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川普禁止华为进入美国市场,称中国公司构成安全威胁

Trump bans Huawei in U.S. markets, saying Chinese firm poses security threat
川普禁止华为进入美国市场,称中国公司构成安全威胁
929字
2019-05-16 16:29
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火星译客

President Trump issued an executive order Wednesday giving his administration sweeping powers to block Chinese telecom giant Huawei Technologies Co. and other foreign communications firms from doing business in the United States — a long-anticipated move he had postponed while Washington and Beijing were in intense trade negotiations.

特朗普总统星期三发布行政命令,赋予其政府一揽子权力,阻止中国电信巨头华为技术有限公司和其他外国通信公司在美国开展业务——这是他在华盛顿和北京进行激烈贸易谈判推迟的长期预期举措。

The White House said the president was taking the action to “protect America from foreign adversaries who are actively and increasingly creating and exploiting vulnerabilities in information and communications technology infrastructure and services in the United States.”

白宫表示,总统采取这一行动是为了“保护美国免受外国对手的攻击,这些外国对手正在积极地、越来越多地制造和利用美国信息和通信技术基础设施和服务中的漏洞。”

Trump’s directive does not name any company from China or any other country, and senior administration officials, in a hastily arranged press call, would not talk about Huawei or any specific firm.

特朗普的指示没有提到任何来自中国或其他国家的公司,政府高级官员在匆忙安排的新闻发布会上也不会谈论华为或任何具体公司。

But the order was widely understood as one that targets Huawei, the world’s largest telecommunications equipment manufacturer, which has been in the crosshairs of America’s security and intelligence agencies.

但外界普遍认为,该命令针对的是华为。华为是全球最大的电信设备制造商,一直处于美国安全和情报机构的监控之下。

For months, U.S. officials have waged an aggressive campaign to restrain Huawei’s global expansion as a leading supplier of the next-generation 5G wireless networks. They have argued that using Huawei equipment poses risks of Chinese espionage or sabotage.

几个月来,美国官员发起了一场积极的行动,以遏制华为作为下一代5G无线网络领先供应商的全球扩张。他们辩称,使用华为的设备存在引来中国间谍或带来破坏的风险。

Huawei Technologies Co. is China’s largest telecommunications company.

华为技术有限公司是中国最大的电信公司。

Top Huawei executives have vehemently denied they would allow the Chinese government to use their products for surveillance.

华为高管强烈否认,他们将允许中国政府使用华为产品进行监控。

With the trade talks at an impasse since Friday, Trump signed an order that was prepared months ago. Although officials would not attribute the timing to any specific factor, its release came amid an intensifying standoff between Washington and Beijing and immediately added a new level of friction. Already, the two have engaged in escalating rounds of tit-for-tat tariffs that could damage the world’s two largest economies.

自周五以来,贸易谈判陷入僵局,特朗普签署了一项几个月前就准备好的命令。尽管官员们不愿将发布时间归因于任何具体因素,但在华盛顿和北京之间的僵局不断加剧之际,该文件的发布立即加剧了新的摩擦。两国已经开始了一轮又一轮针锋相对的关税升级,这可能会损害全球最大的两个经济体。

Declaring the problem of foreign adversaries seeking to exploit technological risks to be a national emergency, Trump’s order formalizes what was a de facto ban on Huawei in U.S. markets in recent years as the Pentagon and Congress made moves to discourage its growth.

特朗普宣布,外国对手寻求利用技术风险的问题是国家紧急情况。随着五角大楼和国会采取行动遏制华为的增长,特朗普的命令正式确立了近年来美国市场对华为事实上的禁令。

Washington has become increasingly worried about Beijing’s cyber intrusions and hacking of U.S. companies for sensitive information and technology and trade secrets. On Tuesday, during a Senate panel hearing on 5G and national security threats, lawmakers singled out Huawei in discussing the issue.

华盛顿越来越担心北京方面为获取敏感信息、技术和商业机密而对美国公司进行网络入侵和黑客攻击。周二,在参议院关于5G和国家安全威胁的小组听证会上,议员们在讨论这个问题时特别提到了华为。

Sen. Lindsey Graham (R-S.C.), chairman of the Senate Judiciary Committee, said, “Now we’ve got a developing technology called 5G that if China dominates this market, we may not be able to do normal business or function normally, and we are sitting around looking at each other.”

参议院司法委员会主席、南卡罗来纳州共和党参议员林赛格雷厄姆(Lindsey Graham)说,“现在我们有一项正在开发的名为5G的技术,如果中国主导这个市场,我们可能无法正常开展业务或正常运作 ,我们只能坐在那里干瞪眼。”

The U.S. concerns about cyber theft were on the agenda during the trade talks with China, although U.S. negotiators reportedly dropped the issue recently.

在与中国的贸易谈判中,美国对网络盗窃的担忧被提上了议程,不过据报道,美国谈判代表最近放弃了这个议题。

No new talks are scheduled, although Trump and Xi are expected to meet on the sidelines of the Group of 20 economic summit next month in Osaka, Japan.

