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这个邻近的鬼镇现在是珍稀猫头鹰的“无价的沿海地产”。

This LAX-adjacent ghost town is now ‘priceless coastal real estate’ for rare owls
这个邻近的鬼镇现在是珍稀猫头鹰的“无价的沿海地产”。
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2019-02-18 17:14
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这个邻近的鬼镇现在是珍稀猫头鹰的“无价的沿海地产”。

When the Los Angeles beachfront community of Surfridge disappeared decades ago to make way for the jet age, nature was slow to reclaim the sandy dunes and upscale lots that once dominated the path of planes taking off from Los Angeles International Airport.

几十年前,当洛杉矶海滨社区苏尔弗里奇消失,为飞机时代让路时,大自然缓慢地重新开垦沙丘和曾经主导洛杉矶国际机场飞机起飞路线的高档地段。

Today however, this 2-mile ghost town of vanished homes supports a growing list of protected and endangered species that have somehow adapted to the throttled-up roar of passenger jets. Surrounded by hurricane fencing and “no trespassing” signs, the LAX Dunes Preserve is now a haven for some of the rarest creatures in California.

然而,今天,这个2英里长的城市废墟给越来越多的受保护和濒危物种的名单的动物提供住处,这些物种以某种方式适应了喷气式客机的轰鸣声。在飓风围栏和“禁止侵入”标志的包围下,洛杉矶沙丘保护区现在是加利福尼亚州一些最稀有生物的避难所。

Scientists were elated by the recent discovery of 10 burrowing owls hunkered down in the 302-acre preserve — the most seen here in four decades. Among the raptors are a breeding pair that stand guard over a nest and hiss at occasional passersby.

科学家们对最近在302英亩保护区发现的10只穴居猫头鹰感到高兴,这是40年来在这里发现最多的猫头鹰。猛禽中有一对繁殖的猛禽,它们守卫着鸟巢,对偶尔路过的人发出嘶嘶声。

A burrowing owl next to its den at the LAX Dunes Preserve, at the west end of the airport's runways. Scientists attribute the return of the migratory owls to ongoing restoration work at the 302-acre preserve.

A burrowing owl next to its den at the LAX Dunes Preserve, at the west end of the airport's runways. Scientists attribute the return of the migratory owls to ongoing restoration work at the 302-acre preserve. (U.S. Geological Survey)

在机场跑道西端的松驰沙丘保护区,一只穴居猫头鹰在它的巢穴旁。科学家将迁徙猫头鹰的返回归因于302英亩保护区正在进行的修复工作。(美国地质调查局)

“This is very exciting — a real stunner,” said Pete Bloom, a biologist and avian expert who was helping to conduct a wildlife survey this month.

“这是非常令人兴奋的—一件真正的令人震惊的事,”生物学家兼鸟类专家皮特·布鲁姆说,他本月正在帮助进行一次野生动物调查。

“For wintering owls, this tiny chunk of land has become priceless coastal real estate,” he said, raising his voice over the deafening roar of aircraft a few hundred feet overhead. “That’s because there is no place else left for them to go in the city of Los Angeles.”

“对于过冬的猫头鹰来说,这一小块土地已经成为无价的沿海地产,”他在几百英尺高空飞机震耳欲聋的轰鸣声中提高了他的声音,“那是因为他们在洛杉矶没有地方可去。”

Sources: OpenStreetMap, Nextzen

Sources: OpenStreetMap, Nextzen (Jon Schleuss / Los Angeles Times)

资料来源:OpenSSTRETP,Nexzen(Jon Scheussen / Los Angeles Times)

The owls are the latest species to add complexity to an undulating habitat of sand, native brush and invasive weeds — a small wild island surrounded by asphalt, subdivisions and freeways.

猫头鹰是最新的物种,它为沙土、本地灌木和入侵杂草的起伏栖息地(一个被沥青、街道和高速公路包围的野生小岛)增加了物种多样性。

The reappearance of owls after a long absence signals the success of a restoration program that began in the 1990s and is now recognized as one of the most successful in Southern California.

猫头鹰在长期失踪后的再次出现,标志着一项修复计划的成功,该计划始于1990年代,现在被认为是南加州最成功的计划之一。

“For biologists, the preserve has become an ecological hot spot sandwiched between a popular beach and the third-busiest airport in the nation,” said Robert Fisher, a U.S. Geological Survey biologist. “We aim to make sure things stay that way.”

