‘Capernaum’ Review: A Heartbreaking and Defiant Look at a Boy’s Life in Beirut
《迦百农》(何以为家)影评:透视一个贝鲁特男孩令人心碎的生活
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2019-05-10 18:37
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“Capernaum,” Nadine Labaki’s hectic and heartbreaking new film, borrows its name from an ancient city condemned to hell, according to the Book of Matthew, by Jesus himself. The word has since become a synonym for chaos, and modern Beirut as captured by Ms. Labaki’s camera is a teeming vision of the inferno, a place without peace, mercy or order.

纳丁·拉巴基的新电影《迦百农》充满着焦灼和心碎。片名取自《马太福音》中记载的一座城市,此城应验耶稣的预言而灭亡。自此,迦百农成为混乱的代名词,预兆拉巴基女士拍摄的现代贝鲁特是一个宛如地狱的城市,一个没有和平,怜悯和秩序的地方。

Its crowded streets and makeshift dwellings hold endless desperation, but the movie is too busy, too angry and too absorbing — too exciting, you might say — to succumb to despair. The sources of its remarkable energy are Ms. Labaki’s curiosity and the charisma of her young star, Zain al Rafeea, who plays a boy named Zain.

它拥挤的街道和随处可见的临时住所充斥着无尽的绝望,但电影节奏太快,太令人愤怒,又太吸引人 ——你可能会说太令人兴奋——因而又无法局限于绝望。这惊人的能量来源于拉巴基女士的好奇心和她如有神助的小明星赞恩(赞恩·阿尔·拉菲亚),即片中小男孩赞恩的扮演者。

Zain is around 12, though his precise age is unknown to him, his parents or the Lebanese authorities. In some ways, he looks much younger, a skinny urchin with big eyes and an air of worried determination. But he also seems older than his years — hard-working and resilient, with an impressive command of profanity and a steely defiance that can back down grown men.

赞恩大约12岁,他不知道自己确切的年龄,他的父母或黎巴嫩当局也不知道。在某些方面,他看起来更年轻,一个瘦削的顽童,睁大的双眼坚毅又似乎充满忧愁。某些方面,他看起来又更成熟——拼命工作,能屈能伸,语出惊人的咒骂和坚韧不拔的反抗远远超出了成年人。

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电影的一幕。

When we first meet Zain, he is in jail and then in court. He has brought suit against his mother (Kawthar al Haddad) and father (Fadi Kamel Youssef) for bringing him into the world and failing to care for him or their other children. The courtroom scenes that frame the tale of Zain’s ordeal at home and his adventures once he runs away serve a few distinct purposes. They offer a measure of comfort — a guarantee that whatever horrors he endures, our hero will at least survive — and also a dose of semi-satirical social critique.

当我们第一次见到赞恩时,他在监狱里,然后被带上了法庭。他对他的母亲(卡萨尔·艾尔·哈达德)和父亲(法蒂·贾麦尔·优素福)提起了诉讼,控告他们把他带到这个世界却不好好照顾他或他们的其他孩子。审讯场景中叙述出的赞恩在家中的悲惨生活和他离家出走之后的一系列冒险有着一些不同的目的。它们提供了一定程度的安慰——保证了我们的小英雄无论有着怎样骇人的遭遇都能生存下来——同时也带着一些讽刺批判了这个社会。

The kindly, avuncular judge (played by an actual retired Lebanese jurist named Elias Khoury) and the officious lawyers representing Zain and his parents speak a language of reasoned inquiry and civic enlightenment. Their rhetorical pomp is meant to show the benevolent, problem-solving authority of the state, which has the power to discipline and protect its citizens. Everything that happens outside the court makes a mockery of this assertion.

善良,慈祥的法官(由埃利亚斯·库利扮演,现实中确是一位黎巴嫩退休法官)和代理赞恩及其父母的非正式律师们用的是一种常理询问和民众教化的语言。他们的修辞盛宴旨在表明国家权威机构的仁慈和解决问题的能力,显示其有能力训导和保护其公民。在法庭外发生的一切都是对这种说法的嘲弄。

At first, Zain finds relief from his disorderly home in the routines of work and the company of his siblings, especially his sister Sahar. He is in constant motion, running errands for shopkeepers in his neighborhood and helping his parents with their almost-legal and brazenly criminal enterprises. When he fails to prevent them from marrying off Sahar, who is 11, to their landlord’s son, Zain flees. He seeks refuge in a shabby amusement park, and finds it with Rahil (Yordanos Shiferaw), an African refugee who lives in a nearby shantytown with her toddler son, Jonas (Boluwatife Treasure Bankole).