虽然川普和习预计将在下个月在日本大阪举行的20国集团经济峰会期间举行会晤,但是没有新的会谈计划。

There was no immediate reaction from China to the latest U.S. announcement.

中国对美国的最新声明没有立即做出反应。

Derek Scissors, a China expert at the American Enterprise Institute, said the Chinese would complain — “both for the sake of the trade talks and protecting Huawei's good name.”

美国企业研究所(American Enterprise Institute)中国问题专家史剑道(Derek Scissors)表示,中国人会提出抱怨——“既是为了贸易谈判,也是为了保护华为的好名声。”

“As a tactical ploy, Beijing might single out an American company as a security risk,” Scissors wrote in an email. “China has recently adopted a more sweeping national security review than ours and they could soon discover that some smaller American IT firm must be tightly restricted,” he said.

史剑道在一封电子邮件中写道:“作为一种战术策略,北京方面可能会将一家美国公司列为安全风险。”他说:“中国最近通过了比我们更全面的国家安全审查,他们可能很快就会发现,一些规模较小的美国IT公司必须受到严格限制。”

“The point of this would be to frighten bigger U.S. firms and have them lobby the administration.”

“这么做的目的是吓唬美国的大公司,让它们游说政府。”

The executive order authorizes the Commerce Department, with the consultation of other agencies, to block U.S. businesses from transactions of information and communications technology or services from a “foreign adversary” that poses an “unacceptable risk” to U.S. national security. Officials said the Commerce Department would have 150 days to develop implementation rules, although interim procedures are expected.

这项行政命令授权商务部在与其他机构磋商的情况下,阻止美国企业与对美国国家安全构成“无法接受的风险”的“外国对手”进行信息和通信技术或服务的交易。官员表示,商务部将有150天的时间制定实施细则,但预计会有临时程序。

The Commerce Department rules would be retroactive to the date of Trump’s executive order.

商务部的规定将追溯至特朗普发布行政命令之日。

Under existing law, the U.S. government can block foreign firms from acquiring American technology firms, and with China in mind, Congress recently expanded this authority. Trump’s order significantly adds to the government’s toolbox.

根据现行法律,美国政府可以阻止外国公司收购美国科技公司,考虑到中国,国会最近扩大了这一权力。特朗普的命令大大增加了政府的筹码。

“It is striking in how broad it is,” said Doug Brake, a broadband policy expert at the Information Technology and Innovation Foundation, a nonpartisan think tank. He noted that the impact of the order would depend on how the Commerce Department implements this new power.

无党派智库信息技术与创新基金会(Information Technology and Innovation Foundation)宽带政策专家布雷克(Doug Brake)说,“它的覆盖面之广令人震惊。”他指出,这项命令的影响将取决于美国商务部如何实施这项新权力。

“So much rides on the processes Commerce sets up, how they do risk analysis of what can be allowed and what cannot,” he said.

他表示:“这在很大程度上取决于商业所建立的流程,以及它们如何对什么可以、什么不可以进行风险分析。”

The Trump administration, with bipartisan support in Congress, considers China a top strategic adversary and threat to America’s security and economic interests — and technology is a major battleground in this rivalry.

在国会两党议员的支持下,特朗普政府认为中国是美国最大的战略对手,对美国安全和经济利益构成威胁。

Against that backdrop, the White House has stepped up its rhetoric and moves to isolate Huawei and other Chinese telecom firms.

在这种背景下,白宫加强了措辞,并采取行动孤立华为和其他中国电信公司。

Although U.S. officials have offered no public evidence of malicious code or so-called back doors in Huawei equipment, they argue that its products can’t be trusted because Beijing could at any time order Chinese companies to do its bidding.

虽然美国官员没有公开证据显示华为设备存在恶意代码或所谓后门,但他们认为,华为的产品不可信,因为北京方面可以随时命令中国企业竞标。

The Pentagon already has moved to block sales of smartphones made by Huawei and ZTE, another Chinese firm, at its retail stores in military bases. And last year’s Defense Department appropriations measure threatened to cut off federal funds to universities using components made by Huawei, prompting UC Berkeley, Stanford University and many other schools to sever new research partnerships with Huawei.

五角大楼已经采取行动,禁止华为和另一家中国公司中兴通讯在其军事基地的零售店销售智能手机。去年,美国国防部的拨款法案威胁要切断联邦政府对使用华为制造的零部件的大学的资助,这促使加州大学伯克利分校(UC Berkeley)、斯坦福大学(Stanford University)和许多其他学校切断了与华为的新研究合作伙伴关系。

Huawei also faces charges of stealing trade secrets from T-Mobile. Meng and Huawei have denied all charges.

华为还面临窃取T-Mobile商业机密的指控。孟和华为否认了所有指控。

The company has fought back in recent months, filing a civil lawsuit in Canada and publicly denouncing Meng’s detention as politically motivated and a violation of her rights.

最近几个月,该公司进行了反击,在加拿大提起民事诉讼,并公开谴责拘留孟被是出于政治动机,侵犯了她的权利。

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