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更年期与焦虑:它们之间有什么关系?

Menopause and anxiety: What is the link?
更年期与焦虑:它们之间有什么关系?
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2019-09-24 15:57
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更年期与焦虑:它们之间有什么关系?

What is the link between menopause and anxiety?

妇女更年期为何与焦虑有关?

By David Railton

作者:David Railton

Hormone changes, life stresses, sleep problems, worries about body image, infertility, and aging are all factors linked to menopause that can contribute to mood swings, stress, anxiety, and a decreased sense of well-being in women.

荷尔蒙变化、生活压力、睡眠障碍、自我形象忧虑、不孕和衰老都会在更年期出现,对妇女们造成情绪、压力和焦虑影响,降低妇女生活幸福满意度感受。

Perimenopause is the phase before the final menstrual period during which the body undergoes many physical changes. These changes in the body lead to the factors mentioned above that can lead to anxiety.

 围绝经期是妇女来最后一次月经之前一个阶段。这个时候身体会出现重大变化、导致出现上述症状而产生焦虑。

Menopause occurs when periods have ended for 12 months. Symptoms of perimenopause may continue in menopause but usually occur less often.

更年期大约有12个月。围绝经期的症状可能延续到更年期,但是频率会少。 

Studies report that 23 percent of women experience symptoms of anxiety during perimenopause and that these symptoms of anxiety are not necessarily linked to depression.

 研究表明,大约有23%妇女在围绝经期会出现焦虑症状。这种焦虑症状与抑郁没有关联。

It is normal to feel anxious or depressed when perimenopause begins, but frequent, severe feelings of anxiety or panic attacks are not typical symptoms of menopause.

妇女围绝经期开始时出现焦虑或抑郁仍属正常,但是频繁出现严重焦虑甚至有惊恐感觉则不可能是更年期引起的。 

Anxiety and menopause

焦虑与更年期

older lady looking troubled

Changes to the body alongside concerns about growing older may contribute to heightened anxiety.

妇女随着年龄逐渐增长 ,她们体内生理变化容易诱发焦虑障碍

Some women may feel sad or troubled during menopause, because of the changes to the body that occur, such as the loss of fertility. Other women may feel relieved to no longer fear pregnancy.

有些妇女更年期间感到困扰或悲伤,其原因是失去生育能力后出现的身体变化。也有些妇女因不再担心受孕而感到欣慰。 

In addition to this, women may undergo many significant life changes during the menopausal years. Their children may leave home, and their parents or partner may become unwell related to aging. These factors can all contribute to heightened feelings of anxiety.

除此之外,妇女绝经期间人生经历会发生许多重大变化。子女长大后可能离家独立生活,父母或伴侣会因衰老而罹患多种疾病。这些因素都可能加剧焦虑症症状。 

The hormonal changes that happen during menopause can also drive feelings of anxiety. Changes in levels of hormones called estrogen and progesterone, in particular, can have an impact.

绝经期产生的荷尔蒙激素改变也会诱发焦虑情绪,特别是雌激素和孕酮素水平变化的影响。 

These symptoms may go away when perimenopause ends, and women enter the postmenopausal period when hormones become more balanced.

这些症状在围绝经期结束后将会消除,妇女绝经后荷尔蒙激素水平即可恢复正常。 

Treatment

更年期焦虑症的治疗

It is not uncommon for women undergoing menopause to receive hormone replacement therapy(HRT) and other treatments for menopause symptoms. Some women are not good candidates for HRT and should make these decisions with their doctor.

有些妇女采用激素替代疗法(HRT)和其它医学疗法治疗更年期症状,但不普遍。有些女性不适合采用激素替代疗法(HRT),作出选择前最好咨询医生咨询。 

If a woman is going through perimenopause and is experiencing high levels of anxiety, she may also be prescribed medication to treat the anxiety. A doctor may also recommend counseling.

围绝经期严重焦虑的妇女可寻求医治帮助,服用治疗焦虑症药物。医生也会答应。 

Women with moderate-to-severe anxiety may be prescribed a popular type of antidepressantsknown as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs).

对于较中度或严重焦虑的妇女可服用常用抗抑郁药,如选择性血清素再吸收抑制剂(SSRIs)。 

SSRIs are often effective in improving symptoms of anxiety. According to the North American Menopause Society, however, about half of people who use these medicines experience side effects that affect their sex lives. These side effects can include reduced libido and difficulty maintaining arousal or achieving orgasm.

