英语
双语
汉语

为什么墨西哥对美国汽车工业这么重要

Why Mexico is so important to the American auto industry
为什么墨西哥对美国汽车工业这么重要
865字
2019-06-01 14:12
100阅读
火星译客

New York (CNN Business)——Building a car in the United States, and buying one, could get a lot more expensive.

纽约(CNN商业)——在美国制造汽车并销售可能会贵很多。

Every American auto factory depends on Mexican parts to build its cars or trucks. That's why President Donald Trump's threat to impose tariffs on Mexican imports of up to 25% by October is rattling the US auto industry. The tariffs could raise costs in the United States by tens of billions of dollars in the auto industry alone.

每一家美国汽车厂都依赖墨西哥的零部件来生产汽车或卡车。正因如此,美国总统唐纳德•特朗普(Donald Trump)威胁要在10月份之前对墨西哥进口产品征收高达25%的关税,这让美国汽车行业感到不安。仅在汽车行业,关税就可能使美国的成本增加数百亿美元。

Car buyers would probably pay the cost of those tariffs.

购车者可能会为这些关税买单。

"We believe the tariffs on vehicles would undoubtedly be passed on to consumers," wrote Emmanuel Rosner, auto analyst for Deutsche Bank. If the Trump administration enforces the full 25% tariff, it would increase the price of vehicles sold in the United States by an average of about $1,300, Rosner said.

德意志银行(Deutsche Bank)汽车分析师埃马纽埃尔•罗斯纳(Emmanuel Rosner)写道:“我们认为,汽车关税无疑将转嫁给消费者。”罗斯纳说,如果特朗普政府实施25%的全面关税,在美国销售的汽车价格将平均上涨约1,300美元。

That price increase would hurt demand for cars, perhaps cutting US auto production by as much as 3 million vehicles a year, an 18% drop from current levels, Rosner estimates.

罗斯纳估计,价格上涨将降低汽车需求,可能使美国汽车年产量减少300万辆,与目前相比下降18%。

If that happened, it would be the greatest blow to the US auto industry since the Great Recession sent the industry hurling toward near collapse 10 years ago.

如果真是这样,这将自10年前大衰退(Great Recession)导致美国汽车业濒临崩溃以来,美国汽车业遭受的最大打击。

The industry imported $59.4 billion in parts from Mexico last year, according to US government trade data. That includes parts used in factories and those sold in auto parts stores and repair shops.

根据美国政府的贸易数据,该行业去年从墨西哥进口了594亿美元的零部件。这包括工厂使用的零部件以及汽车零部件商店和维修店出售的零部件。

Mexico is by far the largest foreign source of parts used by the industry. About 16% of all auto parts used by US assembly plants come from Mexico, according to an estimate from the Center for Automotive Research, a leading industry think tank.

墨西哥是迄今为止该行业使用的最大的外国零部件来源国。据领先的行业智库汽车研究中心(Center for Automotive Research)估计,美国装配厂使用的所有汽车零部件中,约有16%来自墨西哥。

Automakers can't easily shift to other suppliers to avoid using parts from Mexico. Mexican parts suppliers specialize in providing low-cost, labor-intensive components, which don't make economic sense to build elsewhere, said Kristin Dziczek, vice president of industry, labor and economics at the center.

汽车制造商不可能轻易地转向其他供应商,以避免使用来自墨西哥的零部件。该中心负责工业、劳工和经济的副总裁克里斯汀·季泽克(Kristin Dziczek)说,墨西哥零部件供应商专门提供低成本、劳动密集型的零部件,在其他地方生产这些零部件不具有经济意义。

For example, 70% of wire harnesses, the collection of wires that carry power throughout a vehicle, come from Mexico. Few if any wire harnesses are made in the United States. Much of the rest of the harnesses arrive at the US-Mexican border from countries south of Mexico.

例如,70%的电气配线,也就是为车辆提供动力的电气配线,来自墨西哥。几乎没有在美国制造的电气配线。其余大部分配线是从墨西哥南部国家抵达美墨边境的。

"It's one of the first pieces you install when you're assembling a car," she said in April when Trump was threatening to close the border with Mexico altogether. Such a move would have shut the entire US auto industry within a week, she estimated.

“这是你组装汽车时首先安装的部件之一,”她在今年4月说,当时特朗普威胁要完全关闭与墨西哥的边境。她估计,这样的举措将在一周内关闭整个美国汽车行业。

"You can't build the whole car and slap the wire harness in later. This is a big critical part that shuts down the assembly line if you don't have it."

