Update on New Coronavirus Pneumonia Event in 2019-2020 (1/3)
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2021-02-11 10:23
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New Coronavirus Pneumonia Event in 2019-2020

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New coronavirus pneumonia events from 2019 to 2020. The standard name of the pneumonia epidemic of new coronavirus infection in the National Health and Health Commission of the People's Republic of China [18] refers to symptoms including fever and pneumonia caused by the new coronavirus in 2019 [Note 1] Events caused by the epidemic including infectious diseases. The outbreak was initially thought to have occurred in the South China Seafood Market in Jianghan District, Wuhan City, Hubei Province, People's Republic of China [21], and it was later discovered that not all of the first and early cases were here [22] [23]. The source of transmission of the new coronavirus has not been found [24] [Note 2], the transmission route and extent of spread are not clear [26] [19], and experts from the World Health Organization and the Chinese National Health and Health Commission believe that the virus can be transmitted from person to person [27] [28], analysis indicates that the incubation period is also contagious [29].

The first known case occurred on December 1, 2019 [23]. The first case to go to the hospital occurred on December 8 [30]. A large number of cases around the South China seafood market began to appear in late December [30]. In the evening of December 30, 2019, a number of documents about "unexplained pneumonia" issued by Wuhan Municipal Health Commission on December 30 were widely spread on the Internet. The next day, Wuhan CDC confirmed that the documents were true to the media, and began to inform the public of the cases, indicating what kind of pneumonia was being investigated [31]. At 9 pm on January 7, 2020, experts detected the virus as New Coronavirus [32]. Since January 13th, [33][34] has been identified from Chinese mainland, Thailand and Japan. Due to the large number of people who had been returning to other provinces during the Spring Festival, the screening kit began to release in 1 months. From January 20th, including Guangdong, Beijing and Shanghai, the Chinese mainland began to report a number of confirmed cases in addition to Wuhan, [35][36], and Zhong Nan Shan, academician of the Chinese Academy of engineering, urged the public to wear masks and avoid going to Wuhan [37], then Wuhan mayor. The China government of the Shanghai was also the mayor of Wuhan. Zhou Xianwang and the National Health Commission of China also called on the public not to go in and out of Wuhan [38] [39].

China's national health committee announced on January 20, 2020, will be coronavirus pneumonia into legal b class infectious diseases, according to a class management [40], on January 23, began to implement the law on the prevention and control of infectious diseases in wuhan city of article 42 "class a blockade of infectious diseases epidemic area" cuo, shi. Epidemic prevention and control headquarters in wuhan city on January 23, 2020, announced in the morning, since the same day at 10 am, the city's public transportation service [41] [42], part of the highway in hubei province to afternoon exports have also been closed [43]. More after wuhan, hubei province also have taken different levels of city "seal" measures to prevent the spread of the virus [44].

On January 26, for the prevention and control of epidemic situation, the State Council of the People's Republic of China li keqiang chaired a meeting of the central response will be coronavirus pneumonia outbreak work leading group meeting for the first time. Conference pointed out that appropriate extension of the Spring Festival holiday, adjust the school time, reduce the flow of people [45]. , published by The General Office of the State Council about the extension of the 2020 lunar New Year holiday notice, to extend the lunar New Year holiday until February 2, (9th in the lunar calendar), and announced that delay around colleges and universities, primary and secondary schools, kindergarten school [46], there are parts of announcement domain except necessary to industry city run enterprises to return to work no earlier than on February 9, 2020, 24 [47].

call

Early due to pneumonia cases for unknown reasons, and cause is the pathogen identification and traceability, etc. The preliminary investigation, so called "unexplained pneumonia" 148]. Hong Kong economic journal and apple daily and other media [49], Taiwan joint news media, such as Singapore lianhe zaobao, media and the British broadcasting company is called "wuhan pneumonia" [50] [51], and the/sing tao daily and the Macao daily media called "wu lung" [52] [53]. The guardian [54], [55] the about/times and other media referred to as "wuhan coronavirus".

On January 8, the government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region named it "serious new infectious pathogen respiratory disease" [56]. In January 13th, the WHO officially named the virus as "2019 New Coronavirus" (2019-nCoV) [57][58]. On the same day, the People's Republic of China national health and Health Committee called the disease caused by the virus "New Coronavirus pneumonia" [59].n January 17th, Japan's cabinet office and the Ministry of health and labor called it "New Coronavirus related infection".(Japanese:新型コロナウイルスに関連した感染症)”[60][61]。 On January 23, the disease control agency of the Ministry of health and welfare of the Republic of China was officially named "severe special infectious pneumonia" [62].

background

Wuhan in China's geographical position is extremely important, referred to as thorough fares of nine provinces [63], also at the heart of central China [64], one of China's railway artery beijing-guangzhou route passing through, but also an important site of railway trunk road Shanghai han rong line. Removal of land and water traffic, 2019, wuhan tianhe international airport passenger throughput of only 27.1502 million people, including international and regional passenger throughput of 3.106 million [65]. It has a great influence on the outbreak of control. [66]

Virus research progress

pathogen

As of January 7, 2020, 9 PM, wuhan P4 lab checked out a will be coronavirus get [67] of the virus genome sequence by nucleic acid detection method, a total of detection will be coronavirus, 15 cases were positive from 1 case of isolated the virus positive patients, typical coronavirus pattern in an electron microscope. Experts believe that the unexplained cases of viral pneumonia pathogen preliminary judged will be coronavirus [68] [69].