美国地质调查生物学家罗伯特·费舍尔说:“对于生物学家来说,保护区已经成为一个生态热点,夹在一个受欢迎的海滩和美国第三繁忙的机场之间。我们的目标是确保保持这样的状态。”

U.S. Geological Survey biological technician Tristan Edgarian searches for owl burrows in the dunes on the west end of Los Angeles International Airport.

U.S. Geological Survey biological technician Tristan Edgarian searches for owl burrows in the dunes on the west end of Los Angeles International Airport. (Luis Sinco / Los Angeles Times)

美国地质调查局生物技术员特里斯坦·埃德加里亚在洛杉矶国际机场西端的沙丘中搜寻猫头鹰洞穴。(路易斯·辛科/洛杉矶时报)

The range of biodiversity in the windswept landscape — which is off-limits to the public — underscores the difficulty that government wildlife biologists face ensuring the survival of rare species in an urban setting.

暴露在风中的荒野上的生物多样性的范围是禁止公众进入的,体现了政府野生生物生物学家在确保稀有物种在城市环境中生存所面临的困难。

Biologists believe there is a chance that juvenile burrowing owls might become permanent residents of the preserve, which is just one small fragment of a dune system that once stretched along the Pacific Coast from Point Conception, west of Santa Barbara, to Mexico.

生物学家认为,幼年穴居猫头鹰有可能成为保护区的永久居民,保护区只是一个沙丘系统的一小部分,曾经沿着太平洋海岸从圣巴巴拉以西的康塞普申角延伸到墨西哥。

It is already home to 900 species of plants and animals, including federally endangered El Segundo blue butterflies, whose numbers were in steep decline due to habitat loss. Today, thousands of blues flutter over robust stands of buckwheat during certain times of the year.

它已经拥有900种动植物,包括联邦濒危的ElSegundo蓝蝴蝶,由于栖息地的丧失,数量急剧下降。现在,在一年中的某些时候,成千上万的蓝蝴蝶在健壮的荞麦林上空飘扬。

Other species on the rebound in the isolated dunes include native evening primrose and California gnatcatcher. A recent survey of the federally protected bird found three pairs and six juveniles.

其他在独立沙丘重现的物种包括原生晚报春花和加利福尼亚州鼠尾草。最近一项对联邦政府保护的鸟类的调查发现,这只鸟有三对,六个幼鸟。

A colony of Blainville’s horned lizards has expanded its range throughout the preserve, along with the harvester ants that sustain them.

一个布兰维尔角蜥的聚居地在整个保护区内扩大了它的活动范围,同时还有用来支撑它们的大量蚂蚁。

U.S. Geological Survey ecologist Adam Backlin holds two legless lizards found at the LAX Dunes Preserve between the airport and the Pacific Ocean.

U.S. Geological Survey ecologist Adam Backlin holds two legless lizards found at the LAX Dunes Preserve between the airport and the Pacific Ocean. (Louis Sahagun / Los Angeles Times)

美国地质调查局的生态学家亚当·布莱克恩在机场和太平洋之间的拉克斯沙丘保护区发现了两只没有腿的蜥蜴。(路易斯·萨哈贡/洛杉矶时报)

Ongoing genetic tests aim to determine whether the prehistoric-looking creatures belong to a subspecies unique to the dunes, Fisher said. Up until a few years ago, the 4½-inch lizards resided only on the preserve’s southern boundaries.

费希尔说,正在进行的基因测试旨在确定这些史前生物是否属于沙丘特有的亚种。直到几年前,这只4.5英寸的蜥蜴只生活在保护区的南部边界。

Then there are the legless lizards, which were recently discovered in the windswept dunes.

然后是无腿蜥蜴,最近在被风吹拂的沙丘中被发现。

The legless lizard remains one of the most poorly studied reptiles in California, so researchers were thrilled to find six elusive specimens this month. A team led by Fisher and USGS ecologist Adam Backlin found them after turning over a few boards that were placed there earlier to create the kind of moist, cool area the reptiles prefer.

无腿蜥蜴仍然是加利福尼亚州研究最少的爬行动物之一,因此研究人员本月很兴奋地发现了六个难以找到的标本。由费舍尔和美国地质勘探局的生态学家亚当·贝林领导的一个研究小组在翻转了一些先前放在那里的木板后发现了它们,这些木板是为了创造爬行动物喜欢的潮湿、凉爽的区域而设的。

Fisher reached down and scooped up one of the lizards for a closer look. They measure about 8 inches long and are as thin as a drinking straw. “How cool is that?” he asked out loud as the creature wriggled in the palm of his hand.

