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近代中西方交流中的语言问题研究

A Study of Language Problems in Sino-Western Communication in Modern Times
近代中西方交流中的语言问题研究
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2019-09-12 21:09
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近代中西方交流中的语言问题研究

Chapter One  Introduction

第一章 简介

1.1 Background of the Study

1.1 研究背景

In modern times, the West and China meet many language problems in their communication. As a lingua franca in the communities of Western traders founded in the ports of Chinese coast and some inland markets, CPE plays a fundamental role in the development of China-West contacts. To some extent, it also reflects the vicissitudes of the history of Chinese society. Therefore, it is meaningful to conduct more research on it. However, in academic circles, although it has been acknowledged that there is an indispensible relationship between CPE and pidgins and that CPE has aroused attention among scholars at home and abroad, little has been written on this topic, especially in China. Consequently, it is necessary to carry out further research on the evolution, true meaning and influence of CPE.

在近代,中西方在交流中遇见了许多语言问题。中国洋泾浜英语作为建立在中国沿海港口和部分内陆市场的西方商人社区的通用语言,在中西交流的发展中发挥着基础性的作用。它在一定程度上也反映了中国社会历史的变迁。因此,对其进行更多的研究是有意义的。然而,虽然学术界已经认识到中国洋泾浜英语与皮钦语之间存在着不可或缺的关系,中国洋泾浜英语也已经引起了国内外学者的关注,但关于这一课题的研究却很少,尤其是在中国。因此,我们有必要对中国洋泾浜英语的演变、真正的意义和影响进行进一步的研究。

1.2 Significance of the Study

1.2 研究意义

First, it is true that all living languages are constantly changing and CPE is no exception. Conducting a study of it can help us deeply understand its impact on Chinese and English language and its practical functions in the development of Chinese society.

首先,所有现存的语言都在不断变化,中国洋泾浜英语也不例外。对它进行研究,可以帮助我们深刻理解它对汉语和英语的影响,以及它在中国社会发展中的实际作用。

Second, since CPE is a new language variety rather than broken English, conducting a study of its linguistic features and causes can offer certain historical and methodological references to modern linguists and educators.

其次,由于中国洋泾浜英语是一种新的语言变体,而不是支离破碎的英语,研究中国洋泾浜英语的语言特征和成因,可以为现代语言学家和教育工作者提供一定的历史和方法论参考。

Third, because CPE is a substantial part in the phylogeny of linguistics and the linguistic forces shaping pidgins are exceptional, conducting a study of it can offer valuable insights into the study of pidgins and bring about some advances in certain areas of applied and theoretical linguistics.

第三,由于中国洋泾浜英语是语言学发展史上的重要组成部分,而且塑造皮钦语的语言力量是具有独特性的,因此研究中国洋泾浜英语可以为皮钦语的研究提供有价值的见解,并在应用和理论语言学的某些领域取得一些进展。

1.3 Structure of the Study

1.3 研究结构

Chapter One introduces the background, significance, structure of the thesis. Chapter Two is the literature review including the research process of mixed languages and Chinese and overseas scholars’ research on CPE. The purpose of this chapter is to provide a theoretical framework for the thesis. Chapter Three is a simple introduction to pidgins and creoles. Chapter Four is a case study of CPE including its history, causes and learning approaches, characteristics, relations between interpreters, and its influences. Chapter Five will conclude the thesis with a summary and point out the limitations and implications of the thesis and directions of further research.

第一章介绍了本文的研究背景、意义和结构。第二章是文献综述,包括混合语言的研究过程和中外学者对中国洋泾浜英语的研究。本章的目的是为本文提供一个理论框架。第三章是对皮钦语和克里奥耳语的简单介绍。第四章是对中国洋泾浜英语的个案研究,包括中国洋泾浜英语的历史沿革、产生的原因和学习途径、特点、翻译之间的关系及其影响。第五章对本文进行了总结,指出了本文的局限性和意义以及进一步研究的方向。


 

Chapter Two  Literature Review

第二章 文献综述

2.1 Theories of the Study of Mixed Languages

2.1 混合语言的研究理论

2.1.1 Monogenesis Theory

2.1.1 单源论

Monogenesis was first put forward by Whinnom (1956). When he was doing a research of Philippine-Spanish creole and Indonesian-Portuguese creole, he found that there were a lot of similarities in lexical and syntactic structures between them with the fact that the superstrate and substrate language were different, which had no readymade explanation. He advocated that the former was evolved from the latter. In other words, when Indonesian-Portuguese creole spreaded to Philippines, vocabularies derived from Portuguese were replaced by Spanish, but the original syntax and phrase structure were retained. Further, he speculated that Indonesian-Portuguese creole was evolved in the same way, deriving from the “lingua franca” popular in the Middle Ages of Mediterranean.

单源论是由Whinnom(1956)首次提出的。在对菲律宾-西班牙克里奥耳语和印度尼西亚-葡萄牙克里奥耳语进行研究时,他发现这两种语言在词汇和句法结构上有很多相似之处,而其上层语言和下层语言是不同的,没有现成的解释。他主张前者是由后者演变而来的。换句话说,当印度尼西亚-葡萄牙克里奥而语传播到菲律宾时,源自葡萄牙语的词汇被西班牙语所取代,但原有的句法和短语结构得以保留。此外,他推测印度尼西亚-葡萄牙克里奥耳语也是以同样的方式进化而来的,起源于地中海中世纪流行的“混合语言”。

Monogenesis got the support of many people after standing out in a seminar in the University of the West Indies in 1959. At and after the seminar, a common view that most pidgins and creoles had the same origin was formed: they were derived from pidgins based on the superstrate of Portuguese in the east coast of Africa in the sixteenth century which were derived from lingua franca. As a result, lingua franca was the origin of all mixed languages.

1959年,在西印度大学的一次研讨会上,单源论的出现得到了许多人的支持。在研讨会上和会后,形成了一种普遍的观点,认为大多数皮钦语和克里奥耳语起源相同:它们是在16世纪非洲东海岸葡萄牙语的基础上衍生而来的皮钦语。因此,通用语是所有混合语言的起源。

2.1.2 Simplification Theory

2.1.2 简化理论

Simplification theory is sometimes called “baby talk theory” that means that pidgins are simplified superstrate language. It is in essence similar to the language used by parents when talking to children. Visibly, it is easy to understand. For example, such key features of pidgins as the lack of linking verb, morphological changes and complex syntactic structures can be found from early childhood language.

简化理论有时被称为“婴儿说话理论”,这意味着皮钦语是一种简化版的上层语言。它在本质上类似于父母与孩子交谈时使用的语言。显然,它很容易被理解。例如,从幼儿语言中可以发现皮钦语的一些关键特征,如缺乏动词连接、词形变化以及句法结构简单等。

Simplification was first brought up as a theoretic mechanism by Bloomfield (1933). With the development of language acquisition research in the 1970s, a growing number of scholars supported this theory. Besides, some scholars even applied it in the research of Second Language Acquisition.

简化理论最早是由布卢姆菲尔德(1933)提出的一种理论机制。随着20世纪70年代语言习得研究的发展,越来越多的学者支持这一理论。此外,一些学者甚至将其应用于二语习得研究。

2.1.3 Language Universals Theory

2.1.3 语言共性理论

Language universals theory advocates that mixed language represents the essence of human language. And human language is the same in nature and is governed by general syntactic rules. Differences of various kinds of natural languages come from non-essential peripheral grammar or change in license within the parameters of universal grammar while mixed languages sublate peripheral grammar and leave only universal grammar. That’s why there are so many similarities among various kinds of mixed languages.

语言共性理论认为,混合语言代表了人类语言的本质。人类语言本质上是相同的,受一般句法规则的支配。各种自然语言的差异来自于非本质的外围语法或在通用语法参数范围许可内的变化,而混合语言扬弃外围语法,只留下通用语法。这就是为什么不同种类的混合语言之间有如此多的相似之处。

There are two schools of this theory. One explains that the formation of pidgins is with universal grammar and advocates that in the process of the formation of pidgins, people just choose the universal grammar to use because that’s what can be accepted by everyone. The other advocates that pidgins are too rough and only creoles are steady enough to show the characteristics of universal grammar and that people are born with linguistic competence, the universal grammar. In other words, creoles are in the early stages of the development of human language and they don’t have peripheral grammar. That’s why all creoles are similar in exception to vocabularies.

这一理论有两派。一种观点是,皮钦语的形成是具有通用语法的,主张在皮钦语形成的过程中,人们只是选择使用通用语法,因为通用语法是每个人都能接受的。另一种观点认为,皮钦语结构太过粗糙,只有克里奥耳语足够稳定,才能表现出通用语法的特征,而人天生就有语言能力,即通用语法。换句话说,克里奥耳语处于人类语言发展的早期阶段,没有外围语法。这就是为什么除词汇外,所有克里奥耳语都是相似的。

2.1.4 Substrate Influence Theory

2.1.4下层语言影响理论

As a theoretical framework, substrate influence is a theory used to explain the origin of mixed language. Most scholars just recognize that there are some substrate language features in mixed language, but Taylor (1971, 1977) held that effects of substrate language could be used to explain the similarities among some mixed languages. He indicated that there were many similarities in creoles’ structure in the Caribbean coast and most of these similarities could be found in Yoruba in the coast of west African. Therefore, if we assume that some members of Kwa which are similar to Yoruba are the common substrate language of Caribbean creoles, then we could offer a reasonable explanation for these similarities.

作为一种理论框架,下层语言影响理论是一种用来解释混合语言起源的理论。大多数学者只是认识到混合语言中存在着一些下层语言的特征,但是泰勒(1971, 1977)认为下层语言的作用可以用来解释一些混合语言之间的相似性。他指出加勒比海岸克里奥耳语的结构有许多相似之处,其中大部分相似之处可以在西非海岸的约鲁巴语中找到。因此,如果我们假设一些与约鲁巴语相似的克瓦语族中的语言和加勒比克里奥耳语相似的话,那么我们就可以对这些相似性做出合理的解释。

2.1.5 Comprehensive Theory

2.1.5 综合理论

The theories mentioned above mainly occurred from the 1960s to 1970s. From the late 1980s, researchers studying mixed language seemed less rigid and most of them tended not to deny or adhere to a certain theory but learned widely from others, which accelerated the appearance of comprehensive theory. They advocated that in the process of the formation of pidgins, people with superstrate and substrate language both simplified their languages to communicate. And in the process of communication, those acceptable to both sides were retained and became pidgins known to us today.

上述理论主要于20世纪60年代至70年代提出。从20世纪80年代末开始,研究混合语言的研究者似乎不那么死板,他们大多不再否认或坚持某种理论,而是广泛地向他人学习,这加速了综合理论的出现。他们主张,在皮钦语的形成过程中,操上层语言和下层语言的语言使用者都简化了他们的语言进行交流。在交流的过程中,双方都能接受的东西被保留下来,变成了今天我们所知道的皮钦语。

With the development of human society and the study of linguistics, comprehensive theory might have a more promising future.

