幼儿健康牙齿的根治
Laying the Roots for Healthy Teeth in Young Children
426字
2019-04-07 19:42
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火星译客

Bad teeth can be painful -- and worse. They can even be deadly. Infections of the gums and teeth can release bacteria into the blood system. Those bacteria can increase the chances of a heart attack or stroke and worsen the effects of other diseases. And adults are not the only ones at risk.

一口坏牙会很痛乃至更糟。它们甚至会是致命的。牙龈和牙齿感染将细菌释放到血液系统中。这些细菌会增加心脏病发作或其它疾病发作及恶化的风险。成年人不是唯一处于风险中的人群。

For example, in two thousand seven, doctors in the Washington area said a boy died when a tooth infection spread to his brain. They said it might have been prevented had he received the dental care he needed. He was twelve years old.

例如,华盛顿地区的医生表示,2007年一个男孩由于牙齿感染蔓延至大脑而死亡。他们说,如果他做了所需的牙齿护理这事就能够避免。他当时才12岁。
 

Experts at the National Institutes of Health say good dental care starts at birth. Breast milk, they say, is the best food for the healthy development of teeth. Breast milk can help slow bacterial growth and acid production in the mouth. 

美国国立卫生研究院专家表示,健康护齿从出生时就开始。他们说母乳是对牙齿健康发展最有的食物。母乳可以帮助延缓口腔内细菌滋生和酸的生成。

But dentists say a baby's gums and early teeth should be cleaned after each feeding. Use a cloth with a little warm water. Do the same if a baby is fed with a bottle. Experts say if you decide to put your baby to sleep with a bottle, only give the child water.

但牙医表示,婴儿的牙龈和早期的牙齿应该在每次喂食后使用温水和软布清洗。婴儿用奶瓶喝过东西后也要这样做。专家说,如果你决定让孩子睡觉时喝奶瓶里的东西,只能给他们喝水。

When baby teeth begin to appear, you can clean them with a wet toothbrush. Dentists say it is important to find soft toothbrushes made especially for babies and to use them very gently.

当乳牙开始出现时,你可以使用湿润牙刷清洁它们。牙医称,寻找专门为儿童准备的软牙刷,使用时要非常轻柔,是很重要的。
 

The use of fluoride to protect teeth is common in many parts of the world. For example, it is often added to drinking water supplies. The fluoride mixes with enamel, the hard surface on teeth, to help prevent holes, or cavities, from forming.

在全球很多地区都通常使用氟化物保护牙齿。例如,它常常被添加到饮用水中。氟化物和牙釉质混合的坚固表面可以防止蛀牙的形成。
 

But young children often swallow toothpaste when they brush. The American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry notes that swallowing fluoridated toothpaste can cause problems. So young children should be carefully supervised when they brush their teeth. And only a small amount of fluoridated toothpaste, the size of a pea, should be used.

但幼童刷牙时经常会吞下牙膏。美国儿童牙科学会指出,吞下含氟牙膏可能会产生问题。因此在幼童刷牙时应当严格监督,同时只使用豌豆大小的少量含氟牙膏。

Parents often wonder what effect thumb sucking or sucking on a pacifier might have on their baby's teeth. Dental experts generally agree that this is fine early in life.

家长们常常想知道吮吸拇指或奶嘴会对宝宝的牙齿产生什么影响。牙科专家普遍认为,这在年幼时是无妨的。
 

The American Academy of Family Physicians says most children stop sucking their thumb by the age of four. If it continues, the group advises parents to talk to their child's dentist or doctor. It could interfere with the correct development of permanent teeth.

美国家庭医生协会表示,多数孩子四岁时就会停止吮吸拇指。如果孩子过了四岁还吮吸拇指,该协会建议家长向孩子的牙医或医生反应。这种行为可能会干扰恒牙的正常生长。

Dentists say children should have their first dental visit at least by the time they are one year old. They say babies should be examined when their first teeth appear -- usually at around six months.

牙医说,孩子们至少在一岁时要第一次去看牙医。他们表示,婴儿第一颗牙长出时应该去检查一下,这通常是在六个月左右。

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