费舍尔伸下手,把其中一只蜥蜴捞了起来,仔细看了看。它们长约8英寸,和吸管一样薄。“这有多酷?“他大声地问,而这个生物正在他的手掌里蠕动。

Federal scientists are discussing proposals to reintroduce animals that roamed the dunes a century ago but are no longer there. One candidate could be the Pacific pocket mouse, a critically endangered, thumb-sized mammal previously found only on a gun range at Marine Corps Base Camp Pendleton, about 115 miles south.

联邦科学家正在讨论重新引入一个世纪前在沙丘上漫游但现在不在那里的动物的建议。其中一个候选物种可能是太平洋袋鼠,一种极度濒危的拇指大小的哺乳动物,以前只在大约115英里以南的彭德尔顿海军陆战队基地发现过。

In the meantime, volunteers organized by nonprofit organizations such as the Bay Foundation and Friends of the LAX Dunes have been working with authorities and the preserve’s owner — Los Angeles World Airports — to help restore the landscape.

与此同时,非营利组织,如海湾基金会和拉克斯沙丘之友组织的志愿者,已经与当局和保护者的主人——洛杉矶世界机场合作,帮助恢复原来的景观。

Each month, they uproot the invasive weeds that sprout along the cracked, forgotten roads of Surfridge. Developed in the 1920s and ’30s, Surfridge was an isolated playground far from downtown — at least up until the time it was purchased by LAX and cleared of homes that sat just beyond the western edge of the airport’s runways.

每个月,他们都会铲除那些沿着破烂的、被遗忘的苏尔冰箱道路发芽的入侵杂草。Surfriedge开发于20世纪20年代和30年代,是远离市中心的一个孤立的游乐场,至少直到它被拉克斯收购,清理了机场跑道西边的房屋。

Today, after three years of weed removal, “we’re seeing a surge in native vegetation in some of the places we’ve cleaned up,” said Melodie Grubbs, director of watershed programs for the Bay Foundation. “Invasive plants including mustard and Russian thistle, for example, are being replaced by lupine, deer weed, evening primrose, buckwheat and California poppies.”

今天,经过三年的除草,“我们看到在我们清理过的一些地方,本土植被的激增,”海湾基金会的分水岭项目负责人Melodie Grubbs说。例如,芥末和俄罗斯蓟等入侵植物正被羽扇豆、鹿草、月见草、荞麦和加利福尼亚罂粟所取代。

Weeds weren’t the only invading species, however. There was a time when voracious feral cats prowled the dunes. But strategically placed wildlife cameras suggest that is no longer the case.

然而,杂草并不是唯一入侵的物种。曾经有一段时间,贪婪的野猫在沙丘上徘徊。但战略位置上的野生动物摄像头显示,情况已经不是这样了。

Against cats, burrowing owls don’t stand a chance.

穴居猫头鹰完全不是猫的对手。

A jetliner takes off over the LAX Dunes Preserve at the western end of the airport as scientists look for burrowing owls.

A jetliner takes off over the LAX Dunes Preserve at the western end of the airport as scientists look for burrowing owls. (Luis Sinco / Los Angeles Times)

一架喷气式飞机在机场西端的松驰沙丘保护区上空起飞,科学家们正在寻找穴居猫头鹰。(路易斯·辛科/洛杉矶时报)

Though burrowing owls were once among the state's most common birds, their numbers have been dropping steadily since the 1940s due to urban development, eradication of the rodents they feed on, pesticides, predation by domestic animals, vehicle strikes, collisions with wind turbines and shootings.

尽管穴居猫头鹰曾经是该州最常见的鸟类之一,但自20世纪40年代以来,由于城市发展、消灭它们赖以生存的啮齿动物、杀虫剂、家畜的捕食、车辆撞击、与风力涡轮机的碰撞和枪击,它们的数量一直在稳步下降。

“With almost no place left for migratory burrowing owls to rest and bulk up in the winter months,” Bloom said, “the dunes have become critical to the survival of the species.”

布鲁姆说:“由于几乎没有地方让迁徙的穴居猫头鹰在冬季休息和繁殖,沙丘已经成为该物种生存的关键。”

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