随着人类社会的发展和语言学的研究,综合理论可能会有更广阔的前景。

2.2 The Study of Mixed Languages

2.2混合语言的研究

2.2.1 The Study of Mixed Languages in an Early Age

2.2.1早期混合语言的学习

In modern world history, most mixed languages are produced with the expansion of colonialism in which the language of colonial powers is referred as superstrate language, which creates an illusion that all mixed languages are varieties of European languages. Besides, because of the contradictions between colonialists and colonized people, simple language problems are always tend to be mixed with social and political issues, which makes many Europeans see pidgins and creoles as ruined European languages and colonists deem colonized people retard who are unable to learn the language of the colonial master.

在世界近代史上,大多数混合语言都是伴随着殖民主义的扩张而产生的,殖民国家的语言被称为上层语言,这就造成了一种所有混合语言都是欧洲语言变体的错觉。此外,因为殖民者与殖民地人民之间的矛盾,简单的语言问题总是和社会和政治问题牵扯在一起,这使得许多欧洲人认为皮钦语和克里奥耳语是被破坏了的欧洲语言,而殖民者认为被殖民者是无法学习殖民者语言的智力低下者。

However, there were some scholars who had seen the special status of mixed language and done some researches with serious scientific attitude. Generally speaking, the first one to do such research is Van Name (1869-1870) who studied creole languages respectively based on French, Spanish, German and English, finding out a lot common points among them and pointing out that creoles were derived from pidgins.

然而,也有一些学者看到了混合语言的特殊地位,并以严肃的科学态度进行了一些研究。一般来说,最早进行这类研究的是Van Name(1869-1870),他分别以法语、西班牙语、德语和英语为基础研究了克里奥耳语,发现了克里奥耳语和这些语言之间的许多共同点,并指出克里奥耳语起源于皮钦语。

Until 1880s, some articles about mixed language appeared. German linguist Hugo Shuchardt made a summary of those articles and a deep research of creoles related to Portuguese, theoretically exploring the mechanism of formation and development of it for the first time.

直到19世纪80年代,一些关于混合语言的文章才出现。德国语言学家雨果·舒查特对这些文章进行了总结,并对与葡萄牙语相关的克里奥耳语进行了深入的研究,在理论上首次探索了克里奥耳语形成和发展的机制。

Until 1930s, the research center of mixed language transferred from Europe to America. After that, the research of it became on-the-spot investigation of America-creoles and pidgins. The analyses and researches based on the first-hand materials greatly promoted the development of mixed language study. However, it still didn’t form an independent discipline and even the research results were rarely known in the field of linguistics.

直到20世纪30年代,混合语言研究中心才从欧洲转移到美国。此后,对其研究成为对美国克里奥耳语和皮钦语的实地考察。基于第一手资料的分析和研究极大地促进了混合语言研究的发展。然而,混合语言研究仍然没有形成一个独立的学科,甚至对其的研究成果在语言学领域也很少为人所知。

During World War II, in the need of entering a global war, America enhanced the research and teaching of languages in the world, which promoted the development of linguistics and brought a new stage of mixed language study.

第二次世界大战期间,在全球战争的需要下,美国加强了对世界语言的研究和教学,促进了语言学的发展,带来了混合语言研究的新阶段。

2.2.2 The Study of Mixed Languages After 1950s

2.2.2 20世纪50年代以后的混合语言研究

From the 1950s, linguistics began to flourish and the research of mixed language had a further development. In1959, the scholars participated in a seminar of mixed language to discuss creoles and related linguistic issues. In the1960s, the study of it even had a foothold in higher education.

从20世纪50年代开始,语言学开始蓬勃发展,混合语言的研究得到了进一步的发展。1959年,学者们参加了混合语言研讨会,讨论克里奥耳语和相关的语言问题。在20世纪60年代,对其的研究甚至在高等教育中有了立足之地。

In the late1960s, there were upheavals in many countries and intense struggles among different ideologies. On the one hand, increasing awareness of national language promoted the development of mixed language research; on the other hand, ideological divides brought growing factionalism. From 1973, a group of mixed language experts published a research communication to make comprehensive reports on a variety of mixed language studies. In 1989, the Society of Pidgin and Creole Languages was established. Since then, the research of mixed language had become an indispensible part of international linguistics.

20世纪60年代末,许多国家发生了剧变,不同意识形态之间的斗争十分激烈。一方面,民族语言意识的提高促进了混合语言研究的发展;另一方面,意识形态的分歧带来了日益严重的派系斗争。从1973年起,一组混合语言专家发表了一篇研究通讯,对各种混合语言研究进行了全面的报道。1989年,皮钦语和克里奥耳语协会成立。自那以后,混合语言的研究就成为国际语言学不可或缺的一部分。

With further development of sociolinguistics and efforts of linguists, the last few years have seen increasingly intensive study of mixed languages all over the world, so that we have grasped much more information about them than before. For example, based on previous studies, Sarah G. Thomason (2001) proposed many refreshing original views. Raymond Hickey (2010) made a deeper exploration of mixed language from many aspects.

近年来,随着社会语言学的进一步发展和语言学家的努力,世界各国对混合语言的研究越来越深入,掌握的信息也越来越多。例如,莎拉 G. 托马森(2001)在前人研究的基础上提出了许多新颖的观点。雷德蒙·希基(2010)从多个方面对混合语言进行了更深入的探索。

The advancement of mixed language research reflects the growth of linguistics and the significance of such research. More and more scholars have realized that the formation and development of mixed language have provided a practical model of language evolution, and the research of it is likely to trigger a leap in the understanding of language nature. In other words, the future of mixed language research is promising.

混合语言研究的发展反映了语言学的发展及其意义。越来越多的学者认识到,混合语言的形成和发展提供了一种实用的语言演化模型,对其的研究很有可能造就对于语言本质认识上很大的提升。换句话说,混合语言研究的前景是光明的。

2.3 Chinese and Overseas Scholars’ Research on Chinese Pidgin English

2.3 中外学者对中国洋泾浜英语的研究

2.3.1 Studies in Materials and General Studies

2.3.1 材料研究和一般研究

In terms of quality and quantity, there is a big difference in the data collection and processing of CPE between Chinese and English literature.

在质与量上,中英文献在中国洋泾浜英语数据的收集与处理上存在较大差异。

For Chinese literature, there are only a few valuable materials finished in the Qing dynasty. For example, 张海鹏(1995:591) noted that there were more than hundreds of pieces of English reference materials in a piece of reading notes of a Huizhou merchant.

对于中国文学来说,清代完成的珍贵材料并不多。例如,张海鹏(1995:591)指出,一篇惠州商人的读书笔记里有上百篇英文参考资料。

In terms of research, before the 1980s, only Chen Yuan had done some involvements. 陈原(1979:53) referred CPE as “an extreme of language pollution”, which reflected the negative awareness of Chinese academic circle at that time.

在研究方面,20世纪80年代以前,只有陈原做过一些研究。陈原(1979:53)将中国洋泾浜英语称为“一种极端的语言污染”,这反映了当时中国学术界的消极意识。

After 1980s, evaluation and description of CPE increased and value evaluation began to shift towards academic evaluation. For example, 叶蜚声,徐通锵(1981) conducted a rather objective and accurate introduction; 季压西,陈伟民(2002) conducted a more systematical discussion about the history, features and impacts of CPE.

20世纪80年代以后,对中国洋泾浜英语的评价和描述有所增加,并开始从价值评价向学术评价转变。例如,叶蜚声,徐通锵(1981)进行了客观而准确的介绍;季压西,陈伟民(2002)进行了更多关于历史,中国洋泾浜英语的特点和影响的系统讨论。

Comparatively, foreigners have paid more attention to early CPE than Chinese and there are considerable corpuses in English literature. The early corpus is mainly in the travelogues and memoirs of Western travelers coming to China. For example, Noble (1762) recorded some information of Canton, Macau and other places in the 1740s, which is one of the rare documents and has irreplaceable significance to the study on CPE. One of the most significant literatures in the 1800s is Williams (1836) and in the 1900s is Hall (1944).

相比之下,外国人对早期中国洋泾浜英语的关注程度要高于中国人,英语文学中也有大量的素材。早期的语料库主要是西方旅游者来中国的游记和回忆录。例如,Noble(1762)在20世纪40年代记录了广州、澳门等地的一些信息,是少有的文献之一,对中国洋泾浜英语的研究具有不可替代的意义。19世纪最重要的文献之一是威廉斯的研究(1836),而20世纪最重要的文献之一是霍尔的研究(1944)。

In terms of research, Dennys (1870) seems to be the earliest English literature to discuss CPE from an academic point of view. He briefly discussed the causes, features, language functions and language problems of CPE.

在研究方面,丹尼斯(1870)所写的文学作品似乎是最早从学术角度探讨中国洋泾浜英语的英语文献。其简要论述了中国洋泾浜英语产生的原因、特点、语言功能和语言问题。

In the early 1900s, Reinecke (1937) put forward a clear point of view of the generation, development, dissemination and dissolution of CPE. At the beginning of Second World War, Hall became the first one to delve into CPE mainly from the perspective of linguistics, and ultimately created a pidgin language discipline.

20世纪初,赖内克(1937)对中国洋泾浜英语的产生、发展、传播和废除提出了明确的观点。二战初期,霍尔成为第一个主要从语言学角度研究中国洋泾浜英语的人,并最终创立了皮钦语这门学科。

2.3.2 Studies in Origin

2.3.2 起源研究

When it comes to the origin of CPE, in Chinese sources, it seems to be more homogenous because most texts discovered are phrasebooks. Such phrasebooks are believed to exist from at least the 1830s. For example, at that time, the Chinese servants, coolies and shopkeepers learned ‘Pigeon English’ by reading a small pamphlet called Devils’ Talk; besides, The Common Language of the Red-haired Foreigners is the earlier record brochure of English words and phrases appearing in Canton and became popular in the folk as textbooks or reference books of Cantonese English learning.

至于中国洋泾浜英语的起源,在中文资料中,似乎更加呈现同质化,因为发现的文本大多是常用语书籍。这种常用语手册据信至少存在于19世纪30年代。例如,当时的中国仆人、苦力和店主通过阅读一本名为《鬼话》的小册子来学习“鸽子英语”;此外,红头发外国人的共同语言是早期出现在粤式英语单词和短语的记录手册,并作为粤式英语学习的教科书或参考书在民间流行起来。

The second half of the nineteenth century was the heyday of the Canton trade. The opening of new treaty ports served as a catalyst of the spread of CPE. As a result, there was a greater demand for pidgin speaking people and phrasebooks; therefore, more comprehensive phrasebooks were offered in the market. For example, The Chinese and English Instructor by Tong Ting-kü in 1862 which is still the single most comprehensive and valuable CPE text until now.

19世纪下半叶是广州贸易的鼎盛时期。新通商口岸的开放是中国洋泾浜英语传播的催化剂。因此,对说皮钦语的人和短语书的需求双双增加;顺理成章,市场上提供了更全面的常用语手册。例如,汤廷库1862年的《汉英教师》至今仍是唯一一部最全面、最有价值的中国洋泾浜英语教材。

Comparatively, there are two popular hypotheses of the origin of CPE in English literature: Monogenesis and Simplification.

相对而言,关于中国洋泾浜英语的起源在英国文学界中有两种流行的假设:单源论和简化理论。

Monogenesis states that all pidgins and creoles are descendants of the original lingua franca in the Mediterranean including CPE. The appeal of this hypothesis is that it could explain the structural similarities among pidgins and creoles, which made it popular in the 1960s and 1970s when most specialists viewed them as grammatically similar. However, owing to intensive study of pidgins all over the world, this hypothesis gradually lost much of its initial appeal.

