荣耀和耻辱 - 环球时报
Glory and disgrace - Global Times
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2019-06-24 16:39
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Source:AFP Published: 2019/2/27 17:43:40

来源:法国新闻社(AFP) 发布时间:2019年2月27日 17:43:40

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Singaporean President Tony Tan (center) and his wife Mary (left) view a statue of Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles at Westminster Abbey in London on October 21, 2014. Photo: IC

2014年10月21日,新加坡总统Tony Tan(图中间)和他的夫人Mary(图左)在伦敦威斯敏特大教堂参观托马斯·斯坦福·莱佛士的塑像。照片:IC

Sir Stamford Raffles is best remembered as the founder of modern-day Singapore, but a new exhibition sheds light on less well-known exploits of a man also criticized as a disobedient adventurer and bloodthirsty imperialist.

斯坦福·莱佛士爵士作为现代新加坡的奠基人被人们所铭记,然而新的证据揭示了他不为人知的一面,他被批判成不守规则的投机者和残忍的帝国主义者。

On February 6, 1819, Raffles, an agent of the East India Company which drove the expansion of Britain's empire in Asia, established a trading post in Singapore after signing a treaty with a local ruler. 

1819年2月6日,助推大英帝国在亚洲扩张的东印度公司的代理人莱佛士在新加坡与当地统治者签署条约后建立了一个贸易港。

The tiny backwater at the foot of the Malay peninsula was one of many British settlements across the world, and there was little early indication that it would develop into one of the world's busiest ports.

马来半岛脚下的小回水是英国在全球的众多殖民地之一,然而几乎没有迹象表明它会发展成为世界上最繁忙的一个港口。

But with a strategic location on global shipping routes, it quickly became a thriving trading hub. It has cemented this position since independence in 1965 and has also developed into a leading financial center.

凭借其在全球航线上的战略位置,该地迅速成为繁荣的贸易中心。1965年独立以后,其战略地位得到巩固,并已发展成为一个领先的金融中心。

Unlike other governments in the post-colonial era, Singapore did not reject its past under foreign rule but largely embraced Raffles as a symbol of free trade - his name is everywhere, from hotels to shopping malls, and a statue of the Briton stands at the spot he is thought to have arrived in the city.

与其它后殖民时代的政府不同,新加坡并没有拒绝接受被外国统治的过往,反而很乐意让莱佛士作为自由贸易的象征——从酒店到购物中心,他的名字无处不在,还有一个英国人的雕像矗立在据说他到达过这座城市的地方。

But Raffles did far more than establish Singapore, as an exhibition at the city's Asian Civilizations Museum highlights.

然而,莱佛士所做的不仅仅是建设了新加坡,新加坡市亚洲文明博物馆一位工作人员强调说。

"Raffles played several roles in 19th century Southeast Asia," museum director Kennie Ting told AFP. 

“莱佛士在19世纪的东南亚地区曾担任多个职务,”博物馆馆长Kennie Ting告诉法新社。

"Beyond the mythical 'founder figure' of Singapore, he was also a scholar and statesman."

“他不仅是新加坡神话般的'奠基人',也是一名学者和政治家。”

The exhibition, part of events to commemorate two centuries since Raffles arrived in Singapore, showcases about 240 objects including many collected by the colonialist, who also had stints on Java island and in what is now Malaysia.

此次展览作为莱佛士来到新加坡两百年纪念活动的一部分,展示了大约240件物品,包括殖民统治者搜集的许多物品。他除了在新加坡,同时也在爪哇岛,还有现在的马来西亚搜刮财物。

Among them are exotic items such as decorated masks, wooden figurines, shadow puppets and traditional percussion instruments, which are reminders of less well-known - and less successful - periods during Raffles's time in the region.

展览品中有一些异国情调的物品,例如装饰面具、木制雕塑、皮影戏和传统打击乐器,这些物品的历史都是莱佛士当政时新加坡不太知名、不算成功的时期。

Many were collected when he was stationed on Java (now part of Indonesia) as lieutenant-governor for several years from 1811.

许多物品都是他自1811年担任爪哇岛(现在是印度尼西亚的一部分)副省督数年期间搜刮所得。

After seizing control of the island from the Dutch and French, Raffles sought to institute reforms such as seeking to stamp out the slave trade. 

在从荷兰人和法国人手中接管了该岛的控制权之后,莱佛士尝试了消除奴隶贸易等制度改革。

He banned the import of any more slaves but many people - including British officers - continued to use them.

他严令不再进口奴隶,但许多人,包括英国的官员仍继续使用奴隶。

There were also controversial aspects to his rule, however, notably an assault by his men on the powerful kingdom of Yogyakarta and looting of the sultan's palace. 

对于他的统治也存在争议,尤其是他的士兵对日惹的袭击以及对苏丹宫殿的掠夺。

The East India Company became displeased as Java slipped into debt and, after it was returned to the Dutch, Raffles headed back to England out of favor with his bosses.

爪洼岛深陷债务让东印度公司感到不满意,在其归还荷兰以后,莱佛士回到英格兰,受到上级的冷落。

"He was in disgrace with the company, he was losing them a lot of money," Victoria Glendinning, who wrote biography Raffles and The Golden Opportunity, told AFP.

“他给公司蒙羞,也让公司损失了很多钱,”曾撰写过传记《莱佛士和黄金机会》的维多利亚·格兰宁告诉法新社。

She described him as "very disobedient and recalcitrant with the East India Company," adding that he "always thought he was right."

她形容莱佛士“很不服从东印度公司并且顽固不化”,并说他“一直认为自己是对的。”

During his time back home, he published The History of Java, which helped cement his reputation as a scholar. 

回国之后莱佛士出版了《爪哇史》,这本书有助于他获得了学者的名誉。

Many objects displayed at the Singapore exhibition, which runs until the end of April and is organized in collaboration with the British Museum, are mentioned in the work.

著作中提到了在新加坡展览中所展示许多物品,这次展览由大英博物馆协同组织,将持续举办到四月底。

Raffles returned to Southeast Asia in 1818 as governor of Bencoolen on Sumatra island. 

莱佛士在1818年返回东南亚,担任苏门答腊岛明古连领导人。

As in Java, he set about instituting reforms, and not long afterwards founded Singapore. 

和在爪哇执政时期一样,他在该地区着手实施制度改革,不久之后就成立了新加坡。

Some say he laid the foundation for the modern, cosmopolitan city-state by establishing a free port which quickly attracted people from around the world. 

有人做出评价,说他建立了一个吸引世界各地人民的自由港,从而为打造现代化、国际化城邦奠定了基础。

Still, this seemed of little importance to the East India Company - whose primary aim was to turn a profit - and when he returned to England they refused to give him a pension and he was ordered to pay huge sums to cover losses. 

尽管如此,他的做法在东印度公司看来无足轻重,东印度公司的主要目的是赚取利润。当他返回英格兰时,公司拒绝给他退休金,并且他被要求支付巨款以弥补损失。

He died two years later aged 44, in huge debt to the company - a far cry from his modern image as the visionary founder of Singapore.

两年后,他于44岁去世,那时他还身背巨额的公司债务,这与他如今作为新加坡有远见的创始人的形象相去甚远。

The exhibition, Raffles in Southeast Asia: Revisiting the Scholar and Statesman, also displays items from outside his collection, including some originating in Javanese and Malay royal courts.

此次“东南亚莱佛士:重访这位学者和政治家”的展览除了展示莱佛士收藏的物品外,还包括来自爪哇和马来王室的一些物品。

AFP

AFP

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