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小组为儿童疫苗寻求40亿美元

Groups Seek 4 Billion for Child Vaccines
小组为儿童疫苗寻求40亿美元
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2019-08-16 21:36
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小组为儿童疫苗寻求40亿美元

Vaccines and chest compressions are both ways to save lives. Now,separatenew reports say each could save more lives if they were used more.

疫苗和胸外心脏按压(chest compression)是拯救生命的两种方法。现在,独立的几份报告表明,如果更多的使用,每一种方面都可以拯救更多生命。

One report is from the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies and the GAVI Alliance. GAVI is the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization.

其中一份报告来自国际红十字和红新月联合会以及GAVI联盟。GAVI是全球疫苗免疫联盟。

This alliance of public and private groups finances vaccinesin poor countries. Spokesman Jeffrey Rowland says GAVI has donea lotsince it began ten years ago.

这个公共和私营联合组织为贫困国家的疫苗提供资金。发言人Jeffrey Rowland表示,自十年前成立以来,GAVI已经做了许多工作。

JEFFREY ROWLAND: "We have prevented 5.4 millionprematuredeaths. That means these children will not die of these diseases, 5.4 million, and we hope to prevent 4.2 million premature deaths by keeping immunization rates high over the next five years for basic immunization androlling outvaccines against pneumonia and rotavirus diarrhea."

JEFFREY ROWLAND表示:“我们成功地预防了540万例早产儿死亡。这意味着这540万婴儿不会因这些疾病夭折。我们希望在未来的五年,通过基础免疫和肺炎和痢疾疫苗的高免疫率,防止420万早产儿死亡。”

GAVI says these two diseases cause more than one-third of all deaths in children under age five. It says new vaccines against the pneumococcal bacteria and rotavirus could save more than one million children each year.

GAVI表示,这两种疾病造成的死亡占五岁以下儿童死亡人数的超过三分之一。该机构表示,抵抗肺炎球菌肺炎和轮状病毒的新型疫苗每年可以拯救超过100万儿童的生命。

But the group warns that ashortageof four billion dollars threatens these and other immunization programs. Some of these programs have made great progress against polio and other diseasespreventableby vaccines.

但是,该组织警告称,由于缺少40亿美元的经费,这些项目以及其他一些免疫项目受到威胁。其中一些项目在抵抗小儿麻痹症和其他可以使用疫苗免疫的疾病方面取得了重大进展。

In other health news, a new study compares ways of saving patients with cardiac arrest. Sudden cardiac arrest is when the heart develops anabnormalrhythm and stops beating.

在其他卫生新闻方面,一项新的研究对比了拯救心脏骤停病人的几种方法。心脏骤停指的是心脏节奏异常,停止跳动。

An analysis of four studies found no difference in short-term survival when rescuers followed current guidelines. These call for defibrillation as soon as possible. A defibrillator is the device used to shock the heart back to normal rhythm.

对四项研究进行的分析发现,如果救援人员按照现行的指导方针进行操作,病人短期内存活下来的几率没有什么不同。这要求尽快进行早期除颤。去纤颤器是用来使心脏回到正常的跳动节奏的器具。

But there was a small increase in long-term survival among those who received chest compressions before defibrillation. This was true one year after cardiac arrest, and especially if there were delays in the arrival of emergency medical services.

但是,如果病人在早期除颤之前接受心脏按压,长期内存活下来的几率会稍有增加。在心跳骤停一年之后仍然如此,尤其是如果紧急医疗救援的抵达出现延迟。

Doctor Pascal Meier of the University of Michigan Health System led an international study of one thousand five hundred patients.

密歇根大学卫生体系的Pascal Meier医生领导工作人员对1500名病人进行了国际性的研究。

PASCAL MEIER: "What we wanted to test is whether it would be better to start first with good quality chest compressions to prepare the heart for this electrical shock -- to get some bloodcirculationto the brain and heart before we apply the shock."

Pascal Meier:“我们希望检测的是,如果首先进行高质量的心脏外压,为心脏接受电击做好准备——让血液循环到大脑和心脏再进行电击,,效果会不会更好。”

Dr. Meier says people should start to give compressions immediately if emergency help has not arrived. He says good quality compressions are done in the middle of the chest.

Meier说,人们急救没有到达,人们应该立即为病人进行心脏外压。他说,高质量的心脏外压应该在胸部正中间进行。

PASCAL MEIER: "On the breast bone, usually about two fingers above the lower end of the chest bone, you put your both hands and then you have tostraightenyour arms and do pretty strong compressions there."

PASCAL MEIER:“正确的位置是在胸骨末端以上两个手指的位置,双手放在上面,伸直双臂,全力按压。”

A report on the findings appeared in the online journal BMC Medicine.

关于这些发现的报告发表在网络版的生物医学中心期刊上。

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