单源论认为,所有的皮钦语和克里奥耳语都是包括中国洋泾浜英语在内的地中海原始混合语的后裔。这一假说的吸引力在于,它可以解释皮钦语和克里奥耳语之间的结构相似性,这使得该假说在20世纪60年代和70年代颇为流行,当时大多数专家认为它们在语法上是相似的。然而,由于对世界各地皮钦语的深入研究,这一假说逐渐失去了最初的吸引力。

Simplification theory was brought up as a theoretic mechanism by Bloomfield (1933). It advocates that in the process of language contact, because of some language and social factors, members of new contact community will develop a common means of communication by simplifying their bilateral language. Nevertheless, sometimes, this process is relatively passive because there is no reason to assume that the lexifier language is always a target language that speakers of other communities want to learn.

简化理论是由布卢姆菲尔德(1933)提出的一种理论机制。该理论主张在语言接触的过程中,由于一些语言和社会因素的影响,新接触语言的社群成员会通过简化上层语言从而形成一种共同的交流方式。然而,这个过程在有些情况下是相对被动的。这是因为我们没有理由认为上层语言总是那些来自其他社群的人想要学习的目标语言。

Take CPE for example, Chinese speakers were said to have created it partly because in the eyes of bureaucrats and literati, English is inferior foreign language, which made them unwilling to learn and even more unwilling to permit English or other foreigners to learn Chinese.

以中国洋泾浜英语为例,说中文的人之所以创造了中国洋泾浜英语,其部分原因是因为在官僚和文人眼中,英语是次级的外语,以至于这些官僚和文人不愿意学习英语。更有甚者,他们不希望英国人和其他外国人去学习中文。

2.3.3 Studies in Language Features

2.3.3 语言特征研究

CPE mainly consists of English and Chinese, which is acknowledged by all scholars regardless of what views they hold. However, according to research, it does contain some language elements of Portuguese and some language sources of South and Southeast Asia.

中国洋泾浜英语主要由英汉两种语言组成。该观点得到了所有学者的认可。然而,根据研究,中国洋泾浜英语确实包含了葡萄牙语的一些语言元素,以及南亚和东南亚的一些语言来源。

Hunter (1882) and Williams (1836) have founded those heterogeneous word components and conducted an explanation of this phenomenon. They thought that before the appearance of CPE, there were already widespread pidgin Portuguese in Macau and Canton which was used as a medium of communication between Chinese and Western people. In the transformation from pidgin Portuguese to CPE, some language elements of the former were blended in the latter, becoming the heterologous components of CPE.

亨特(1882)和威廉姆斯(1836)发现了这些异类词成分,并对这种现象进行了解释。他们认为在中国洋泾浜英语出现之前,澳门和广州已经广泛使用洋泾浜葡萄牙语,作为中西人民交流的媒介。在从洋泾浜葡萄牙语向中国洋泾浜英语的转换过程中,洋泾浜葡萄牙语的一些语言成分被混入到中国洋泾浜英语中,成为中国洋泾浜英语的外源成分。

The Chinese also noticed that at the time. According to contemporary scholars' research,《澳门记略》was a famous Chinese historical work about Macau. In this book, the author described that the words and phrases derived from Portuguese were used by Chinese there. And《海录》also involved some information of Portuguese and pidgin Portuguese. However, they just noticed the phenomenon but failed to rise to the level of theory.

中国人当时也注意到了这一点。根据当代学者的研究,《澳门记略》是一部关于澳门的中国著名的历史著作。在这本书中,作者描述了来自葡萄牙语的单词和短语被中国人使用。而《海录》也涉及一些关于葡萄牙语和洋泾浜葡萄牙语的信息。然而,他们只是注意到了这一现象,并没有上升到理论层面。

Some scholars think that a small part of the words of CPE are derived from South and Southeast Asia. On the one hand, according to the world maritime history, Robertson put forward the nautical jargon theory in 1971 which advocated that because of the complicated sources of seafarers after the Middle Age, when creating a unified maritime jargon, seafarers with different nationalities brought their own native language ingredients in it. Therefore, it had multiple components and sources. That is to say, pidgin languages affected by it must also have a variety of language elements. According to this theory, language ingredients of South and Southeast Asia in CPE were the result of maritime jargon spoken by seafarers.

有学者认为中国洋泾浜英语的词汇有一小部分来源于南亚和东南亚。一方面,根据世界海事历史,罗伯逊在1971年提出了航海术语理论,主张由于中世纪以后海员来源复杂,在创造统一的航海术语时,不同国籍的海员在其中加入了自己的母语成分。因此,它有多个成分和来源。也就是说,受其影响的洋泾浜语言也必须具有多种语言元素。根据这一理论,在中国洋泾浜英语中,南亚和东南亚的语言成分是海员使用航海术语的结果。

On the other hand, some foreigners in China argued that some CPE words derived from South and Southeast Asia were the result of loanword. These words were first borrowed to Portuguese by the Portuguese in South and Southeast Asia, and then used by the British arrived at there. With the successive arrival of the British and Portuguese in China, these words were brought to China and continued to use in pidgin Portuguese and CPE.

另一方面,在中国的一些外国人认为,一些源自南亚和东南亚的中国洋泾浜英语词汇是外来词的结果。这些词最初是由南亚和东南亚的葡萄牙人借用来的,后来被英国人使用。随着英国人和葡萄牙人相继来到中国,这些词被带到中国,并继续在洋泾浜葡萄牙语和中国洋泾浜英语中使用。

Then, for the language features of CPE, some foreign scholars conducted a detailed analysis of its phonetic system. Hall (1944) was the most detailed and systematic study.  But it is worth noting that he and other scholars actually advocated that CPE had no tone, therefore, they only induced the vowel and consonant system of it.

然后,针对中国洋泾浜英语的语言特点,国外一些学者对其语音系统进行了详细的分析。霍尔(1944)做了最详细和系统的研究。但值得注意的是,他和其他学者实际上主张中国洋泾浜英语没有声调,因此,他们只归纳了中国洋泾浜英语的元音和辅音系统。

As to words and phrases which are more important than phonetics in CPE, the existing relevant arguments are only illustrative examples, rather than an exhaustive analysis. The reasons may be as follows: the corpus of CPE is scarce and scattered; it is hard to do annotation and back-translation and scholars’ knowledge might be limited.

对中国洋泾浜英语来说,单词和短语比发音更重要。现有的相关论述只是说明性的例证,而并没有做到详尽的分析。其原因可能是:中国洋泾浜英语素材稀缺、分散;注释和反向翻译难度较大;学者的知识有限。

2.3.4 Studies in Dissemination

2.3.4 传播研究

There are two main aspects of the dissemination of CPE: interpersonal communication and space communication.

中国洋泾浜英语的传播主要有两个方面:人际传播和空间传播。

Until now, serious study of interpersonal communication of CPE is still scarce and the earlier records are mainly made by Westerners in China, reflecting the situation of Canton and Macau. As a main means of learning CPE by directly contacting with foreigners, Williams (1836) noted that Chinese people would stay at the Thirteen Hongs in Canton, small shops or other places all day to learn Canton English.

到目前为止,对中国洋泾浜英语的人际传播的严肃研究还比较有限。早期的记录主要是由在中国的西方人完成的,这些记录反映了广州和澳门的情况。威廉姆斯(1836)指出,作为直接接触外国人学习中国洋泾浜英语的主要手段,中国人会整天呆在广州的十三锣店、小商店或其他地方学习粤式英语。

Moreover, Hunter noted that there were teaching books in Canton at that time. Downing (1838) pointed out that these books were quite widespread there. However, the CPE “teachers” were often very poor, because the students would leave to make a living by a few isolated words and phrases just learnt. Even so, it seems that to conform to social needs, as a means of interpersonal communication, “school” education had been established in Canton at that time even both irregular and unstable.

此外,亨特还注意到当时在广州有卖教学书籍。唐宁(1838)指出,这些书在那里非常普遍。然而,中国洋泾浜英语的“老师”往往很穷,因为学生们会离开学校,靠刚刚学会的几个孤立的单词和短语谋生。即便如此,似乎是为了顺应社会的需要,“学校”教育作为一种人际传播的手段,在当时的广州已经建立起来,尽管既不规则又不稳定。

For CPE, the space dissemination is more important. Based on previous research results, 张振江conducted more detailed discussion and pointed out that the space dissemination quickly began after the end of the Opium War. And there are three main dissemination paths: to Hong Kong; to the mainland of China and to the Pacific region.

对于中国洋泾浜英语来说,空间传播更加重要。基于之前的研究结果,张振江进行了更详细的讨论,并指出空间传播在**战争结束后迅速开始。传播途径主要有三种:传播到香港、到中国大陆以及到太平洋地区。

The first route: to Hong Kong. Before the Opium War, CPE had spreaded to Hong Kong, but was limited to a minimum area. After the British occupation of Hong Kong, foreigners in Canton and some Chinese relocated to Hong Kong. And in 1856, to run away from social upheaval, Chinese people from Canton and other places arrived at Hong Kong. For lack of language talents who were proficient in each other’s language, CPE continued to act as a communication media in administration, business and other fields until the middle of the twentieth century.

第一条路线:传播到香港。**战争之前,中国洋泾浜英语已经蔓延到香港,但仅限于一个最小的区域。英国占领香港后,在广州的外国人和一些中国人迁居香港。1856年,为了躲避社会动荡,广州等地的华人来到香港。由于缺乏精通彼此语言的语言人才,中国洋泾浜英语作为行政、商业等领域的传播媒介一直持续到20世纪中叶。

The second route: to the mainland of China. After the Opium War, foreign forces rapidly spreaded to the trade ports and gradually entered Wuhan, Beijing and other regions. Because few foreigners could speak Chinese, they took those who served for them in Canton there for help and these Chinese people were also willing to migrate as interpreter and comprador of foreigners. Afterwards, Cantonese interpreters and compradors came in a throng and they still used CPE after arriving and taught the local people, so pidgins in all areas had the same origin and distinct characteristic of Canton dialect.

第二条路线:传播到中国大陆。**战争结束后,外国势力迅速扩散到中国的贸易口岸,并逐步进入武汉,北京等地区。因为很少有外国人会说中文,所以他们把在广州为其服务的人带到当地帮助他们巩固势力。这些中国人也愿意以外国人的翻译和买办的身份移民至当地。之后,广州籍的口译员和买办涌入,他们到达后教导当地人使用中国洋泾浜英语。因此中国各地的皮钦语具有与广州方言相同的起源和鲜明特征。

The third route: to the Pacific region. After the Opium War, the Qing government was forced to allow people’s legal migration, so the people in Canton dialect migrated to North America, Hawaii and Australia. As a result, CPE brought by these immigrants became one of the sources of the Pacific islands pidgin English. Moreover, due to the demand for labor in America, quite a few Chinese people moved to America and distributed in several areas such as San Francisco, forming the Chinatown where CPE was maintained to communicate with people in English and it was widely used until the beginning of the twentieth century.