 血清素再吸收抑制剂SSRIs对改善焦虑症状具有良好效果。但是,根据北美更年期妇女协会( North American Menopause Society)报告称,这种药有一定副作用,约一半妇女服用后出现性唤起与高潮维持障碍。

Other types of antidepressants are available for women who experience sexual side effects from SSRIs. These include newer types of antidepressants, such as bupropion and duloxetine.

对服用SSRIs药有副作用妇女,可选用其它抗抑郁药,包括安非他酮和度西汀。
 

Older types of antidepressants, such as tricyclic antidepressants and monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors, are not linked to sexual dysfunction. However, they may cause other side effects.

还有些抗抑郁药,如三环类抗抑郁药和单胺氧化酶(MAO)抑制剂,虽不会影响性功能,但会产生其他副作用。 

Decreasing the dose may reduce the side effects for some people who experience sexual dysfunction from taking antidepressants. However, it is important for anyone considering lowering their dose of medicine to consult their doctor first, as stopping medication can have severe consequences.

对服用抗抑郁药后出现严重性功能障碍妇女来说,减少药物剂量也许是好的选择。不过,最好事先咨询医生,以免产生不良反应。 

Lifestyle tips

健康生活方式 

older ladies exercising

A healthful lifestyle, which includes some gentle exercise, may significantly reduce anxiety.

健康生活方式有助于减少焦虑,包括运动锻炼。 

Doctors believe that following a healthful lifestyle both helps with menopause symptoms and reduces panic attacks.

研究发现,健康生活方式不仅有助于减少更年期症状,也会使自己心理更健康,降低惊恐感。 

Regular, gentle exercise can significantly reduce anxiety. Women who are going through perimenopause should pick their favorite form of exercise and try to make it part of a daily routine. Whether it is walking, running, swimming, or yoga, regular exercise can help to burn off nervous energy and improve symptoms of anxiety.

经常进行适当运动能明显改善焦虑症状。临近绝经期妇女最好选择自己喜欢运动方式,每天进行锻炼,并列入自己生活日程里。无论是散步、跑步、游泳还是做瑜伽,规律性运动锻炼通过缓解精神情绪,达到改善焦虑症状目的。 

People should try not to drink too much caffeine or alcohol. Caffeine can trigger anxiety and nervousness. Alcohol is a depressant that can also make the underlying causes of anxiety worse.

 更年期妇女最好不要饮用酒精与咖啡。咖啡会诱发焦虑和紧张情绪;酒精是种抑制剂,往往是恶化焦虑症状的潜在因素。针灸能缓解焦虑感受,也可用于医治更年期症状。

Acupuncture may be effective in reducing anxiety and treating other symptoms of menopause.

针灸能有效减少焦虑,是医治更年期症状好方法。 

Getting good-quality sleep is important for reducing anxiety. However, women going through menopause often sleep poorly due to night sweats caused by hormone surges.

一个良好睡眠对减少焦虑甚为重要。但是更年期妇女常因荷尔蒙激增导致晚上盗汗而影响睡眠。 

Some people with anxiety find keeping a "pre-sleep journal" can help improve sleep. In a pre-sleep diary, people write out any nervous thoughts they might have so that their mind can rest easier.

 有些人发现,写点“睡前日记”有助改善睡眠。在日记中袒露自己存在的紧张想法,以达到放松自己目的。

There are support groups for women going through menopause, and these can be helpful. In a support group, people with the same issues get together to discuss the problems they are facing. Sharing their experiences together can help them to overcome their anxiety.

更年期妇女相互组织起来也有帮助。她们面临同样问题,可以相互商讨、支持和分享如何克服焦虑的经验。 

If a woman is going through menopause and is experiencing anxiety but does not want to attend a support group, just talking to friends about what she is going through can also be very helpful.

即使跟闺蜜朋友倾吐自己承受的苦恼也非常有帮助。 

Importantly, women should make sure that they take time out for themselves. Certain activities, such as gardening, reading, meditating, practicing mindfulness, or yoga, are all good ways to focus on oneself and create feelings of well-being and relaxation.

值得注意的是,园艺、阅读、冥想、正念和瑜珈锻炼,都是更年期妇女放松自己、增强幸福感的好方法。 

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