起初,赞恩面对混乱的家庭,从他的日常工作中,从兄弟姐妹特别是妹妹萨哈的陪伴中,找到了些许慰藉。他不停地忙碌,为他附近的店主跑腿,帮助他的父母和他们那看似合法却几近犯罪的企业。当他无法阻止父母将11岁的萨哈嫁给他们房东的儿子时,赞恩逃走了。他流落在一个破旧的游乐园,在这里遇到了拉希尔(约丹诺斯·希费罗),一个非洲难民,和她蹒跚学步的儿子乔纳斯(博鲁瓦蒂夫·特雷杰·班科尔)一起住在附近的棚户区。

Zain looks after Jonas while Rahil, who is working illegally with a forged permit, scrubs floors and hauls garbage. The precariousness of their household is agonizing, even as the tenderness that holds it together is touching and understated. There is also an element of comedy in the spectacle of Zain and Jonas as they make their way through the chaos, the younger child nestled into a cooking pot mounted on a skateboard that his caretaker pulls along through the streets.

拉希尔只能使用伪造的证件非法工作,在游乐园擦洗地板,清除垃圾,工作期间赞恩照顾乔纳斯。尽管三人之间维系家庭的亲情令人感动,但这个家面临的各种困境始终令人痛苦。期间,当赞恩和乔纳斯试图穿越一切混乱时,最喜剧的一幕上演:年幼的乔纳斯坐在一口烹饪锅里,锅架在一块滑板上,赞恩拉着滑板义无反顾走向远方。

Zain al Rafeea’s charm and magnetism in the role of Zain amount to a kind of moral authority.CreditChristopher Aoun/Sony Pictures Classics

赞恩在角色中的魅力汇集成了一种道德权威

You might see a trace of Huck Finn in Zain — a wily, footloose boy whose wanderings illuminate the absurdities and horrors of the larger world. He’s also, in circumstance if not in attitude, like a Dickens hero navigating a metropolis where poverty and cruelty threaten to overwhelm kindness and fellow feeling.

你可能会在赞恩的身上看到一丝哈克贝利·费恩的影子——一个鬼灵精怪,自由自在的男孩,他的游历彰显了这个广阔世界的荒谬和可怖。如果不看态度,他也像狄更斯笔下的某个英雄,在一个贫穷和残忍要压倒善良和同情的都市中穿梭。

That they don’t quite succeed is testament to the strength of Labaki’s humanist convictions and also to her instincts as a storyteller. Her two previous features, “Caramel” and “Where Do We Go Now,” examine aspects of Lebanese life that are somewhat less harsh than the ones depicted in “Capernaum” with a similarly acute sense of the injustices and contradictions that plague the country. They are also full of warmth and humor, which this film insists are never absent, even in dire circumstances.

影片欠缺之处在于对拉巴基的人文主义信念和叙事直觉的渲染不够突出。她之前的两部作品, “焦糖”和“吾等何处去”,都审视了黎巴嫩生活的各个方面,同样都注重于蔓延在这个国家的矛盾和不公正,但都不如“迦百农”描述得那么苛刻。此外,这些作品中都充满了温暖和幽默,“迦百农”在极端困难的情势下依旧坚持做到了这一点。

Which is not to say that anything here is sugar-coated. The buying and selling of children is contemplated with chilling matter-of-factness, and the world Zain inhabits is one where human bonds have become brutally transactional. Forced to become a shrewd materialist — in his interactions with adults he is almost always trying to make a deal or work an angle — he somehow clings to a sense of honor and a capacity for empathy.

这并不是说片中的事物都是糖衣炮弹。贩卖儿童的行为以令人不寒而栗的真相表现出来,而在赞恩生活的世界里,人与人之间的关联已经纯粹交易化。虽然赞恩不得已成为了一个物质主义者——他与成人打交道时似乎总是在做交易或者找角度——他却始终坚持维护了自己的荣誉感和同情心。

Does Zain’s goodness arise from childish innocence or a magically saintly disposition? In al Rafeea, a Syrian refugee with no training as an actor, Labaki has found a performer who renders such questions moot. This is a matter less of authenticity than of charisma. His charm and magnetism amount to a kind of moral authority. You don’t just root for Zain or believe in him: You trust him.

赞恩的善良是出于儿童的幼稚纯真还是神奇的性格塑造?拉巴基找到了一个让此类问题失去实际意义的表演者,即阿尔·拉菲亚,一个没有接受过任何演员训练的叙利亚难民。相比真实性,这更多是一个魅力的问题。阿尔·拉菲亚的魅力和吸引力最终汇集成了一种道德权威。你不仅仅是支持赞恩或相信他:你信任他。

Rahil sees that. Jonas does too. And “Capernaum,” a sprawling tale wrenched from real life, goes beyond the conventions of documentary or realism into a mode of representation that doesn’t quite have a name. It’s a fairy tale and an opera, a potboiler and a news bulletin, a howl of protest and an anthem of resistance.

拉希尔看到了这一点。乔纳斯也是。“迦百农”是一部从现实生活中挣脱和蔓延出来的庞大故事,它超越了纪录片或现实主义的惯例,形成了一种尚没有名字的代表主义。这是一则童话和一部歌剧,一篇粗犷的作品和一条新闻的简报,一段抵|制的嘶吼和一首反抗的赞歌。

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