sell to Europe and North America. We sell toy planes. How could they arm toy planes?”

“我们从来没听说过这种事,”福建玩具飞机和无人机生产商天翔(厦门)模型有限公司(Tensho)的经理陈闽芳(音)说。“我们对此一无所知。ISIS怎么会使用我们的产品?我们的产品只销往欧洲和北美市场。我们卖的是玩具飞机。他们怎么给玩具飞机装配武器?”

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  A Tensho Skyhunter drone was shot down by Syrian forces in 2014, according to the Bard College report.

根据巴德学院的报告,叙利亚军队曾于2014年击落过一架天翔生产的猎鹰(Skyhunter)无人机。

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  “It's not clear how these drones are ending up in Isis’s hands,” said Dan Gettinger, director of the Bard College Center. although he noted that “they are pretty available from a lot of resellers on the internet”.

“现在还不清楚这些无人机是如何落到ISIS手中的,”巴德学院无人机研究中心主任丹?盖廷格(Dan Gettinger)说。不过,他指出,“网上有很多经销商都在销售无人机。”

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  Mr Gettinger said that although the drones had not had a strategic impact on fighting, they had been used effectively as propaganda tools, for example by filming attacks.

盖廷格说,虽然无人机并未对战斗产生战略性影响,但它们被有效地用作宣传工具,例如,用于拍摄袭击场面。

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  “They didn't change the battle in Mosul,” he said. “But they have a larger tactical implication — they compel US military and others to invest in counter-drone systems and improve their capabilities to defend against drones.”

“它们没有改变摩苏尔战役的结果,”他说,“但是,它们具有较大的战术性意义——迫使美国军方和其他有关各方投资研发反无人机系统,并提升防御无人机能力。”

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  Some militaries and police forces have been developing defences against weaponised commercial drones, including the use of microwaves and netting, while Dutch forces have even begun taking down rogue drones with eagles.

一些军队和警察机关已经在开发防御武装商用无人机的方法,包括用微波探测和张网捕捉。而荷兰警方甚至已经开始用老鹰来击落“流氓”无人机。

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  Meanwhile, Chinese dronemakers have been in discussions about promoting global standards for the industry.

与此同时,中国的无人机制造商一直在讨论如何推动全球性行业标准。

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  DJI has taken the lead among Chinese dronemakers since 2013 in installing geofencing — which uses GPS to prevent drones from working in certain parts of the globe. However, experts say the technology is easy to bypass.

2013年,大疆创新科技率先在其无人机上安装地理围栏系统——利用全球定位系统(GPS)防止无人机在某些地理区域内工作,之后其他中国无人机制造商纷纷采取了这项技术。但是,专家指出,绕开这项技术的限制非常容易。

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  Another security measure would be to require buyers to identify themselves and to require drones to carry UDIMs, SIM card-like devices that are a form of digital licence. Chinese dronemakers are actively promoting this technology through the International Standards Organisation, where a committee is developing a global registry for drone users, Mr Garbett says.

另一个安全措施是要求买家进行身份验证,并要求无人机携带UDIM——类似SIM卡的装置,作为无人机数字证书。中国的无人机制造商正在通过国际标准化组织(International Standards Organization)积极推广这项技术。盖廷格说,该组织的一个委员会正在开发一个全球性的无人机用户登记系统。

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