日本投降纪念日之时,战争历史问题仍旧敏感
On anniversary of Japan’s surrender, issue of war history remains touchy
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2018-11-29 11:57
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火星译客

Because of the war criminals enshrined there, and because of an on-site museum that plays down the brutality of Japan’s Imperial Army, Yasukuni has long served as ground zero in Asia’s vexing debate about decades-old history.

在日本,由于供奉着战犯,并且一家遗址博物馆又刻意淡化日本帝国主义军队(Japan’s Imperial Army)的残暴罪行,靖国神社(Yasukuni)再次激起了亚洲人民对尘封了几十年历史的愤怒。

Leaders in China and South Korea believe Japan has never made proper amends for invading and occupying their territories in the run-up to World War II. Conservatives in Japan, Abe among them, tend to view that era as a high point of Japanese glory and ambition — all while rationalizing the army’s systematic use of sex slaves.

中韩领导人认为,在日本二战投降纪念日前夕,日本并未对自己在二战时期对其他国家的侵略与野蛮占领做出任何合理的解释。尽管很多人质疑日本军队在前线系统性地使用性奴这一事件,但安倍(Abe)领导的日本保守党越加地认为二战时期的日本军国主义,是日本人民荣耀和野心的高度写照。

How Abe addresses Japan’s history, analysts say, will largely define relations with China and South Korea in coming years. On Thursday, the 68th anniversary of Japan’s World War II surrender, Abe appeared to search for a narrow middle ground, trying to demonstrate his personal support for the shrine without causing diplomatic damage.

安倍究竟该如何就日本历史问题做出解释呢?一些分析人士认为,在未来几年内,安倍的解释将很大程度上决定日本与中韩之间的关系。8月15日,也就是本周星期四,是日本二战投降68周年纪念日,安倍似乎在寻求狭小的中间立场,也就是说安倍在表露自己个人对神社的支持的同时又不至带来外交损害。

Abe has spoken admiringly of Yasukuni many times, and he visited it in October, two months before his election as prime minister. But a return to the shrine as Japan’s leader would have sparked anger not just from Seoul and Beijing but also from Washington, which is pressing Abe to help reduce regional tensions.

安倍多次声称,他对靖国神社充满敬意。去年十月份,也就是再次担任日本首相的前两个月,安倍还去参拜过靖国神社。作为日本领导人,参拜靖国神社不仅仅会让中韩两国愤怒,同时,也会让美国愤怒,美国就此发表声明称安倍正在制造地区的紧张局势。

Still, Abe made little headway with his show of relative restraint. Two of his cabinet ministers paid their respects at Yasukuni, as did dozens of lower-ranking lawmakers. A South Korean Foreign Ministry spokesman called those visits “deplorable,” adding that the shrine “glorifies the history of imperialistic invasion.” Meanwhile, China summoned the Japanese ambassador in Beijing to protest the visits.

但是,安倍在相对克制上仍然是毫无进展。和许多国会议员一样,他的两位阁僚也同样表示出了对靖国神社的崇敬。面对日本内阁成员这一举动,韩国外交部发言人称这种行为理应受到谴责,并认为靖国神社把军国主义侵略的历史作为了荣誉的象征。与此同时,中国召见了日本驻华大使,以此抗议日本内阁成员参拜靖国神社。

In Seoul, South Korean President Park Geun-hye, addressing the nation to mark its Liberation Day, said historical issues have cast a “dark shadow” over relations with Japan. “In the absence of courage enough to face the past,” Park said, “it will be difficult to build the trust necessary for our future.”

8月15日为韩国光复节(Liberation Day),韩国总统朴槿惠(Park Geun-hye)当天在首尔发表演讲称,日本对待历史问题的态度让日韩的外交关系蒙上了阴影。朴槿惠说:“日本缺乏正视历史的勇气,双方想要建立互信关系将会非常困难。

Park acknowledged, however, that many Japanese take issue with Abe’s historical narrative, viewing World War II and the period preceding it as exemplifying military ambition run amok.

朴槿惠同样认为,大部分日本民众并不认可安倍在历史问题上的看法。他们认为二战和二战前的日本是一个军事野心横行的国家。

One high-profile politician has already paid a price for controversial comments about the past. Osaka Mayor Toru Hashimoto, known for his nationalist views, said in May that the sex slaves — euphemistically called “comfort women” — who were forcibly recruited by Japanese occupation troops in China, Korea, the Philippines and other Asian nations were a “necessary” part of war. He was lambasted on Japanese Web sites and his party was trounced in upper-house elections in July, turning from a middling power into an afterthought.

