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臭虫的生命周期是怎么样的?

What Is the Life Cycle of a Bed Bug?
臭虫的生命周期是怎么样的?
533字
2019-05-10 17:57
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火星译客

The bed bug life cycle has several stages, but it only takes about 37 days for this pest to go from egg to adulthood.

臭虫的生命要经历几个阶段,但是对于这种害虫来说,从虫卵到成年的过程仅经历了37天。

Life Cycle of the Bed Bug

To defeat the enemy, you must understand its ways: The ability to recognize eggs, nymphs, and adult bed bugs during any of their five developmental life stages is indispensable for identifying and controlling them.

为了打败敌人,你必须要了解它的样子:具有识别其处于虫卵、幼虫,成年臭虫的五个发育阶段中任何一个阶段的能力,对于识别和控制臭虫来说是必不可少的。

Bed bug eggs

臭虫卵

The bed bug life cycle begins like that of most insects—with an egg. Bed bugs will only romance to fertilize eggs after a blood meal. They meet back up at their harborage (a community of bed bugs) and mating begins. According to the research of Dini Miller, PhD, at Virginia Tech, bed bug procreation is a brutal business: “The male pushes his paramere [reproductive organ] through the female’s body wall,” Dr. Miller says. “She does kind of have a receptacle for his paramere—called the spermalege—but he still wounds her in the process of ‘traumatic insemination.'” She then lays eggs and, six to nine days later, baby bed bugs hatch. Check out what bed bug eggs look like so you can find and eliminate infestations faster.

臭虫生命的开始和大多数昆虫一样------虫卵。臭虫只有在吸饱了血之后才会浪漫的想要让卵受精。它们在其藏身之处(一群臭虫)的后面见面并且交配。根据弗吉尼亚理工学院Dini Miller博士的研究,臭虫繁殖是一项残忍的事:“雄性臭虫推着它的生殖器官穿破雌性臭虫的身体。”Miller博士说:“雌性臭虫也为雄性臭虫的生殖器官准备了一个容器------叫做精子囊,但这种”创伤性受精“在交配的过程中仍然伤害了雌性臭虫。”然后雌性臭虫开始产卵,6--9天之后,臭虫就孵化了。了解清楚臭虫卵的样子你就可以更快的发现和消除虫害。

Nymphs

若虫

There’s no time for mom and nymph—or instar—to bond: After hatching, a nymph must find a host (you) and get some blood to grow into its next stage of life. This first-stage nymph is particularly vulnerable; because of its size (just 1.5 millimeters), it can’t travel as far as older nymphs to find a host. If the nymph is successful, the meal will also help it molt (shed its exoskeleton). Eggs and molted skins are signs of bed bugs, but here’s what else you should be looking for.

没有时间或龄期给臭虫母亲和若虫去联络:虫卵孵化之后,若虫必须找到一个寄主(你)吸一些血来使自己向下个阶段成长。处于第一阶段的若虫非常的脆弱,因为它的大小只有1.5毫米,它们不能像稍大一点的若虫那样可以历经跋涉去寻找宿主。如果它成功了这顿饭将有助于它蜕皮(脱去外骨骼)。虫卵和蜕掉的外骨骼是臭虫的征兆,也是你应该寻找的其他的东西。

Nymph life

若虫期

In this early stage of the bed bug life cycle, the clock is ticking for these tiny nymphs to find a blood meal. “A first-stage instar bed bug can only go an average of 20 days without feeding before it starts to die of dehydration,” says Miller. There are a total of five nymph (instar) stages, and the bugs must keep feeding throughout.

在臭虫生命周期的最初阶段,留给这些弱小的若虫去寻找一顿血液大餐的时间并不宽裕,Miller说:”在没有食物补给的情况下,处于第一龄期的臭虫在它们开始死于脱水之前平均有20天的时间去寻找它们的食物。“ 若虫阶段一共有5个龄期,臭虫必须保证在这个过程中始终有食物供给。
 

“For bed bugs, blood meals help them with moisture,” explains Jody Green, PhD, an urban entomologist at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln. “Being tucked in crevices under optimal temperatures of 70 to 90 degrees helps, too. This is why it’s hard to say how long they can live without a blood meal in real-life situations compared to laboratory settings where the climate is often controlled.” Here are pictures of bed bugs in and outside of the lab.

内布拉斯加州大学林肯分校的城市昆虫学家Jody Green博士解释说:“血餐能够帮助臭虫保持水分。蜷缩在处于21℃----32℃的最佳温度的裂缝里也能有所帮助。这就是与控制环境的实验室相比,很难说在现实生活中在没有血餐的情况下它们能活多久的原因。”这就是实验室内外的臭虫照片。

Adult bed bugs

成年臭虫

With each stage of the bed bug life cycle, a bed bug grows about another half millimeter, reports the Environmental Protection Agency. After the fifth instar stage, the insect becomes a full-fledged adult bed bug of about five millimeters—and it’s ready to mate. How long bed bugs live is still a mystery, says Miller. She says the most recent research is from well-fed bed bugs in labs with optimal temperatures, where they live between 99 and 300 days. In your home, with varying temperature and humidity, the lifespan is bound to be different—but the causes of bed bugs remain consistent.

环境保护局报道说,在臭虫生命周期的每个阶段,它们大约都能成长半毫米。在第五阶段之后,这昆虫就已经蜕变成了一只完全成熟的5毫米长的成年臭虫----并且准备好了交配。Miller说:“臭虫能活多久仍然是个谜。”她说,最新的研究是通过实验室最佳温度下喂养的臭虫进行的,它们活了99到300天。在你家里,随着温度和湿度的变化,臭虫的寿命必然会有所不同,但是产生臭虫的原因却是相同的。

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