5 Weird Things You Didn't Know About Chernobyl
关于切尔诺贝利核事故,你不知道的五件怪事
851字
2019-05-23 14:43
56阅读
火星译课图片

The Chernobyl nuclear power plant exploded more than three decades ago, in 1986, but you can watch it unfold on HBO's TV miniseries "Chernobyl," which premiered earlier this week.

切尔诺贝利核电站于1986年发生爆炸,距今已经三十多年,但是如今我们可以通过观看HBO电视台的剧集《切尔诺贝利》了解当时的真实情况,该剧在这周初播出第一集。

While most people know the general story — that due to human error, the nuclear reactor exploded and unleashed radioactive material across Europe — few know the nitty-gritty details. Here are five weird facts you probably didn't know about Chernobyl.

尽管大多数人都知道这次事故,由于人类的失误造成核反应堆爆炸,核辐射遍布欧洲,但是很少有人知道真实的细节。以下是有关切尔诺贝利核事故你可能不知道的五件怪事。

1. Similar to Hiroshima

1.切尔诺贝利与广岛相似

About 30,000 people were near Chernobyl's reactor when it exploded on April 26, 1986. Those exposed to the radiation are thought to have received about 45 rem (rem is a unit of radiation dosage), on average, which is similar to the average dose received by survivors after the atomic bomb was dropped on Hiroshima in 1945, according to the book "Physics for Future Presidents: The Science Behind the Headlines" (W. W. Norton & Company, 2008) by Richard Muller, a professor emeritus of physics at the University of California, Berkeley. 

1986年4月26日,切尔诺贝利反应堆爆炸时,约有3万人在附近。加州伯克利大学荣誉物理教授Richard Muller在他编写的《给未来总统的物理课:头条背后的科学》(纽约诺顿公司2008年出版)一书中提到,当时受到核辐射的人平均会受到45雷姆的辐射(雷姆是辐射剂量的单位),这和1945年广岛原子弹爆炸后的幸存者所受到的辐射剂量相似。

While 45 rem is not enough to cause radiation sickness (which usually occurs at about 200 rem), it still increases the risk of cancer by 1.8%, Muller wrote. "That risk should lead to about 500 cancer deaths in addition to the 6,000 normal cancers from natural causes."

虽然45雷姆的辐射量不会直接造成辐射性疾病(200雷姆的辐射量会造成疾病),但是受到辐射的人患癌症的机率会提高大概1.8%。Muller在书中提到“这种机率意味着除自然因素引起的6000例癌症患者死亡外,还会额外增加大约500例。”

However, a 2006 estimate from the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), which is associated with the United Nations, calculated much higher cancer fatalities. The IAEA looked at the total distribution of the radiation, which reached across Europe and even to the United States, and estimated that the cumulative radiation dose from Chernobyl was about 10 million rem, which would have led to an additional 4,000 cancer deaths from the accident, Muller wrote.

然而Muller还写道,联合国国际原子能机构(IAEA)于2006年的一份评估却计算出了更高的癌症死亡机率。IAEA调查了所有受辐射的地区,包括整个欧洲甚至美国,估算整个切尔诺贝利事故造成的核辐射剂量大概1000万雷姆,会造成额外4000例癌症死亡。

2. Greatest harm ended within weeks

2. 最大的伤害在几周内结束

The initial blast was enormous, but the greatest harm from the radiation happened within the first few weeks. You can think of radiation as fragments that fly outward as a nucleus explodes, like shrapnel from a bomb, Muller wrote.

最开始的爆炸非常剧烈,但是最大的辐射伤害发生在前几周。当原子核爆炸时,你可以把辐射想成一些向外飞散的碎片就像炸弹的弹片一样。

Just like popped bubble wrap, each nucleus can explode and release radiation only once. Just 15 minutes after the Chernobyl explosion "the radioactivity had dropped to one-quarter of its initial value; after 1 day, to one-fifteenth; after 3 months, to less than 1%," Muller wrote.

和爆开的气泡纸一样,每一个原子核爆炸后都只会造成一次辐射。在切尔诺贝利爆炸的15分钟后,“放射能已经降到最开始的四分之一,一天后降至大概十五分之一,三个月后不到1%。

"But there is still some left, even today," he noted. "Much of the radiation literally went up in smoke, and only the radiation near the ground affected the population."