备受瞩目的日本政治家桥下彻(Toru Hashimoto),已经为其在日本历史问题上做出的争议性言论付出了代价。二战时期日本侵略军强制性地从中国、朝鲜、菲律宾(Philippines)以及其他东南亚国家征召妇女入伍,这些妇女则成为为日本军人提供性服务的“慰安妇”。五月,以民族主义主张而闻名的桥下彻声称“慰安妇”在当时的情况下是必要的。桥下彻大放厥词,在日本互联网上招到了批评,并且他所在的政党在议会选举中也遭到了斥责。他的粗暴言论让其政党从中等实力政党变成了可鄙可憎的马后炮。

Abe has preserved his own popularity by focusing on economic issues during his nine months in office. Some analysts fear that, emboldened by his ruling party’s parliamentary victory last month, he might now be more willing to court controversy by talking about Japan’s past. If he does, it could further exacerbate tensions between South Korea and Japan, the United States’ two closest allies in the region, while complicating Washington-brokered attempts at military coordination.

安倍担任日本首相的九个月以来,着眼于日本经济发展,所以他在日本保持着一定的个人声望。一些分析人士担忧,安倍所领导的执政党七月在议会赢得胜利以来,便是底气十足。一些分析人士担忧,这样的安倍或将更乐于谈论日本的历史引来的争议。作为美国在这个区域内的两个亲密盟友,如果安倍这样做的话,便会加剧日韩的紧张局势,同时,也会让在军事合作上从中斡旋的美国难堪。

“The best that Japan and South Korea can arrange for now is a [verbal] cease-fire — no opening of these historical issues by Abe and instead focusing on positive areas of cooperation,” said Michael J. Green, senior vice president for Asia at the Center for Strategic and International Studies. “But there is no simple concluding arrangement that will make this go away.”

“就目前而言,最好的办法就是让日韩两国停止“口水战”。不要让安倍再开启这些历史争论,两国应该更加着眼于其他领域的积极合作关系”,国际战略研究中心(the Center for Strategic and International Studies)驻亚洲高级副总裁迈克尔·格林(Michael Green)说,“但是要真正意义上消除两国之间的矛盾,达成共识却非易事

In the past year, Japan’s relations with China and South Korea have sharply deteriorated, with historical differences at the root. Japan is locked into a naval cat-and-mouse game with China around a string of disputed islands. South Korea and Japan have their own territorial dispute, although it is far less volatile. Their relationship has suffered more from contentious rhetoric and symbolic gestures by politicians.

去年,日本与中韩之间的关系降至冰点,而矛盾的根源则是在历史问题上的不同认识。在一系列有争议的岛屿问题上,日本海军与中国玩起了“猫捉老鼠的游戏”。而日本与韩国则是在领土争端上产生争议。日本与中韩之间的发展关系越来越多的成为了政治家之间的口水战。

Both Abe and Park, who took office in February, are hemmed in by domestic skepticism. Polls suggest surging distrust between Japanese and South Koreans. Park and Abe have not held a summit or shown interest in doing so, breaking a tradition of meetings between Japanese and South Korean leaders soon after taking office. Park has proposed a multilateral dialogue for peace in northeast Asia while also taking swipes at Japan, calling it “blind to the past.”

安倍和朴槿惠都是在今年一月份就职的,都同样地受到了其国内民众的质疑。民意调查显示,日韩之间的不信任激增。朴槿惠与安倍既没有举行过一次首脑峰会,也没有表现出任何举行峰会的意愿,这打破了上任后举行日韩会晤的传统。朴槿惠提议在东北亚开启和平多边对话,并称日本对历史熟视无睹,应该进行严厉打击。

“If you close a door to a leader [like Abe] in a systematic way, how can you lead a so-called northeast Asian peace process?” said Bong Young-shik, a senior research fellow at the Asan Institute for Policy Studies in Seoul. “You can’t only deal with countries you like.”

“如果你系统性地对某位领导人(例如安倍)进行孤立,那么你将如何维持所谓的东北亚和平议程?”,首尔峨山政策研究所(the Asan Institute for Policy Studies in Seoul)高级研究员奉永植说,“你不能仅仅和那些你喜欢的国家搞好关系。”

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