“你不可能把整辆车组装好,然后再把电气配线装上。这是一个重要的部件,如果缺少它,装配线就会关闭。”

Finished cars and trucks also come into the United States from Mexico — about 2.7 million autos were imported from Mexico last year, worth $52 billion, according to the US Commerce Department. That's nearly a million more autos than came from Japan, the No. 2 source of auto imports.

成品汽车和卡车也从墨西哥进入美国——根据美国商务部的数据,去年从墨西哥进口了270万辆汽车,价值520亿美元。这比日本多出近100万辆汽车,日本是全球第二大汽车进口来源国。

A 25% tariff on all imports from Mexico would add about $28 billion a year to the cost of completed vehicles and parts.

对所有从墨西哥进口的产品征收25%的关税,每年将增加280亿美元的整车和零部件成本。

Automakers are strong supporters of the new trade deal that the Trump administration negotiated with Mexico and Canada designed to replace NAFTA. That trade agreement, the US Mexico Canada Agreement (USMCA), would continue to allow most auto parts and vehicles to cross the border in both directions without tariffs. But it needs Congressional ratification before it takes effect.

汽车制造商是特朗普政府与墨西哥和加拿大谈判达成的旨在取代北美自由贸易协定的新贸易协定的坚定支持者。该贸易协定,即美墨加协定(USMCA),将继续允许大多数汽车零部件和车辆在不征收关税的情况下双向穿越边境。但在生效之前,它需要得到国会的批准。

The USMCA "relies on duty-free access to be successful. The imposition of tariffs against Mexico will undermine its positive impact and would impose significant cost on the US auto industry," said Matt Blunt, president of the American Automotive Policy Council, an industry group representing GM, Ford and Fiat Chrysler.

USMCA“依靠免税准入获得成功。美国汽车政策委员会(American Automotive Policy Council)主席马特•布朗特(Matt Blunt)表示:

The US auto industry is already struggling with increased costs because of the Trump administration's tariffs on steel and aluminum. Both General Motors (GM) and Ford (F) have estimated that rising commodity prices from those tariffs have raised their costs by more than $1 billion each.

由于特朗普政府对钢铁和铝征收关税,美国汽车行业已经在极力应付成本增加。通用汽车(GM)和福特(F)都估计,这些关税导致的商品价格上涨使他们的成本分别增加了10多亿美元。

The entire industry has been trying to cut costs to free up cash for the expensive research and development challenge of developing the next generation of electric and self-driving cars. That is the reason GM cited for its plans to close four US factories this year.

整个汽车行业一直在努力削减成本,以便腾出资金,应对下一代电动汽车和自动驾驶汽车的昂贵研发成本。这就是通用汽车今年计划关闭4家美国工厂的原因。

That means automakers probably wouldn't assume the cost of the tariffs. Instead, they would pass them onto consumers. That could hurt American auto sales and cost additional jobs in the United States. Last year, GM warned that a proposal to put tariffs on all cars and auto parts imports from around the world would lead it and other automakers to cut US jobs.

这意味着汽车制造商可能不会承担关税的成本。相反,他们会把这些传递给消费者。这可能会损害美国的汽车销售,使美国失去更多的就业机会。去年,通用汽车警告称,对从世界各地进口的所有汽车和汽车零部件征收关税的提议,将导致通用汽车和其它汽车制造商在美国裁员。

Costs would rise even further if Mexico responds by imposing tariffs of its own on American goods. That would be a double blow to the US auto industry, because Mexico is a major market for both its cars and its parts.

如果墨西哥对美国商品征收关税作为回应,成本将进一步上升。这将对美国汽车业造成双重打击,因为墨西哥是美国汽车及其零部件的主要市场。

Mexico bought 140,600 cars from the US last year, about 8% of all car exports, making it the fourth largest market behind Canada, China and Germany, according to the US Commerce Department. Those cars cost $3.3 billion.

美国商务部(US Commerce Department)的数据显示,墨西哥去年从美国购买了14.06万辆汽车,约占所有汽车出口的8%,成为仅次于加拿大、中国和德国的第四大市场。这些汽车耗资33亿美元。

More importantly, US parts makers shipped another $32.5 billion worth of parts to Mexico, mostly to use in Mexican auto plants.

更重要的是,美国零部件制造商又向墨西哥出口了价值325亿美元的零部件,这主要用于墨西哥的汽车工厂。

3 +1
举报
0 条评论
评论不能为空

小花的内容