Muller提到:“截至今天,还是会有一些残留。大部分的辐射会随烟上升,只有贴近地面的辐射才会对人口造成影响。”

A vehicle graveyard in Chernobyl

A vehicle  in Chernobyl

切尔诺贝利的一个车辆垃圾场

3. Dozens of firefighters died

3. 许多消防员牺牲

The Chernobyl explosion not only released a lot of radiation; it also started a fire at the power plant. The firefighters who rushed in to stop the flames were exposed to high levels of radiation, and dozens died from radiation poisoning, Muller wrote.

切尔诺贝利不仅释放了很多辐射,同时还引发了发电站的火灾。冲进火场救火的消防员受到重度辐射,很多都死于辐射中毒。

These firefighters were exposed to over 1 quadrillion gammas each. But what does that mean?

这些消防员受到了超过1万亿的伽马的辐射。但是这个数字意味着什么?

Gamma rays — a penetrating kind of radiation that is released from nuclear weapons, dirty bombs and reactor explosions — is like an extremely energetic X-ray. There are about 10 trillion gamma rays in every 1 rem of radiation, Muller wrote.

Muller写到,由核武器、脏弹和反应堆释放出的伽马射线是一种穿透性辐射,和及其活跃的X射线及其相似。每一个原子核辐射中大概会有10万亿的伽马射线。

A person who gets a whole-body dose of 100 rem probably won't notice, as our systems can repair most of this damage without making a person sick. At 200 rem, a person can develop radiation poisoning. Patients who received chemotherapy sometimes experience this type of sickness, leading to side-effects such as hair loss and feeling nauseated and listless. (This nausea is caused, in part, by the body feverishly working to fix the damage caused by the radiation, so it cuts back on other activities, such as digestion, Muller wrote.)

100雷姆的辐射对于整个人体来说可能并没有什么影响,因为我们的自身系统可以修复大部分损伤。200雷姆的辐射就会带来辐射中毒。接受化疗的病人有时就会经历这类疾病,副作用包括脱发、感到恶心无力。(Muller写到,这种恶心一定程度上是因为人体急于修复辐射造成的损伤,从而自动缩减了消化等其他活动。)

People hit with 300 rem have a good chance of dying unless they get immediate treatment, like a blood transfusion, Muller wrote.

300雷姆的辐射很多能会导致死亡,除非立即进行输血类治疗。

4. There was no containment building

4. 没有安全壳房

Chernobyl didn't have an important safety measure in place: a containment building.

切尔诺贝利没有重要的安全措施:安全

A containment structure is a gas-tight shell that surrounds a nuclear reactor. This shell, which is usually dome-shaped and made of steel-reinforced concrete, is designed to confine fission products that may be released into the atmosphere during an accident, according to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission.

美国核管理委员会指出,安全壳房是指围绕在核反应堆旁的气密壳。这种壳子通常是穹顶状,由钢筋混凝土建造,用于防止核裂变产物在发生事故时扩散到大气中。

If there had been a containment building at Chernobyl, according to Muller's book, "the accident may very well have caused virtually no deaths."

Muller在他的书中提到,“如果切尔诺贝利配有安全壳房,这次事故可能不会造成人员死亡。”

5. There's wildlife there now

5. 切尔诺贝利地区现在存在野生生物

The Chernobyl area was evacuated following the explosion; once humans left, wildlife moved in.

爆炸过后切尔诺贝利地区进行了撤离,人类离开后野生生物迁入。

The numbers of moose, roe deer, red deer and wild boar living in the exclusion zone are similar to population numbers in nearby uncontaminated nature reserves, a 2015 study found. Wolves are doing especially well, with a population that is seven times the size of wolf populations in neighboring reserves, the study researchers found.

一份2015年的调查发现,切尔诺贝利禁区的麋鹿、狍子和野猪的数量和附近未受污染的自然保护区的数量相似。研究者还发现,狼在禁区尤其活跃,数量大概达到了附近保护区的7倍。

"This doesn't mean radiation is good for wildlife, just that the effects of human habitation — including hunting, farming and forestry — are a lot worse," Jim Smith, the study's observation team coordinator and a professor of environmental science at the University of Portsmouth in the United Kingdom, said in a statement.

英国朴茨茅斯大学环境科学教授,研究观察组成员Jim Simith说到:“这并不表示辐射对于野生动物有好处,只是人类的居住活动对野生生物造成的影响更差-包括狩猎,农耕和砍伐森林。

However, other scientists pointed out that wildlife levels at Chernobyl are lower than those at other protected regions in Europe, indicating that the radiation is still affecting the area.

然而,其他的科学家却指出切尔诺贝利区域的野生动物数量低于其他欧洲保护区域,表明辐射对这片区域依然存在一定影响。

2 +1
举报
0 条评论
评论不能为空

小弘帽的内容