第三条路线:传播到太平洋地区。**战争后,清政府被迫允许人们合法移民,因此一些说广州方言的人移民到北美,夏威夷和澳大利亚。结果,这些移民带来的中国洋泾浜英语成为太平洋岛屿洋泾浜英语的来源之一。此外,由于美国对劳动力的需求,相当多的中国人移居了美国并分布在旧金山等几个地区,形成了唐人街。他们在那里继续使用中国洋泾浜英语与当地说英语的人交流。中国洋泾浜英语一直被广泛使用直到二十世纪初期。


 

Chapter Three  Pidgins and Creoles

第三章 皮钦语和克里奥耳语

3.1 A Simple Introduction to Pidgins and Creoles

3.1 皮钦语和克里奥耳语的简单介绍

Pidgin is a simplified language combining vocabulary of different languages. It is developed by people dwelling in the same area but without a common language to communicate. In other words, it is a standard language to some extent but with a reduced or simplified grammar structure, vocabulary or phonological variation. The reasons for pidgins to occur include political, economic and social factors, especially for trade matters.

皮钦语是一种结合了不同语言词汇的简化语言。它是由居住在同一地区但没有共同语言进行交流的人发展而成的。换句话说,它在某种程度上是一种标准语言,但具有缩略或简化的语法结构,词汇或语音变体。皮钦语出现的原因包括政治,经济和社会因素,特别是与贸易相关的因素。

Creole is a stable natural language evolved from a mixture of different languages. The list of creole languages shows that about 100 of them have arisen since 1500 and are predominantly based on European languages such as English and French because of the slave trade at that time. The lexicon of them is largely supplied by the parent languages, however, there are often clear phonetic, semantic and grammar shifts.

克里奥尔语是一种稳定的自然语言,由不同语言的混合而成。克里奥尔语言列表告诉我们,自1500年以来,其中大约有100种语言出现,并且主要基于诸如英语和法语在内的欧洲语言。其出现源于当时的奴隶贸易。词汇方面主要源于英语和法语在内的欧洲语言。这些语言通常有明确的语音,语义和语法转换。

3.2 The Relationship Between Pidgins and Creoles

3.2 皮钦语和克里奥尔语之间的关系

Creoles exist when pidgins become a first language of a new generation. In other words, a pidgin is always involved in the early stage of a creole. The relationships between them are as follows:

当皮钦语成为新一代的母语时,克里奥尔语就存在了。换句话说,皮钦语和克里奥尔语的早期阶段有关联。它们之间的关系如下:

There are some similarities between them. First, they exist more in coastal areas rather than inland areas because of trade; second, like pidgins, creoles generate in such language contact situations that typically involve two or more than two languages; third, they typically draw their lexicon primarily from a single language; finally, like the grammar of pidgins, the grammar of creoles is a compromise created by its creators among cross languages.

它们之间有一些相似之处。首先,由于贸易,它们更多地存在于沿海地区而不是内陆地区;其次,像皮钦语一样,克里奥尔语产生于通常涉及两种或两种以上的语言环境中;再者,克里奥尔语的词汇通常都来自于某种单一语言;最后,就像皮钦语的语法一样,克里奥尔语语法是由其创造者从许多混合语言中所开发出的一种折中的方案。

There are also some differences between them. First, pidginization is second language learning because it is not a native language and mainly for communication in trade while creolization is first language learning because creoles generate when pidgins become a first language; second, pidginization involves some kind of simplification, considerable phonological variation of a language, and extensive borrowed words from local languages while creolization involves extended morphology and syntax, regular phonology, and a rational and stable system; finally, as the official language of Haiti, creoles are still in use while pidgins are almost out of use today.

它们之间也存在一些差异。首先,学习皮钦语是学习一种第二语言,因为它不是按第一语言的形式存在着的。同时,皮钦语也主要用于商贸往来。而学习克里奥尔语是学习第一语言,因为当皮钦语成为第一语言时克里奥尔语早已产生;第二,皮钦语涉及某种简化,大量的语音变体,以及广泛借用来自于当地语言的词汇。而克里奥尔语涉及延伸性的语态和语法,规则的音韵,以及合理和稳定的系统;最后,作为海地的官方语言,克里奥尔语仍然在使用,而今天几乎没有使用pidgins。

3.3 English-Based Atlantic Creoles

3.3 基于英语的大西洋克里奥尔语

The expansion of Britain not only facilitated the spread of Standard English but more pidgins and creoles around the world. That is to say, Britain was more successful than any other nation in implanting its language around the globe not only for the number of people using English but the English varieties in the world community. There are two chief groups owing to historical, geographical and linguistic factors: the Atlantic group in West Africa and the Caribbean area between the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries and the Pacific group in Australia during the nineteenth century.

英国的扩张不仅促进了标准英语的传播,而且促进了皮钦语和克里奥尔语传播至世界各地。也就是说,英国在全球语言植入方面比其他任何国家都做得成功。这不仅仅体现在使用英语的人口数量上,同时也体现在世界各地所存在的英语变体中。由于历史,地理和语言的因素,英语的变体可分为两个主要部分:西非的大西洋一支和十七世纪到十八世纪间加勒比地区以及十九世纪的澳大利亚太平洋的另一支。

The Atlantic group consists principally of plantation creoles which are structurally similar to the other Atlantic creoles based on Portuguese, Spanish, Dutch and French, and they share many common features because of typological similarity of the Niger-Congo languages. Pidgins and creoles English developed during the seventeenth century on both sides of the Atlantic, such as in the Caribbean where the British established plantation colonies, and in the West Africa around the isolated areas where they captured slaves for their New World colonies. The slave owners and slaves crossed both sides of Atlantic Ocean, which made it possible to explain some of the striking similarities among different varieties of Atlantic Creole English.

大西洋这一支主要由殖民地克里奥尔语组成,其结构与基于葡萄牙语、西班牙语、荷兰语和法语而产生的其它大西洋克里奥尔语相似。由于和尼日尔 - 刚果语言的类型相似,它们具有许多共同特征。 皮钦语和克里奥尔英语在十七世纪于大西洋两岸发展起来,例如由英国建立的农场殖民地的加勒比海地区,以及在西非的一些偏远地区。在这些偏远地区,英国人为建立新世界殖民地捕获了许多的奴隶。奴隶主和奴隶越过大西洋两岸,这也在一定程度上解释了大西洋克里奥尔语英语不同变体之间存在惊人的相似性的原因。

Finally, because of social and linguistic factors, there were two branches: the restructured English spoken by North American Indians and the Caribbean Creoles spoken in Britain.

最后,由于社会和语言因素,其存在两个分支:北美印第安人使用的重新组合而成的英语,以及英国使用的加勒比克里奥尔语。

3.4 English-Based Pacific Pidgins and Creoles

3.4 基于英语的太平洋皮钦语和克里奥尔语

There is a consensus opinion that the restructured varieties of English of the Pacific are quite different from those of the Atlantic in terms of both linguistic structures and socio-historical situations of their speakers. First, they were affected by substrate languages belonging to disparate families of languages. Second, most of them evolved into extended pidgins and even indigenized creoles while the Atlantic varieties of English were almost all creoles as the continua of early pidgins. Third, most of them evolved in the nineteenth century while nearly all of the Atlantic varieties of English generated during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries.

人们一致认为,太平洋英语的重组变体在语言结构和语言使用者的社会历史情况方面与大西洋的英语有很大的不同。首先,他们受到属于不同语族的下层语言的影响。其次,他们中的大多数演变成延展性的皮钦语甚至是本土化的克里奥尔语,而大西洋英语的变体几乎全都是作为早期皮钦语延续的克里奥尔语。再者,太平洋英语中的大多数是在十九世纪发展起来的,而几乎所有的大西洋英语都是在十七和十八世纪产生的。

CPE developed around Canton by 1700, and in the second half of the nineteenth century, exactly in 1851, gold rush sprang up in Ballarat. It boosted the number of Chinese immigrants mainly working in various gold fields in Australia, and most of them originated from Canton of China where at that time CPE was widely used. Thus, they were speakers in various dialects of Cantonese. In other words, they brought CPE to the mining areas where they lived at that time; moreover, during the second half of the nineteenth century, the Pacific islanders were brought as indentured laborers to work on plantations in Queensland in northeastern Australia and elsewhere. The sociolinguistic conditions there promoted the generation of Melanesian Pidgin English, a stable English variety spoken by Aborigines and Melanesian laborers.

中国洋泾浜英语于1700年左右在广州附近发展开来。而到了19世纪下半叶,准确地说是在1851年,巴拉瑞特出现了淘金热。由于淘金热潮,主要在澳大利亚各个金矿区工作的华人移民人数大幅增加。其中大多数移民来自中国广州,所以那时中国洋泾浜英语被广泛地使用。因此,他们是各种种类粤语的使用者。换句话说,他们把中国洋泾浜英语带到其当时居住的矿区;此外,在十九世纪下半叶,太平洋岛民被当作契约劳工,在澳大利亚东北部的昆士兰州和其他地方的种植园工作。那里的社会语言条件促成了美拉尼西亚洋泾浜英语的产生,这是一种由土著和美拉尼西亚劳工使用的稳定性很高的英语变种。


 

Chapter Four  Chinese Pidgin English

第四章 中国洋泾浜英语

4.1 History of Chinese Pidgin English

4.1 中国洋泾浜英语的历史

4.1.1 Portuguese Colonists and Cantāo Portuguēs

4.1.1 葡萄牙殖民者和广东葡语

According to historical records, the Portuguese is the first batch of the West to conduct colonial activities in the East, and also the first batch of Westerners in China, which made Portuguese become the earliest occidental language contacting with oriental language.

据史料记载,葡萄牙人是西方第一批在东方开展殖民活动的西方人,也是第一批来中国的西方人。这使得葡萄牙语成为最早与东方语言****的西方语言。

Portuguese settlers had been coveting the vast and rich China and provoking with the intention of encroaching on China's southeast coastal areas from the early 16th century. In 1514, Portuguese ships arrived in the coveted Canton coast for the first time. In 1523, after being expelled from Canton, they colluded with Japanese pirates to harass the waters of South China Sea and occupy some islands, but were deported from China finally. In 1553, they changed the strategy to privately bribe an official of the Ming Dynasty and land Macau on the pretext of insolating salvages. In 1557, they sneaked into Macau to build small warehouses, obtained residency by deception and bribery, and formally announced port opening, occupying Macau for a long time.

葡萄牙定居者一直对于广大而富饶的中国垂涎欲滴。他们从16世纪初开始展现出了想要侵占中国东南沿海地区的野心。 1514年,葡萄牙船队首次抵达令其垂涎欲滴的广州海岸。 1523年,在被驱逐出广州后,他们与日本海盗勾结,骚扰南海水域并占领了一些岛屿。但最终他们被驱逐出了中国。 1553年,他们改变了策略,私下贿赂一名明朝官员,并以打捞残骸为借口登陆澳门。 1557年,他们潜入澳门建造小型仓库,通过欺骗和贿赂获得居住权,并正式宣布开放港口,长期占领澳门。

With Macau, Portugal became the protagonist of Sino-West trade before the arrival of British and American. In need of life and communication, Portuguese had to communicate with local Chinese; consequently, Portuguese gradually became the lingua franca of China's coastal trade. The earliest CPE, Cantāo Portuguēs generated in this case. It was a kind of mixed language with Portuguese, English, Indian, Malay and Chinese Cantonese. The pronunciation of it was recorded by Chinese characters on the basis of Canton dialect, which directly led to a huge difference between the pronunciation of it and real Portuguese. For example, “Bengal (孟加拉) ” was marked as “自明呀喇” in Chinese character while the corresponding Portuguese was “Bangla”.

