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研究人员称工业捕鱼使得信天翁濒临灭绝

Industrial fishing ushers the albatross closer to extinction, say researchers
研究人员称工业捕鱼使得信天翁濒临灭绝
644字
2019-02-11 22:36
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火星译客

Industrial fishing vessels that accidentally kill tens of thousands of albatrosses each year routinely ignore regulations designed to save the birds from extinction, according to research.

一项研究表明,工业捕渔船每年意外杀死数万只信天翁,但是往往会无视保护信天翁的法律条款。

Using satellite data, investigators found that vessels employing longline fishing techniques showed a “low level of compliance” with measures to reduce albatross deaths.

调查人员利用卫星数据发现,延绳钓技术的渔船对减少信天翁会不那么在意信天翁的意外死亡。

Longliners target tuna and other species, but their fishing lines – which can be up to 80 miles long – also unintentionally trap, drown and harm seabirds, as well as turtles, dolphins and other marine life, a process known as “bycatch”.

远洋渔船的目标是金枪鱼和其他渔业产品,但它们长达80英里的钓线也会无意中捕捉、溺死海鸟,以及海龟、海豚和其他海洋生物,这一过程被称为“副渔获物”。

Modern fishing methods have been identified as a major danger to plummeting albatross populations, threatening to drive almost three-quarters of all species to extinction, said Birdlife International, who undertook the research in conjunction with Global Fishing Watch.

国际鸟盟(Birdlife International)与全球渔业观察(Global fishing Watch)联合开展了这项研究。该组织表示,现代捕鱼方法已被确认为信天翁数量骤降的主要原因,几乎有四分之三的信天翁已经灭亡。

Under a red list compiled by the International Union for Conservation of Nature, 15 out of 22 albatross species are considered endangered.

根据国际自然保护联盟(International Union for Conservation of Nature)编制的一份红色名单,22种信天翁中有15种濒临灭绝。

The study, which drew on satellite data to map the behaviour of longliners in the Indian, Atlantic and western central Pacific ocean, revealed that just 15% of the vessels used a measure known as “night-setting”, which involves putting lines down at night. The technique is one of three mitigation measures designed to protect albatrosses, which only feed during the day.

这项研究利用卫星数据绘制了印度洋、大西洋和中太平洋西部的远洋班轮的航线地图。研究显示,只有15%的远洋班轮使用了一种被称为“夜间作业”的模式,即在夜间放下钓索。这项技术是用来保护信天翁的三种措施之一,因为信天翁只在白天进食。

The findings offered a stark contrast with reports given by countries to fisheries watchdogs that suggested night-setting was used by between 29% and 85% of fleets.

这些证据与各国上交给渔业监管机构的报告有很大差别,各国上交的报告显示有29%至85%的渔船使用夜间作业。

“The results are very disappointing,” said Stephanie Winnard, a biologist with the albatross task force, a specialist unit set up by Birdlife International and the Royal Society for the Protection of Birds. “By this stage you would expect a lot more vessels to be using night setting.”

国际鸟类保护协会(Birdlife International)和英国皇家鸟类保护学会(Royal Society for The Protection of Birds)成立的信天翁特别工作组(albatross task force)的生物学家斯蒂芬妮·温纳德(Stephanie Winnard)说:“结果让人很难过,本来到这一地步你会看到很多渔船只使用夜间作业模式。”

The aim of the research was to encourage best practice, to which end the results will be shared with the countries whose vessels were studied.

这项研究的目的是找到最好的方法,最终的成果由参与的国家共享。

Albatrosses, petrels and other seabirds are “irresistibly drawn” to the trailing, baited longlines, said Winnard. Each year, an estimated 100,000 birds are hooked and drowned by longline and trawl fisheries.

温纳德说,信天翁、海燕和其他海鸟“无法抗拒地”被拖着的、带诱饵的长线所吸引。据估计,每年有10万只鸟被延绳钓和拖网捕鱼所钩住并溺死。

“This level of bycatch in the fishing industry is hugely unsustainable for birds that can take up to 10 years to start breeding,” said Winnard, who added that the findings were “truly powerful” for the way the data shed light into the “opaque world” of global fisheries and their impact on ocean biodiversity.

“鸟类需要十年繁殖一代,这种副渔获物非常不可持续。”他补充说,这些真正的数据揭示全球不透明的渔业对海洋生物多样性的影响。

“No one is going to report they are not sticking to the rules or they are killing seabirds, so we now have this independent way of measuring compliance,” said Winnard. “This information has never before been public. It is usually kept behind closed doors. It will promote transparency and hold countries to account. It is the first time we’ve been able to see what is happening on individual fishing boats.”

没有人会说自己违规,或者他们在捕杀海鸟,所以我们现在有了一套独立的方法来判断他们是否遵守规定。这一信息没有公开过。它一直是隐藏起来的。现在它将公开,并追究各国的责任。这是我们第一次能够看到每个渔船上发生的情况。

The researchers used vessels’ satellite data to examine the way 201 ships were moving, as well as the speed and direction of travel, in order to determine when fishing lines would be put down.

研究人员利用船只的卫星数据,观测了201艘船只的移动方式、速度和行进方向,以确定何时放下钓绳。

Regulations laid down by the five Regional Fisheries Management Organisations that regulate tuna fisheries where albatross are found generally stipulate that two out of three mitigation measures must be used. The other methods include weighting lines to ensure they sink faster and using streamer lines to scare seabirds away. The regulations have been in place for between five and 10 years, depending on the region, but the RFMO rely on self-reporting by the ships.

五个区域渔业管理组织制定了条例,规定在发现信天翁的金枪鱼渔业区域必须采取其他两种的缓解措施。其他的方法包括加重钓索的重量,让它们下沉得更快,以及使用飘带钓索将海鸟吓跑。根据地区的不同,这些规定已经实施了5到10年,但渔业监管组织还是依赖船只的自我报告。

However, the international Agreement on the Conservation of Albatrosses and Petrels, introduced in 2004, suggests all three mitigation methods should be used.

但是,2004年出台的《信天翁和海燕保护国际协定》(international Agreement on the Conservation of Albatrosses and pet海燕)建议,应该使用这三种方法。

A study published in 2011 estimated the bycatch of seabirds of longline fisheries to be between 160,000 and 320,000 annually.

2011年发表的一项研究估计,延绳钓渔业的海鸟兼捕量每年在160,000至320,000之间。

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