The Chinese center for disease control and prevention said the virus cannot be equated with similar virus gene similar risk, this will be found coronavirus with MERS and SARS coronavirus is belonging to coronavirus, but genetic evolution analysis shows they belong to different branch of the group, it is neither SARS, nor MERS, their difference is bigger [70] virus gene sequences.

On January 21, 2020, Shanghai at the Pasteur institute, Chinese academy of Sciences and Chinese academy of Sciences molecular plant coe etc, synthetic biology key laboratory in CHINA SCIENCE, Life SCIENCE (SCIENCE CHINA Life Sciences), the journal articles found wuhan new coronary disease, poison belongs to Beta coronavirus (Betacoronavirus). Betacoronavirus is protein package single chain are RNA viruses, parasitic infection and higher animals (including human). In the position of the evolutionary tree, with the SARS virus adjacent groups and classes the SARS virus, but does not belong to SARS and the SARS virus groups [71].

Source of the virus

On January 20, 2020, the Chinese Academy of Engineering academician zhong nanshan accepted an interview with CCTV, basically is not clear will be coronavirus source is from what animal, just from the aspects of epidemiological investigation, from wild animals [72].

On January 21, 2020, the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai at the Pasteur institute and other research institutions in China science, life science, evolutionary sources were initially determined for parasitic in the fruit of coronavirus HKU9-1, speculated that the natural reservoir of wuhan coronavirus may also be a bat. As that led to the 2002 "SARS" the SARS coronavirus, will be coronavirus from bats to human infection is likely to exist in the process of unknown intermediate host medium [71] [73]

On January 22, 2020, member of Chinese Academy of Sciences, China Gao Fu, director of the centers for disease control and prevention in the conference, said the news office of the State Council of the People's Republic of China will be the source of the coronavirus is wuhan a seafood market illegal sale of wild animals [25]. On the same day, Beijing university, guangxi university of Chinese medicine, ningbo university, wuhan institute of biological engineering scholars joint research, points out that the snake is most likely to carry 2019 - nCoV wildlife [74] of the virus

On January 26, at a press conference, the Chinese national WeiJianWei [75] the spread of the virus source is still unknown

On January 26, a report published in the journal science, researchers discovered the earliest known by tracking the case is December 1, the case without contact with south China seafood market, the cases and subsequent cases found no epidemiological link between [30]. The earliest in 4 cases, the first three people there is no history of south China seafood market exposure [30]. And the first batch of 41 confirmed cases entirely, a total of 13 cases with south China seafood market without exposure history [30].Paper corresponding author, china-japan friendship hospital chief physician Cao Bin said, "now look very clear, seafood market in south China is not the only foci [30]." Infectious disease expert Daniel Lucy bayer-oglesby Georgetown university (Daniel Lucey) said: "13 individuals and the market does not have any contact. This is not a small number "if the data is true and accurate, so the earliest infection may occur in November 2019. Because of the incubation period between infection and symptoms have a [30]. He said if that's the case, will be coronavirus might initially from other places, earlier had a silent in the crowd was spread, as the spread to the seafood market, only in southern China in late December [30] seafood wholesale market of a large number of cases.

mode of transmission

On January 14, 2020, according to Reuters, the world health organization confirmed will be coronavirus has been "limited human-to-human transmission, then modify the report as" may "limited human-to-human transmission, who then to email queries human-to-human transmission media, there is no clear evidence that the virus, and on the social networking site said the Chinese government is a preliminary investigation to find clear evidence of human-to-human transmission [76] [77]

On January 19, the world health organization, a spokesman for the Mr Charest's reply to Taiwan's central news agency email queries, according to the latest information and analysis, existing evidence will be coronavirus is limited human-to-human transmission, at the same time complementary means there is no clear evidence to sustained human-to-human transmission, temporarily unable to assess overall human-to-human transmission range [78], the British broadcasting corporation (BBC) also on January 20, who reply to close contacts between the limited human-to-human transmission, refers to multiple sources revealed that at the same time.Wuhan tongji hospital medical personnel suspected infection [35]. Wuhan official said law is can't exclude the possibility human-to-human transmission, but sustained human-to-human transmission risk is low, that the disease is preventable and controllable [79];China national WeiJianWei refers to the source and transmission way has yet to find out at the same time, still need to be closely monitored possible virus [35]

On January 20, on the evening of China's national WeiJianWei high-level team, institute of Chinese Academy of EngineeringRespiratory disease clinical research, national experts zhong said in an interview with CCTV news broadcast, according to the current data, COVID - 19 human-to-human transmission is for sure: ", in guangdong has 2 cases haven't been to wuhan, but my family went to wuhan after the contracted COVID - 19, now can say, yes, someone from phenomenon ". [80] and he said around a patient, the existing 14 medical staff in medical care related infections (before it was nerve surgery infection), refers to is a very important symbol, said 95% of cases related to wuhan again, urged people to wear a face mask to prevent, and as non-essential not to travel to wuhan [81] [82].

