乐观地看待未来也能抵御精神障碍疾病,已被长达18年研究证实, -- ScienceDaily。
Looking on the bright side also acts as a safeguard, according to 18-year study -- ScienceDaily
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2020-01-10 06:12
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People who don't give up on their goals (or who get better over time at not giving up on their goals) and who have a positive outlook appear to have less anxiety and depression and fewer panic attacks, according to a study of thousands of Americans over the course of 18 years. Surprisingly, a sense of control did not have an effect on the mental health of participants across time.

对数千名美国人长达18年试验研究发现,那些长期坚持自己生活目标(在时间长河中从不放弃自己理想)和生活乐观的人似乎很少罹患抑郁、焦虑和恐慌症。令人惊讶的是,受试招募者坚持自己追求没有影响他们心理健康。  

The study was published by the American Psychological Association in the Journal of Abnormal Psychology.

这篇由美国心理学会撰写的研究论文发表在“变态心理学杂志(Journal of Abnormal Psychology)”上。

"Perseverance cultivates a sense of purposefulness that can create resilience against or decrease current levels of major depressive disorder, generalized anxiety disorder and panic disorder," said Nur Hani Zainal, MS, from The Pennsylvania State University and lead author of the study. "Looking on the bright side of unfortunate events has the same effect because people feel that life is meaningful, understandable and manageable."

研究论文主要作者、宾夕法尼亚州立大学的Nur Hani Zainal说:“人生有目标才会有奋斗,才能防御与减少抑郁、广泛性焦虑障碍和恐慌症等疾病侵蚀。乐观地对待不幸事件也有同样收效,它会让我们更好理解和驾驭自己生活。”

Depression, anxiety and panic disorders are common mental health disorders that can be chronic and debilitating and put a person's physical health and livelihood at risk, according to Zainal and her co-author, Michelle G. Newman, PhD, also of The Pennsylvania State University.

Zainal和宾夕法尼亚州立大学同事、论文合作者Michelle G. Newman博士认为,抑郁、焦虑和恐慌症是造成身体虚弱的常见慢性精神疾病,严重危害身体健康和人的正常生活。

"Often, people with these disorders are stuck in a cycle of negative thought patterns and behaviors that can make them feel worse," said Newman. "We wanted to understand what specific coping strategies would be helpful in reducing rates of depression, anxiety and panic attacks."

Newman说:“有这些精神障碍患者会周期性地出现悲观思维和行为,消极厌世。我们应想法采取措施降低抑郁、焦虑和恐慌症发病率。”

Zainal and Newman used data from 3,294 adults who were studied over 18 years. The average age of participants was 45, nearly all were white and slightly fewer than half were college-educated. Data were collected three times, in 1995 to 1996, 2004 to 2005 and 2012 to 2013. At each interval, participants were asked to rate their goal persistence (e.g., "When I encounter problems, I don't give up until I solve them"), self-mastery (e.g., "I can do just anything I really set my mind to") and positive reappraisal (e.g., "I can find something positive, even in the worst situations"). Diagnoses for major depressive, anxiety and panic disorders were also collected at each interval.

Zainal和Newman历经18年研究详细分析了3,294成人数据,他们平均年龄45岁,几乎全是白人,将近一半人受过高等教育。数据分析有三个阶段:1995年-1996年;2004年-2005年;2012年 -2013年。研究人员在每个阶段都会要求招募对象评估自己目标坚持程度(如“我遇到麻烦但能解决它,我不会放弃”)、自己控制能力(如:“我会坚持做完我想要做的事”)和对自己的评价(如:“我会找到正确方法,即使形势不利”)。与其同时,研究人员收集了多数人在每个阶段的抑郁、焦虑和恐慌症诊断资料。

People who showed more goal persistence and optimism during the first assessment in the mid-1990s had greater reductions in depression, anxiety and panic disorders across the 18 years, according to the authors.

论文作者说,参与1995-1996第一次自我评估为有很好目标持久性和生活乐观的招募对象,18年来很少出现抑郁、焦虑障碍和恐慌症。

And throughout those years, people who began with fewer mental health problems showed more increased perseverance toward life goals and were better at focusing on the positive side of unfortunate events, said Zainal.

Zainal说,研究表明心理健康问题少的人通常有明确生活目标,能妥当对待和处理不幸事件。

"Our findings suggest that people can improve their mental health by raising or maintaining high levels of tenacity, resilience and optimism," she said. "Aspiring toward personal and career goals can make people feel like their lives have meaning. On the other hand, disengaging from striving toward those aims or having a cynical attitude can have high mental health costs."

“我们研究发现,乐观生活态度、不屈不挠精神和自身适应能力能防御心理障碍疾病。”她说。 “追求个人事业会使自己感到生活的意义。相反,没有生活目标和愤世嫉俗的人,可能会出现严重的精神健康问题。”

Unlike in previous research, Zainal and Newman did not find that self-mastery, or feeling in control of one's fate, had an effect on the mental health of participants across the 18-year period.

与之前研究结果不同,Zainal和Newman发现能自我控制即有自控感的人,在长达18年期间内没有影响他们心理健康。

"This could have been because the participants, on average, did not show any changes in their use of self-mastery over time," said Newman. "It is possible that self-mastery is a relatively stable part of a person's character that does not easily change."

Newman说:“这是因为招募参与者在整个过程中都一直自己掌控自己。自控是一个人比较稳定性格,一般不会改变。”

The authors believe their findings will be beneficial for psychotherapists working with clients dealing with depression, anxiety and panic disorders.

作者相信,他们的研究发现有助于心理治疗师开创新疗法防御抑郁、焦虑和恐慌症疾病。

"Clinicians can help their clients understand the vicious cycle caused by giving up on professional and personal aspirations. Giving up may offer temporary emotional relief but can increase the risk of setbacks as regret and disappointment set in," said Zainal. "Boosting a patient's optimism and resilience by committing to specific courses of actions to make dreams come to full fruition despite obstacles can generate more positive moods and a sense of purpose."

“医生可以劝告患者理解如果放弃个人职业追求必然引起精神失调恶性循环。放弃追求也许能暂时告慰自己情绪,临时缓解症状,但带来的事业挫折风险,给自己留下遗憾和悔恨。”Zainal说。 “提高患者乐观生活适应能力,让他们树立生活理想,在困境下实现自己梦想,以良好心态和远大目标迎接未来。”

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