对于澳门的占领使得葡萄牙在英国和美国到来之前成为中西贸易的主角。由于生活上需要社交,葡萄牙人必须与当地华人进行沟通;顺理成章,葡萄牙语逐渐成为中国沿海贸易的通用语言。最早的中国洋泾浜英语,即广东葡语就在这种情况下诞生。它是一种混合语言,混合了葡萄牙语,英语,印度语,马来语和粤话。它的发音是在广州方言的基础上用汉字记录的,直接导致它的发音与真正的葡萄牙语差异巨大。例如,“Bengal(孟加拉)”用其汉字标记系统标记为“自明呀喇”,而相应的葡萄牙语则写成是“Bangla”。

The Portuguese occupation of Macau opened the prelude of Western powers’ invasion of China and started the cultural infiltration of Western colonialism in China. From the early 19th century to the Opium War, with the enhancement of trade status in China, the British colonists gradually replaced the Portuguese colonists and monopolized trade in China, which made Cantāo Portuguēs quit the historical stage around the middle of the nineteenth century. And a new pidgin emerged, namely the Canton English.

葡萄牙对于澳门的占领揭开了西方列强入侵中国的序幕,同时也开启了西方殖民主义在中国的文化渗透。从19世纪初到**战争,随着中国贸易地位的提高,英国殖民者逐渐取代了葡萄牙殖民者及其在中国的垄断贸易。这使得广东葡语于19世纪中叶退出了历史舞台。一种新的皮钦语就此出现,它就是广州英语。

4.1.2 Canton English Before the Opium War

4.1.2 **战争前的广州英语

The British began to trade with China in the early stage of the seventeenth century. And in 1715, the British East India Company set up a factory in Canton, which indicated that the British took the top spot in the trade with China and became the main foreign power in China. But at that time, English language had not contacted with Chinese language, so the British had to communicate with Chinese through interpreters who could speak Cantāo Portuguēs.

英国人在十七世纪初开始与中国进行贸易。 1715年,英国东印度公司在广州设立工厂,这表明了英国在与中国的贸易中占据了首位,成为在中国主要的外国势力。但当时英语并位于中文产生联系,所以英国人不得不借助懂广东葡语的翻译与中国人进行交流。

With the improvement of the British trade status in China, from the end of the seventeenth century to the early eighteenth century, a unique language used for business transactions and communication gradually formed in Canton, the Canton English. It was a kind of mixed language based on Cantonese and English vocabulary and also mingled with Portuguese, Malay and Indian language.

随着英国在中国的贸易地位的提高,从十七世纪末到十八世纪初,广州英语,这一用于商业交易和沟通的独特语言逐渐在广州形成。它是一种掺杂着粤语和英语词汇的混合语言,同时也混合了一些葡萄牙语,马来语和印度语。

In 1757, Canton became the only port for foreign trade, and the rapid development of foreign trade made a large number of people depend on it for a living. Driven by realistic interests, those people quickly mastered this language and spreaded it to the mainland. After the 1830s, with the continuous development between China and West, the application of Canton English was expanded and several block-printed editions of it used as textbooks and dictionaries appeared in Canton, which was the symbol of its peak stage.

1757年,广州成为唯一的对外贸易口岸,而对外贸易的快速发展使得大量人口靠其为生。在现实的利益驱使下,这些人很快掌握了这门语言并将其传播到了大陆。 19世纪30年代以后,随着中西方的不断发展,广州英语的应用范围不断扩大,广州出现了不少用作教科书和词典的雕版印刷品,这是其巅峰时期的象征。

During the Opium War, the Western powers opened the door of China with gun boats, after that, China began the period of humiliating treaties, and gradually reduced to the colonies and semi-colonies of Western powers. For several years after the Opium War, with further development of communication and conflict between China and West, Canton English gained a more prominent position in the southeast coastal area of China, objectively prompting the language toward a more perfect form with the appearance of new and better Canton English vocabulary books, such as《华英通语》and《英语集全》. After 1860s, the status of Canton declined in Sino-West communication, and Shanghai became a new trade center with the appearance Shanghai Pidgin English.

在**战争期间,西方列强用战舰打开了中国的大门。在这之后,中国开始进入了丧权辱国条约的签订时期,逐渐沦为西方列强的殖民地和半殖民地。**战争后的几年里,随着中西交流与冲突的进一步发展,广州英语在中国东南沿海地区占据了更加突出的位置,客观上促使其形式更加完善,出现了不少品质优良的广州英语词汇书籍,如《华英通语》和《英语集全》。 19世纪60年代以后,广州的地位在中西交流中有所下降,上海取而代之成为新的贸易中心,上海洋泾浜英语就此出现。

4.1.3 Shanghai Pidgin English After the Opium War

4.1.3 **战争后的上海洋泾浜英语

The Five-Treaty-Ports after the first Opium War ended the unified pattern of foreign trade of Canton. As one of the new open ports, Shanghai quickly became the biggest trade base in east China for its favorable geographical position and open trade environment. Under such circumstance, a large number of Canton merchants went there to continue trading with foreigners. They not only brought rich business experiences but an important language tool communicating with foreigners, pidgin English.

第一次**战争后,条约签订的五个通商口岸结束了广州对外贸易的垄断格局。作为新开放的港口之一,上海凭借其良好的地理位置和开放的贸易环境迅速成为华东地区最大的贸易基地。在这种情况下,大量的广州商人去上海继续与外国人做生意。他们不仅带去了丰富的商业经验,而且还带去了洋泾浜英语这一与外国人交流的重要语言工具。

At the beginning, most translation activities were undertaken by interpreters from Canton, afterwards, more and more people in Shanghai joined in, which promoted the generation of Shanghai pidgin English. It was a special mixed language derived from Canton English and based on English and Shanghai dialect. It was also mixed up with some French, Portuguese, Spanish and Macau. There are some features of its pronunciation, vocabulary and grammar.

一开始,大多数翻译活动都是由广州人进行翻译的。在这之后,越来越多的上海人加入其中,促进了上海洋泾浜英语的产生。上海洋泾浜英语是一种特殊的混合语言,其源自广东英语,而以英语和上海方言作为基础。一些法语、葡萄牙语、西班牙语和澳门话也夹杂其中。以下是其发音、词汇和语法的一些特点。

First, in terms of pronunciation, Shanghai pidgin English was still severely affected by Chinese phonology. There is a common lack of the sound /r/ in most southern dialects. As a result, there were some regularly wrong examples: read red as / led /, very as / veli /. Besides, because there is no retroflex in Shanghai dialect, the consonant cluster ‘sh’ is always replaced by / s /. In addition, there were still very few phonemes of it.

首先,在发音方面,上海洋泾浜英语仍然受到汉语音韵的严重影响。大多数南方方言普遍缺乏/ r /这个发音。所以,一些错误会经常发生。比如:把red读成/ led /,把very读成/ veli /。此外,由于上海方言中没有翘舌音,辅音'sh'这个发音总是会被读成/ s /。另外,它的音素仍然很少。

Second, in terms of vocabulary, although the vocabulary of it was still limited, it already had a great progress in comparison with Canton English. There were about 700 or so vocabularies and the classification were more specialized. It broke the original pattern and provided more expression ways such as simple conversation.

其次,就词汇而言,虽然上海洋泾浜英语词汇量仍然很有限,但与广州英语相比,其已经有了很大的进步。其大约有700个左右的词汇,词汇分类更为细化。其打破了原有的模式,提供了更多的表达方式,足以应付简单的对话。

Third, in terms of grammar, there were still numerous simplifications in Shanghai pidgin English. The free form of vocabulary replaced the adhesion form of inflection. In addition, the concord of gender, number, case and person did not exist and its syntactic structure was simplified in maximum.

第三,在语法方面,上海洋泾浜英语仍然存在很多简化。词汇独立存在,词尾没有屈折变化。此外,其不存在性、数、格以及人称的配合,其句法结构达到了最大限度的简化。

This Sino-British mixed Shanghai pidgin English was used until 1930s-1940s. However, due to its own deficiencies and the popularity of formal English education after liberation, it didn't become an influential language in China finally, not to mention develop into a new kind of creole language.

这种中英混合的上海洋泾浜英语一直使用到1930 - 1940年代。但是,由于其自身的不足和解放后正规英语教育的普及,它最终没有成为中国有影响力的语言,更不用说发展成为一种新的克里奥尔语了。

4.2 Causes and Learning Approaches of Chinese Pidgin English

4.2 中国洋泾浜英语的成因和学习方法

4.2.1 Causes of Chinese Pidgin English

4.2.1 中国洋泾浜英语的成因

CPE generated and developed with the history of Western colony. The Western colonial rob and Sino-West trade were direct causes of its generation. Besides, there were also some historical and realistic reasons during the generation process of it.

中国洋泾浜英语伴随着西方殖民的历史而产生和发展开来。西方殖民统治和中西贸易是其产生的直接原因。此外,在其产生过程中也存在一些历史和现实的原因。

Historically, it was the needs of world economic development that promoted the generation of CPE. After seeing through the surface, the enhancement of international economic and political exchanges affected by the industrial revolution were the breeding ground of CPE. In this context, although the Qing government implemented the policy of seclusion, some insightful folk people were active to participate in international communication and gain profits from international market. As a result, they created CPE as a communication tool. And the following historical practices demonstrated that integration was the trend of world development and pidgin English was an active attempt to strive for internationalization in the modern China.

从历史上看,世界经济发展的需要促成了中国洋泾浜英语的产生。抛开表象深究下去,我们会发现受工业革命影响而发展壮大的国际经济和政治交流是中国洋泾浜英语滋生的土壤。在这种背景下,虽然清政府实行了闭关锁国的政策,但一些富有洞察力的民间人士积极参与国际交流,并从国际市场中获取收益。因此,他们发明了中国洋泾浜英语作为其对外沟通工具。以下历史实践表明,融合是世界发展的趋势,洋泾浜英语是现代中国争取国际化的积极尝试。

Realistically, it was the political and cultural environment that promoted the generation of CPE. When the Westerners were plundering by all means and striving to trade with China, the Qing government was complacent yet. At that time, bureaucrat and literati held that the purpose of foreigners’ coming was seeking help, so it were them who should learn Chinese language, not the other way around; and before the mid-eighteenth century, the Qing government restricted officers and citizens from learning foreign languages including English, let alone building schools to teach foreign languages, which determined the necessity of CPE. Meanwhile, because Chinese language is both broad and profound and has many local dialects, it is difficult for foreigners to learn in a short time. But the realistic demands of trade and life forced them to learn and that’s why CPE generated as a spontaneous language form in the folk.