January 21, earlier said only that the existence of limited human-to-human transmission of the world health organization said on Twitter COVID - 19 May be sustained human-to-human transmission case [83]. On the same day, the field of China's national WeiJianWei visited wuhan wuhan pneumonia expert group members, the Peking University first hospital chief physician guang-fa wang to the Hong Kong cable news confirmed he has infection [84]. Guang-fa wang said after his return from wuhan to Beijing, the double eye conjunctivitis first appeared, then fever, he speculated that oneself is infected the ocular conjunctiva, thought did not wear protective goggles is blind spot [85]. Went to wuhan, inspect the Hong Kong university school of medicine, professor yuen kwok-yung believe that outbreak may have entered the third wave of transmission (family and hospital), if the outbreak in the community have the opportunity to repeat the 2003 SARS event [86]. Chinese national WeiJianWei high level expert group leader zhong think wuhan one patient is a dozen staff hospital infection prevention and control is insufficient, the patient can be considered super spreaders, says this new type of pneumonia no specific [87] [88], the German authority virus expert Ross's, said in January 22, 2020, wuhan unexplained pneumonia is a new type of virus but severity than SARS, outbreak of epidemic was the rush hour on the eve of the lunar New Year holiday, however, will be very bad to prevent [89]

On January 22, the Chinese national WeiJianWei has admitted to human-to-human transmission and infection of medical staff, cases are mainly related to wuhan, and there is a range of community transmission, mainly respiratory virus mutation may exist, virus have the opportunity to change and further proliferation [90], has not been found and pointed out that super disseminator [91] [92]. The night national health committee issued "will be coronavirus pneumonia infection prevention and control program (second edition)". Programs mentioned, wuhan pneumonia the longest incubation period of about 14 days, the presence of human-to-human transmission cases, the incubation period may be without infectivity [93]. Member of Chinese Academy of Sciences, China Gao Fu, director of the centers for disease control and prevention said, according to the current epidemiology of cognition, will be coronavirus in children and young people is not susceptible to [25] [94].But the Shanghai medical treatment expert group leader wen-hong zhang argues that children not susceptible to will be coronavirus insufficient argument [95]. In addition, the academician of the Chinese national WeiJianWei high level expert group members lan-juan li said, will be coronavirus available 75% alcohol to kill, and not high temperature resistant, the fatality rate is lower than H7N9 [96]

On January 23, the national health committee issued "will be coronavirus pneumonia infection prevention and control program (third edition)" [97]. Compared with the second edition of diagnosis and treatment scheme, a new scheme of new expression "appear confirmed cases had no history of wuhan travel". Third edition programs mentioned, collected cases so far, shows that there is no history of south China market exposure cases on the rise, and led to gather cases and confirmed cases had no history of travel in wuhan, and in foreign countries and regions found no clear from wuhan market exposure history of confirmed cases [98], for children, WeiJianWei the third edition of lower treatment think young people appeal for children [97], but the Shanghai medical treatment expert group leader wen-hong zhang refers to is not fully [95].

January 24, silver lake hospital, wuhan national respiratory system disease clinical medical research center, and other teams in famous medical journal the lancet published research, analysis of the first 41 patients, points out that the virus can be efficient human-to-human transmission, and may not appear the symptom such as fever early [23]. Research and points out that the 27 people have been to south China seafood market, on December 1st, the first of the disease patients, and the subsequent three of the disease in 2 patients has not been to south China seafood market, and have a family collective infection [22]. The study also found that among the 41 patients, mortality rate has reached 15%, if [99] with SARS. And the lancet, another study by the university of Hong Kong department of microbiology professor yuen kwok-yung, such as research published many infectious disease experts analyzed a shenzhen family, 6 people have been to wuhan after 5 people infected, the other people have not been to wuhan infection, attack rate of 83%, and no symptoms after infection, one of the children patients shows that the virus could spread under the condition of the patients do not know in the community [99] [100].

On January 26, at a press conference, the Chinese national WeiJianWei through analysis of clinical data, according to the spread of the virus appears to be enhanced, speed faster, think into a period of severe and complex disease, believe that will continue for a period of time [101] [24]. And refers to the virus incubation period on 1 to 14, about 10, with SARS, the incubation period also have infectivity [29]

In January 28th, the National Health Protection Committee of China and the State Administration of traditional Chinese Medicine released the "New Coronavirus infection pneumonia treatment plan" (trial version fourth), showing that respiratory droplet transmission is the main transmission route of virus, and can also be transmitted through contact. Incubation period is 3-7 days in general, and the longest is not more than 14 days. The homology between SARS virus and SARS reached 85% [102].

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