Health Risks in a Crowd
人群中的健康风险
392字
2019-05-16 00:36
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Picture a huge public gathering -- a sea of people like the hajj to Mecca or an appearance by the pope. Think of the World Cup, the Olympics, a political event, a rock concert or a train station in Asia before the Lunar New Year.

想象一个大型的人群聚集画面,例如麦加朝圣或教皇露面时的人山人海。想象一下世界杯、奥运会、政治活动、摇滚音乐会或者是亚洲农历新年火车站春运的情景。

When thousands or even millions of people get together, what do you suppose is the biggest health concern?

当数千乃至数百万人聚在一起,你认为最大的健康问题是什么?
 

Traditionally, doctors and public health officials were most concerned about the spread of infectious diseases, like influenza. Robert Steffen, a researcher in Switzerland, says infectious diseases are still a concern. But he says injuries are a bigger threat at so-called mass gatherings. 

过去,医生和公共卫生官员最担心传染病的传播,例如流感。瑞士研究人员罗伯特·斯特芬(Robert Steffen)称传染病仍是一大担忧。但他表示受伤是所谓大规模集/会最大的威胁。

ROBERT STEFFEN: "The risk has actually been dominated by sprains or lacerations, or the mortality risk due to stampedes and heat exhaustion in periods of extreme heat."

斯特芬:“这类风险的主角实际上已经变为扭伤或撕裂伤,或者是踩踏死亡风险,或者是酷热时期的中暑。”
 

Mr. Steffen is a professor of travel medicine at the University of Zurich. He is the lead author of one of several new papers about health problems at mass gatherings published in the journal Lancet Infectious Diseases.

斯特芬先生是苏黎世大学旅行医学教授。《柳叶刀传染病》杂志上发表了数篇关于大规模集/会健康问题的论文,他是其中一篇论文的主要作者。
 

Professor Steffen says children and older people have the highest risk of injury or other health problems at these events. He says children are more at risk of getting crushed in stampedes, while older people are at higher risk from extreme heat.

斯特芬教授表示,儿童和老人在这类事件中是受伤或其它健康问题风险最高的人群。他说,儿童在踩踏事件中更容易被踩踏致死,而老人最容易因酷热而中暑。
 

ROBERT STEFFEN: "At the hajj, it's particularly senior adults who attend, and so they have great risk of suffering of heat stroke and of dying."

斯特芬:“参加麦加朝圣的尤其是老年人,因此他们中暑死亡的风险最大。”
 

Stampedes and crushing at mass gatherings have caused an estimated seven thousand deaths over the past thirty years.

在过去三十年里,大规模集/会踩踏事件预计已经导致了7000人死亡。
 

The design of an area can play a part. There may be narrow passages or other choke points that too many people try to use at once. Professor Steffen says the mood of a crowd can also play a part.

一个区域的设计可以起到一定的作用。可能会有许多人试图使用狭窄的通道或其它梗阻点。斯特芬教授表示,人群的情绪也可以发挥作用。
 

ROBERT STEFFEN: "If suddenly they get agitated, for instance, firework is being launched within a football stadium, then they get very much afraid and try to escape."

斯特芬:“如果他们突然变得激动,例如,足球场放起烟花,然后他们非常害怕并试图逃跑。”
 

He says organizers of large gatherings need to avoid creating conditions that might lead to panic, stampedes and heat stroke. And he says they must be ready to give medical care.

他表示,大型集/会组织者必须避免产生可能引发恐慌、踩踏和中暑的状况,还必须随时做好医疗服务的准备。
 

So what advice does he have for people attending a large gathering? First, get any needed vaccinations before traveling. Then, stay away from any large mass of people as much as possible. Also, be careful with alcohol and drugs, which can increase the risk of injuries.

他给参加大型集/会的人们有什么建议呢?首先,在出行前注射任何必需的疫苗;然后,尽可能远离大堆人群;此外,谨慎对待酒精和药品,因为这会增加受伤的风险。

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