实际上,正是政治和文化环境促成了中国洋泾浜英语的产生。当西方人肆意掠夺并积极与中国进行贸易时,清政府却骄傲自大。那时,官僚和文人认为外国人来华的目的是为了寻求帮助,所以他们应该学习汉语,而不是中国人学习英语;在十八世纪中期之前,清政府限制官员和国民学习包括英语在内的外语,更不用说建立学校教授外语,这决定了中国洋泾浜英语存在的必要性。同时,由于汉语博大精深,有很多地方方言,外国人很难在短时间内学习掌握。但是,贸易和生计的现实要求迫使他们学习,这就是为什么中国洋泾浜英语作为一种自发的语言形式在民间产生。

4.2.2 Learning Approaches of Chinese Pidgin English

4.2.2 中国洋泾浜英语的学习方法

First, learn from foreign masters. Samuel Wells Williams was an important personage in the modern history of Sino-US relations. During his 43 years in China, he was the editor of The Chinese Repository. He conducted a comprehensive study of China from the perspective of culture in The Middle Kingdom which was a milestone of American Sinology. He once mentioned in a letter that all the servants working in foreigner's home wanted to learn English because after mastering it, they could go to a bigger foreign trade company to act as a comprador or directly do business with foreigners.

首先,向外国大师学习。塞缪尔·威尔斯·威廉姆斯(Samuel Wells Williams)是中美关系近代史上的重要人物。他在中国工作了43年,《中国丛报》的编辑。他从中国文化的角度对中国进行了全面的研究。这也是美国汉学的一个里程碑。他曾在一封信中提到,所有在外国人家中工作的仆人都想学习英语,因为在掌握英语之后,他们可以去一家更大的外贸公司担任买办或直接与外国人做生意。

Second, learn by practice in the places foreigners always appear. For example, in the late Qing dynasty, there was a kind of prostitutes called “handsome maiden” in Canton and Shanghai who specialized in entertaining foreign guests. They wandered around the ports and attracted foreigners by their poor English imitating from the sailors. Over time, they mastered CPE, so they were also a driving force of CPE.

其次,在外国人总是出现的地方练习。例如,在晚清时期,广州和上海有一种叫做“英俊少女”的**,专门招待外国客人。她们在港口附近来回走动,用她们从水手那里模仿来的英语吸引外国人。随着时间的推移,他们掌握了中国洋泾浜英语,因此他们也是中国洋泾浜英语发展的一股不可小觑的力量。

Third, learn by reference books. In the late Qing Dynasty, some language practitioners noticed CPE and seized the business opportunity to compile and publish some reference books helping people to learn. For example, the《红毛蕃书》in Macau and the 《红毛买卖通用鬼话》in Foshan. All of these reference books were annotated by dialects and used dialects for phonetic notation, which made it handy to use for learners. Therefore, it also became a learning approach for those who were eager to learn English. But no matter what kind of learning methods, they all showed the features of learning rapidly and easily.

第三,通过参考书学习。在晚清时期,一些语言从业者注意到了中国洋泾浜英语,抓住了商机,编写出版了一些帮助人们学习的参考书。例如,澳门的《红毛蕃书》和佛山的《红毛买卖通用鬼话》。所有这些参考书都用方言注释,并使用方言用于标音,使之方便使用者学习。因此,它也成为那些渴望学习英语的人的一种学习途径。但无论采用何种学习方法,它们都展示出了能够让学习者快速轻松学习的特点。

4.3 Characteristics of Chinese Pidgin English

4.3 中国洋泾浜英语的特点

4.3.1 Words and Sounds

4.3.1 词汇和发音

CPE words were mainly derived from English and with the influences of Portuguese, Malay, Hindi and Cantonese.

中国洋泾浜英语的词汇主要来自英语,也受葡萄牙语,马来语,印地语和粤语的影响。

In terms of words, first, some individual English words were used frequently in a wrong way because of extremely limited vocabularies mastered by learners. For example, the word “belong” was frequently used in CPE: “You belong ploper (proper)?” (“你好吗?”); “How muchee (much) belong?” (“多少钱?”). The real reason for this phenomenon was that in CPE, the link verb ‘to be’ and all of its morphological transforms didn’t exist and was replaced by ‘belong’. For example, “I am” was said to be “I belong” and “you are” to be “you belongest”.

就单词而言,首先,由于学习者掌握的词汇量非常有限,因此一些英语单词经常以错误的方式被使用。例如,中国洋泾浜英语中经常使用“belong”这个词:“You belong ploper(proper)?”(“你好吗?”); “How muchee(much)belong?”(“多少钱?”)。这种现象的真正原因在于,在中国洋泾浜英语中,链接动词“to be”及其所有形态变换都不存在,并被“belong”所取代。例如,“I am”被说成是“I belong”,而“you are”被说成是“you belongest”。

Second, another lexical feature of CPE was the expression of numeral. In Chinese, numerals were generally accompanied by quantifiers. Affected by this, such words as “one”, “two” and “three” were not used alone but were spoken to be “one piece”, “two piece”, and “three piece” ; and “one piece girl” meant “one girl”.

其次,中国洋泾浜英语的另一个词汇特征是数字的表达。在中文中,数字通常伴随着量词。受此影响,“one”,“two”,“three”等单词不单独使用,而是被称为“one piece”,“two piece”,“three piece”;而“one piece girl”的意思是“one girl”。

Third, the etymology of CPE was diversified. For example, Cantonese-affected words: “taipan” (boss of foreign firm) and “fankuei” (foreign devils); and moreover, “masky” which meant “never mind” or “who cares” was derived from Portuguese “masque”; “junk” from Javanese “junco”, “shroff” from Arabic and “coolie” from Hindi.

再者,中国洋泾浜英语的词源呈现多样化。例如,受广东话影响的词语:“taipan”(外国公司的老板)和“fankuei”(外国恶魔);此外,“masky”的意思是“从不介意”或“谁在乎”,这源于葡萄牙语的“masque”;来自爪哇语的“junco”的“junk”,来自***语的“shroff”以及来自印地语的“coolie”。

In terms of sounds, it is difficult to present a definitive explanation of the phonology of CPE for many reasons: first, the phonetic notation by Chinese characters and different sounds among different dialects led to the distortion of phonology; second, the transcription system made it difficult to know what the actual pronunciation of words was because there were similar sounds among Chinese characters. One of the most predominant features was the replacement of [r] by [l] because the former doesn’t exist in Cantonese and was thus replaced by the only non-nasal sonorant of Cantonese: rice to lice. Another was the deletion of final consonants because Chinese people could not speak them well. So they often added a suffix such as ‘ee’: make to makee.

在发音方面,我们很难对中国洋泾浜英语的发音做出明晰的解释,其中原因有很多:首先,汉字的语音符号和不同方言之间的不同发音导致了语言音韵上的失真;第二,因为汉字之间有着相似的发音,转录系统很难标记出单词的实际发音到底是什么。其中一个最主要的特征是用[l]取代[r],因为后者不存在于广东话,因此被广东话的唯一非鼻声响音代替: rice读作lice 。另一个特征是尾辅音的略去。这是因为中国人不能把尾辅音发得很饱满。所以中国人经常添加一个后缀,例如'ee': make读成makee

4.3.2 Copulas and Zeros

4.3.2 助词和零助词

In The Chinese-English Instructor, at least two different types of copulas were recorded: have which was usually realized as hab and belong mentioned above. Like what was said above, there were many words in CPE which had not only a meaning, which made it difficult to translate. And Hall (1944) has suggested that CPE is predominantly zero copula. In terms of belong, it is worth noting that in most instances in the Instructor, it was used in its lexical function, ‘to belong to’ as follows:

在中英对照的教科书中 ,我们能发现至少有两种不同类型的助词: have这个经常为读成hab的单词还有上文提到的belong。就像上面所说的那样,中国洋泾浜英语中有很多单词不仅只有一个含义,这对翻译工作赵成了很大的困扰。 Hall(1944)认为中国洋泾浜英语最主要的特点就是没有助词。就belong这个单词来说,我们有必要注意到在教科书中大多数的例子中,它经常以‘to belong to’的词型被广泛使用。如下例:

(1)  These belong to you?

(1)  These belong to you?

“Is this yours?” (唐廷枢,1862,卷四:五十三)

“这是你的吗?” (唐廷枢,1862,卷四:五十三)

(2)  The tea belong to first crop

(2)  The tea belong to first crop

“This is first crop tea” (唐廷枢,1862,卷六:十四)

“这是头一季的茶。” (唐廷枢,1862,卷六:十四)

In the Instructor, most occurrences of hap were with got, following the Sinitic existential pattern ‘there is’:

在教科书中,hap绝大多数出现在和got搭配的情况下,前面接一个中文存在型的句式‘there is’:

(3) My hap go court one time

(3) My hap go court one time

“I have been to court once” (唐廷枢,1862,卷四:三十二)

“我已经去过一次法院了。” (唐廷枢,1862,卷四:三十二)

The verb got is likewise used in phrases as follows:

同样,动词‘got’用在如下句子中:

(4) You got how muchee piecee children

(4) You got how muchee piecee children

“How many children have you?” (唐廷枢,1862,卷四:五十五)

“你有几个孩子?” (唐廷枢,1862,卷四:五十五)

4.3.3 Placement of Adverbs and Prepositional Phrases

4.3.3 副词和介词短语的位置

Although there were some adverbs such as time and place followed the English syntax in CPE, however, there were also some adverbial modifications reflected the influence of Chinese syntax. First, for the former, there was an example:

虽然在中国洋泾浜英语中有一些表示时间和地点等的副词遵循英语句法,但也有一些副词形式反映出其受汉语句法的影响。首先,对于前者,有一个例子:

My talkee you tomorrow

My talkee you tomorrow


 

“I will let you know tomorrow” (唐廷枢,1862,卷六:九)

“我会明天让你知道的。” (唐廷枢,1862,卷六:九)

In this example, the place of tomorrow was legitimate in English rather Chinese; However, the Instructor also offered many examples of sentential adverbs appearing between the subject and verb. This is illegitimate in English but in line with Cantonese syntax:

在这个例子中, tomorrow的位置是合乎英语语法,而不是中文语法;然而, 教科书还提供了许多在主语和动词之间出现副词的例子。这不合乎英语语法,但符合粤语句法:

(1) We tomorrow makee move

(1) We tomorrow makee move

“We move tomorrow” (唐廷枢,1862,卷四:四十九)

“我们明天搬。” (唐廷枢,1862,卷四:四十九)

(2) He every day tipsy

(2) He every day tipsy


 

“He gets drunk every day” (唐廷枢,1862,卷四:五十五)

“他每天都喝醉酒。” (唐廷枢,1862,卷四:五十五)

Then, from a typological point of view, one of the clearest Sinitic features was the placement of PP which can be seen in the patterns with long derived from English ‘along (with)’:

接着从词类的角度来看,中文里最显著的特征之一是介词短语的位置。这可以从long这个源于英语‘along (with)’的单词的形式中体会到。

(3) You can long my catchee one piecee good boy

(3) You can long my catchee one piecee good boy

“You can get a good boy for me” (唐廷枢,1862,卷六:五十一)

“你可以给我找一个好的男孩子。” (唐廷枢,1862,卷六:五十一)

(4) My long you takee alla

(4) My long you takee alla
 

“I will buy the whole from you” (唐廷枢,1862,卷六:八)

“我要从你这儿买全部的东西。” (唐廷枢,1862,卷六:八)

4.3.4 Tense and Aspect

4.3.4 时态和体态

There seems to be only one tense or aspect marker in CPE and the perfective marker hap (hab ) has a basis in Cantonese and English grammar:

在中国洋泾浜英语中似乎只有一个时态或体态。那就是在粤语和英语语法中作为完成时标记符的hap(hab)。

(1) My hap go court one time

(1) My hap go court one time

“I have been to Court once” (唐廷枢,1862,卷四:三十二)

“我已经去过一次法院了。” (唐廷枢,1862,卷四:三十二)

(2) Coolie hap shutee alla window

(2) Coolie hap shutee alla window


 

“Has the coolie shut all windows?” (唐廷枢,1862,卷六:五十三)

“那个小工把所有的窗户都关了吗?” (唐廷枢,1862,卷六:五十三)

4.3.5 Topic-Comment and Discourse Structure

4.3.5 主题评论和说话结构

Another area where substrate influence can be discerned was topic-comment and discourse structure. Dialogues in the Instructor provided such examples in which the topic, shown in square brackets was the part that was being spoken of in the comment:

主题评论和说话结构可以说是下层语言的另一个影响方面。教科书中的对话是一个解释此影响的一个例子。在教科书中,说话的主题被方框标识出来,作为是句子的一个部分:

(1) [Good cargo] how can sellum cheap

(1) [Good cargo] how can sellum cheap

“How can good things sell cheap?” (唐廷枢,1862,卷六:十一)

“好东西怎么能卖得便宜?” (唐廷枢,1862,卷六:十一)

(2) [That pricee] he no sellum

(2) [That pricee] he no sellum

“He won’t sell at that price’”(唐廷枢,1862,卷四:七十七)

“这个价钱他不卖。”(唐廷枢,1862,卷四:七十七)

As in Chinese, two kinds of topic can be distinguished: some are understood as arguments of the verb, like the object good cargo in the first example; others are more loosely related to the predicate, like the pricee in the second example which was neither the subject nor the object of sellum ‘sell’.

在中文中,有两类主题:一种可以理解为是动词的受词,如第一个例子中的对象good cargo ;另一种和谓词的关系更为松散,就像第二个例子中的pricee,既不是sellum(sell)的主语也不是宾语。

4.4 Relations Between Chinese Pidgin English and Interpreters

4.4 中国洋泾浜英语与翻译之间的关系

4.4.1 Chinese Pidgin English and Early Interpreters

4.4.1 中国洋泾浜英语和早期翻译

In the Qing dynasty, because of traditional ideas in court, many Department Secretaries didn’t have experiences of going abroad and were not proficient in foreign languages. Therefore, few people understood and could handle foreign affairs. Consequently, the diplomatic translation of Qing government had to be completed by some Western missionaries or merchants. This gave Westerners an opportunity in the Sino-Western communication and resulted in a menace of China’s diplomatic sovereignty because they would grab profits for the West under the identity of translator and external adviser of Qing court.

在清朝,由于清廷的传统观念,许多部门的要员都没有出国经验,也不精通外语。因此,很少有人能够理解并处理外交事务。因此,清政府的外交翻译就必须得由一些西方传教士或商人完成。这给了西方人在中西交流中契机,并导致了其对中国外交**的威胁。这是因为他们会以清廷的翻译和外部顾问的身份为西方世界谋取利润。

In 1557, the Portuguese obtained residency in Macau by all means, so compradors, foreign traders and missionaries gathered there for trade and other purposes. In the long process of mutual communication between Portugal and Chinese, Cantāo Portuguēs generated. Then, those people who mastered and specialized in it for a living became the early interpreter. They existed until the first half of the eighteenth century before the generation of Canton English. Actually, many early interpreters were not good at foreign languages, and some even didn’t know anything, so foreigners’ help was necessary in some official translation occasions.

1557年,葡萄牙人不择手段取得了在澳门的居留权。因此,买办、外国商人和传教士聚集于此进行贸易和其他目的的活动。在葡萄牙和中国之间相互交流的漫长过程中,广东葡语产生了。之后,那些掌握并以此谋生的人成为了早期的翻译。这些翻译人员一直存在到18世纪上半叶之前,直到广州英语的产生。实际上,很多早期翻译并不都擅长外语,有些甚至什么也不知道。所以,在一些官方翻译场合,外国人的帮助是必要的。

4.4.2 Chinese Pidgin English and Canton Interpreters

4.4.2 中国洋泾浜英语和广州翻译

From 1637 to 1715, Chinese merchants in Canton had come into contact with British more than half a century during which Canton English emerged. After the following one hundred years more, Canton English steadily replaced Cantāo Portuguēs and became a lingua franca in Chinese and foreign trade with the appearance of Canton interpreters. Even during the Opium War, some of them were mobilized to Zhejiang to translate confessions of British captives, which indicated the popularity of Canton interpreters.

从1637年到1715年,在广州的中国商人在广州英语出现的超过半个世纪的时间里已经和英国人开始接触了。在接下来的一百多年后,广州英语逐渐取代了广东葡语,成为了中外贸易的通用语,并且期间出现了为数不少的广州翻译。即使在**战争期间,他们中的一些人也被调动到浙江去翻译英国俘虏的供词。这表明了广州翻译的受欢迎的程度。

However, although they enjoyed a higher social status compared to the early interpreters, most of them were still unpresentable because they were still incompetent to handle foreign affairs and translate diplomatic notes; besides, in the eyes of officials in the court, they were not reliable because they were not confidants trained by the court. Therefore, under normal circumstances, the court would rather rely on foreign “translator” than those self-taught interpreters.

然而,尽管与早期的翻译相比,他们享有更高的社会地位,但他们中的大多数人不被重用,因为他们仍无足够的能力去处理外交事务并翻译外交照会;此外,因为他们不是清廷训练出来的心腹,所以在清廷官员们看来,他们并不可靠。因此,在正常情况下,清廷宁愿任用外国“翻译”也不去任用这些自学成才的翻译。

Because foreign trade was limited to Canton for about 100 years, it was not strange that interpreters and compradors mainly came from Canton and southern China, but after the treaty of Nanking, the “Canton system” was abolished and the Cohong began to fall apart. With the transfer of foreign firm and merchants, interpreters and compradors went to Shanghai too.

由于对外贸易在大约一百年间仅限于广州,翻译和买办人员主要来自于广州和华南地区就显得并不奇怪了。但在南京条约签订之后,“广州制度”被废除了,行商就开始分崩离析。随着外国公司和商人转移至上海,翻译和买办人员也去了上海。

After then, Canton English gradually ended its historical mission and English started to with strong Shanghai characteristics and Canton interpreters began to transfer towards Shanghai interpreters.

此后,广州英语逐渐结束了其历史使命,英语开始具有浓厚的上海特色,广州翻译也开始被上海翻译取代。

4.4.3 Chinese Pidgin English and Shanghai Interpreters

4.4.3 中国洋泾浜英语和上海翻译

After being an open port in the mid-nineteenth century, foreign merchants came to Shanghai to open foreign firm and foreign governments competed with each other to establish foreign concessions and consulates. But the first problem they confronted was communication too. So they had to hire and depend on Chinese knowing CPE as their assistants and agents. At that time, the British were in charge of many fields and they opened many foreign firms, so they need Chinese people to do translation and chores. Meanwhile, people were happy to be employed for high salary and good treatment. But most interpreters and compradors were from Canton then because at the beginning, people with status and knowledge in Shanghai showed contempt and hatred for English.

在十九世纪中叶上海成为开放的港口之后,外国商人纷纷来到上海开设外国公司。外国政府也相互竞争以获得外国特许权及建立领事馆。但他们面临的第一个问题也是沟通交流问题。所以他们不得不聘请并任用懂中洋泾浜英语的中国人作为其助理和代理人。当时,英国人负责许多不同的领域,他们开设了许多外国公司。所以,他们需要中国人做翻译和日常事务。与此同时,中国人也很高兴能够因此获得高薪和良好的待遇。但大多数翻译和买办都来自广州。这是因为从一开始,在上海有地位的人和许多知识分子对英语表现出蔑视和仇恨。

However, in the late nineteenth century, with the increase of foreign concessions and foreign firms, opportunities for foreign employment increased, which made English learning become a fashion in Shanghai. In addition to missionary schools and official institutions, various kinds of foreign language training schools, reference books and teaching materials overwhelmed.

然而,在19世纪后期,随着外国特许经营和外国公司的增加,外国就业机会也随之增加。一时间,学习英语成为了上海的风潮。除了传教学校和官方机构外,各种外语培训学校,参考书和教材都数不胜数。

Compared to Cantonese, prudent Shanghainese outdone the former. Developed commodity economy and marginal culture greatly improved the social status of the interpreters. So, not like the early interpreters and Canton interpreters, Shanghai interpreters were active to transfer towards lucrative compradors from the beginning rather than just as dragoman and agents.

与广东人相比,谨慎的上海人有过之而无不及。发达的商品经济和海派文化大大提高了翻译人员的社会地位。因此,不像早期的翻译和广州翻译,上海翻译从一开始就热情高涨,他们想成为高薪的买办,而不仅仅是作为向导和代理人。

4.5 Influences of Chinese Pidgin English

4.5 中国洋泾浜英语的影响

4.5.1 Influences on the Chinese Language

4.5.1 对汉语的影响

As a variety of the English language, to some extent, CPE had greater influences on Chinese than English, revealing respectively in vocabulary and grammar.

作为英语语言的一个分支,在一定程度上中国洋泾浜英语对汉语的影响大过对英语的影响。这些影响分别在词汇和语法上有所体现。

On the one hand, CPE enlarged the Chinese vocabulary in two aspects. Firstly, the prevalence of CPE enriched expressions of local dialects of Chinese. For example, the Chinese phrase “瘪三”(beggars) originated from CPE. In old Shanghai, there were many beggars. And in CPE, “beg for” was spoken as “beg say” which was similar to “瘪三” in pronunciation, so “beggars” were called “瘪三” later. Secondly, some words and phrases of CPE became part of official language of China in verbal and written form. Take Chinese expression “邋遢” for example, it was the transliteration of  “litter” in English and became a word of CPE which meant “untidy” and is still in use in modern Chinese with unchanged meaning.

一方面,中国洋泾浜英语在两个方面扩大了汉语的词汇量。首先,中国洋泾浜英语的流行丰富了中国本土方言的表达。例如,中文短语“瘪三”(乞丐)就起源于中国洋泾浜英语。老上海有很多乞丐。在中国洋泾浜英语中,“beg for”被发成是“beg say”,这与中文发音中的“瘪三”相似,所以“乞丐”后来被称为“瘪三”。其次,中国洋泾浜英语的一些单词和短语成为了中国官话的一部分,以口头和书面形式出现。以中文表达“邋遢”为例,它是英语中“litter”的音译,在中国洋泾浜英语中有“不整洁”这个意思。这个词目前仍然在现代汉语中使用,意思不变。

On the other hand, although CPE was localized in grammar, it still brought great influences of English grammar on Chinese. It brought in the much easier English grammar and promoted the Anglicization of Chinese grammar because the grammar of ancient Chinese is very complex and difficult to understand by common people. For example, there was such a sentence as “句读之不知” in ancient Chinese. In this sentence, the object “句读” was placed before the verb “不知”. But in CPE, this sentence would be changed as “不通晓句读” where “通晓” was the verb and “句读” was the object, which meant the object was placed after a verb then. Gradually, the Europeanized grammar was accepted by most Chinese people and the Chinese language was subject to some changes.

另一方面,虽然中国洋泾浜英语的语法是遵从中文语法的,但是它仍然让中文的一部分语法烙上了英语语法的影子。它把英语语法中容易的那部分语法介绍了进来,并促进了汉语语法的英语化。这是出于古代汉语的语法非常复杂,难以被普通人所理解的缘故。例如,古代汉语中有“句读之不知”这样的句子。在这句话中,对象“句读”放在动词“不知”之前。但是在中国洋泾浜英语中,这句话会被改为“不通晓句读”,其中“通晓”是动词而“句读”是宾语,这意味着宾语被放置于动词之后。渐渐地,欧洲化的语法被大多数中国人所接受,而汉语也屈从了这些变化。

4.5.2 Influences on the English Language

4.5.2 对英语的影响

Due to different languages, the foreigners coming to China at that time found it impossible to communicate with the Chinese, let alone give orders to Chinese servants and trade with Chinese compradors. Consequently, they had to make concessions to use native language, which offered the soil for the influences of CPE on English. With the passage of time, some words and phrases entered English.

由于语言差异,当时来中国的外国人发现无法与中国人交流,更不用说对中国仆人下达命令和与中国买办做买卖了。因此,这些外国人不得不做出妥协来使用中文。这也为中国洋泾浜英语对英语的影响提供了土壤。随着时间的推移,其中的一些单词和短语被英语所接纳。

Take the word “shanghai” for example, today, it has two meanings in English: first, to kidnap people as sailors for losing consciousness with anaesthetic and hard liquor, and second, forcibly detained or abducted people by force and threat of force. Actually, the original meaning of “shanghai” came from CPE. In the nineteenth century, many foreigners abducted Chinese people in Shanghai with alcohol or drugs as sailors aboard ships leaving for San Francisco. When arrived, these Chinese sailors were sold as slaves. At that time, people called this kind of act “shanghai”. So “shanghai” entered CPE and was used by Chinese people and some foreigners. Afterwards, Westerners accepted this word and it became a slang term of English.

以“shanghai”这个词为例,今天它在英语中有两个含义:首先,诱拐人们去做水手,然后用麻醉剂和烈酒让他们失去意识;第二,用武力和武力威胁强行拘留或绑架人们。实际上,“shanghai”的本义源于中国洋泾浜英语。在十九世纪,许多外国人在上海绑架中国人,用酒精或毒品诱使他们登上前往旧金山的船去做水手。抵达旧金山后,这些中国水手被当作奴隶卖掉。那时,人们把这种行为称作是“shanghai”。故而,“shanghai”一词进入中国洋泾浜英语并被中国人和一些外国人所使用。之后,西方人接受了这个词,它成了英语的俚语。

Apart from words and phrases, some sentences of CPE also became acceptable in English. The exemplary example is the greeting “Long time no see”. It is easy to find that the word order of this expression is identical to that of the Chinese sentence “好久不见” because it is easy to remember for both Chinese and English. This expression has become increasingly popular and widely used, showing the enrichment of CPE in English.

除了单词和短语之外,中国洋泾浜英语的一些句子也被英语所接受。典型的例子就是问候语“Long time no see”。我们很容易发现这个表达的单词顺序与中文句子“好久不见”的单词顺序相同。这是因为对于中国人和英国人,这样的表达对他们都很容易记住。这种表达方式越来越受到欢迎并得到广泛使用,这表明了中国洋泾浜英语增加了英语表达的多样性。

4.5.3 Influences on the Transnational Exchange in the Late Qing Dynasty

4.5.3 清晚期对跨国贸易的影响

Language is the precondition and tools of international communication, so correct language use can enhance the efficiency of it. CPE, a kind of popular but informal language form in folk, was even difficult to fully competent in the daily communications and low levels trade sometimes, let alone deeper international communication such as national diplomacy. With the rise of Britain in the eighteenth century, English became the language of international diplomacy. However, at that time, the late Qing dynasty and the folk just had CPE to use when communicating with foreigners. But this kind of language form could not meet the actual needs and made the late Qing government at a great disadvantage in diplomatic activities and even fall into language hoax.

语言是国际交流的前提和工具,正确使用语言可以提高国际间交流的效率。 中国洋泾浜英语是一种民间流行但非正式的语言形式,有时甚至难以完全胜任日常交流和简单贸易需要,更不用说国家外交等更深层次的国际交流。随着英国在十八世纪的崛起,英语成为国际外交的语言。然而,那个时候,晚清政府和民间却还是仅仅使用中国洋泾浜英语作为与外国人交流的语言。但这种语言形式已不能满足实际需要,这使得晚清政府在外交活动中处于极大劣势,甚至闹出了语言误用的笑话。

For example, when the Qing government was signing a treaty about Macau’s jurisdiction with Portugal, the foreign diplomats intentionally translated “永驻澳门管理” as “the perpetual occupation and government of Macau” (永占澳门管理), making the plot to seize the sovereignty of Macau justified. This was similar in private international exchanges. Like what was said in an international correspondence in 1869, because of poor English of international workers, they could not receive a fair judgment.

例如,当清政府与葡萄牙签署关于澳门管辖权的条约时,外国外交官故意将“永驻澳门管理”翻译为“the perpetual occupation and government of Macau” (永占澳门管理)”,致使葡萄牙人抢占澳门**的阴谋得逞。在私人国际交流中也是如此。就像1869年的一次国际通信中所说的那样,由于国际劳工的英语水平很低,他们无法得到公正的裁决。

4.5.4 Influences on the Social and Cultural Development in Modern China

4.5.4 对近代中国社会文化发展的影响

Because CPE could not meet deeper needs of international exchange and appeared drawbacks frequently, many sensible people in the late Qing dynasty began to learn English on the basis of CPE, which facilitated the speed of rapid social transformation and finally opened the door to foreigners, leading our country to internationalization. The Qing government established the School of Combined Learning in 1860 and other schools later, trained a large number of language talents who were imperative at that time, translated a lot of foreign language books and brought in many foreign advanced science. In terms of it, CPE was an active practice for China to embrace the world and an attempt to promote the reform of superstructure with underlying strength. Whatever the pros and cons of CPE are, it is difficult to obliterate its historical role in a specific historic environment.

由于中国洋泾浜英语无法满足国际交流的更深层次的需求而且也经常弊端频出,晚清许多有觉悟的人开始在中国洋泾浜英语的基础上学习英语,这促成了当时社会的快速转型,最终中国向外国人打开了大门,引领中国走向国际化。清政府于1860年与其他学校建立了联合学习学院,为当时的社会培养了大量急需的语言人才,翻译了大量外语书籍并引进了许多国外先进科学。就此而言,中国洋泾浜英语是中国拥抱世界的积极试水,也是推动具有潜在优势的上层建筑改革的一种尝试。无论中国洋泾浜英语的利弊为何,它在特定的历史环境中所扮演的角色都难以被抹杀。

Although CPE has vanished from historical stage with systematic English teaching, some of its imprints have been etched in the language and culture development of China and fixed as a cultural symbol. Nowadays, we can still recollect and appreciate its in-depth insight of history from some orthodox vocabularies derived from it such as “bus”, “coffee”, “sofa” and so on.

虽然中国洋泾浜英语已经从历史进程中逐渐消失,被系统的英语教学所替代,但它的一些印记已经在中国的语言和文化发展中被深深烙印下去,并被视为是文化的标志。如今,我们仍然可以从一些它地道的词汇表达中回忆和欣赏它对历史的深刻印象。这些表达有“bus”,“coffee”,“sofa”等等。


 

Chapter Five Conclusion

第五章 结论

5.1 Summary of the Study

5.1 研究摘要

This study was intended to explore the role of CPE in the Sino-West communication. For this purpose, the author introduced some theories and research circumstances of mixed languages, a simple introduction to pidgins and creoles to provide a theoretical framework for the following analysis of CPE in which its history, causes and learning approaches, characteristics, relations between interpreters in the Qing Dynasty and influences were introduced. By doing so, this study provided some insights to understand the impacts of CPE on the Chinese society and culture and its practical functions in the development of modern Chinese society.

本论文旨在探讨中国洋泾浜英语在中西交流中所起的作用。为此,作者介绍了混合语言的一些理论和研究情况,简单介绍了皮钦语和克里奥尔语,为以下对于中国洋泾浜英语的研究分析提供了理论框架,其中我们了解到了中国洋泾浜英语的历史,原因和学习方法,特点以及清朝翻译和其造成的影响之间的关系。由此,本文为读者了解中国洋泾浜英语对中国社会文化的影响及其在现代中国社会发展中的实际作用提供了一些见解。

5.2 Limitations of the Study

5.2 研究的局限性

Due to the limited time and resources, this study still has some limitations. Firstly, it failed to make a more systematic and comprehensive analysis of some theories of mixed languages rather a simple overview and summary; secondly, it didn’t able to make a deeper analysis and exploration of the language features of CPE which is an crucial part in the forming process of it; third, it failed to make an intensive exploration about the social status of interpreters during the Sino-West communication in a special historical environment. These shortcomings should be overcome in future studies.

由于时间和资源有限,本文仍有一些局限性。首先,它没有对混合语言的某些理论进行更系统和全面的分析,而只是简单地做了概述和总结;其次,它没有对中国洋泾浜英语的语言特征进行更深入的分析和探索,而其语言特征恰恰是其形成过程中的关键所在;第三,本文未对在特殊的历史环境下中西交流中起着很大作用的翻译的社会地位进行深入探讨。这些不足应该在接下来的研究工作中得到弥补。

5.3 Implications of the Study

5.3 研究的意义

There is no doubt that the generation and development of CPE in the late Qing dynasty played a prominent role in the Sino-West exchanges of trade, ideas and culture and it is a research subject which is worth delving into not only in the studies of modern Chinese history but also modern Chinese language. But the fact is that there are still not so much researches of the generation, spread and impact of CPE and formal English in the late Qing dynasty.

毫无疑问,在晚清,中国洋泾浜英语的产生和发展在中西贸易,思想和文化交流中发挥了突出作用。这是一个值得深入研究的课题。我们应该不仅从中国历史入手进行研究,同时也要研究现代汉语。但事实是,对于晚清时期中国洋泾浜英语和正统英语的产生,传播和影响的研究还远远不够。

There are still many mysteries needed to be solved: what is exactly the root cause of the rise of pidgins in Canton? Whether the prevalence of Shanghai pidgin should owe to Canton interpreters and compradors or its own openness? To what extent the language features of CPE helped the spread of formal English in the late Qing dynasty? What were the exact impacts of CPE on English teaching in modern China? These are all worthy to conduct a further study and it is expected that this study could offer a little help to the future study.

我们还有许多问题亟待解决:广州洋泾浜英语崛起的根本原因究竟是什么?上海洋泾浜英语的盛行究竟应归功于广州的翻译和买办,还是它自身的开放性?中国洋泾浜英语的语言特征在多大程度上促进了晚清期间正统英语的传播?中国洋泾浜英语对现代中国英语教学的确切影响是什么?这些都是值得进一步研究的问题。希望本文能对人们今后的研究能起到一定的帮助。

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