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科学家发现一些鱼能辨别镜中的自己

Scientists find some fish can ‘recognise themselves’ in mirror
科学家发现一些鱼能辨别镜中的自己
893字
2019-02-11 15:19
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火星译客

They are often said to have a three-second memory, but the brain power of fish has been considerably underestimated, according to scientists who found some fish can recognise themselves in the mirror.

人们常说鱼只有三秒钟的记忆,但是科学家发现一些鱼能够发现镜子中的自己,这表明它们的智力一直以来都被严重的低估了。

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Talking animals: we aren’t the only species capable of speech … 

会语言的动物:我们也不是唯一有语言的生物………

Their findings suggest that a small, otherwise unremarkable species called the cleaner wrasse has joined an elite handful of others to have passed the so-called mirror test, which has been used for decades as a gold standard measure of animal intelligence.

他们的发现表明,一种名为“裂唇鱼”(cleaner wrasse)的小物种,加入了少数通过了所谓“镜像测试”(mirror test)的优秀物种之列。数十年来,镜像测试一直被用作衡量动物智商的黄金标准。

Passing the test is widely viewed as an indication of self-awareness and until now the only animals to have crossed this threshold are great apes, bottlenose dolphins, killer whales, Eurasian magpies and a single Asian elephant. Now the select club may have an unlikely new member.

通过这项测试被广泛地认为是一种自我意识的表现,到目前为止,通过这个测试的动物有类人猿、宽吻海豚、虎鲸、欧亚喜鹊和一只亚洲象。现在这个群体中有了一个意想不到的新成员。

“These fish are fascinating in their breadth of cognitive abilities – and underappreciated,” said Alex Jordan, an evolutionary biologist at the Max Planck Institute for Ornithology in Germany and the study’s senior author. He and colleagues are calling for an overhaul of the traditional hierarchy of animal intelligence, saying that despite their reputation for being “basically vacant”, fish perform exceptionally well on certain tasks.

德国马克斯·普朗克鸟类研究所(Max Planck Institute for Ornithology)的进化生物学家、该研究的第一作者亚历克斯·乔丹(Alex Jordan)说:“这些鱼在认知能力的度上令人着迷,但却被低估了,”他和同事们呼吁对传统的动物智力等级制度进行彻底变革。尽管鱼类素有“基本智商为零”的说法,但它们在某些任务上表现得异常出色。

The prospect of fish rising up the ranks of animal cognition has not been universally welcomed though, and the paper proved so controversial it took the authors five years to get it published. “Some areas of the academic community seem fairly intent on fish not joining the pantheon of smart things because then their own animals lose their special place in the world,” said Jordan.

然而,鱼类在动物认知中的地位上升并没有很大的认可度,这篇论文的争议太大,作者花了五年时间才发表。乔丹说:“学术界的一些领域似乎非常希望鱼类不要加入聪明生物的行列,因为那样它们自己支持的动物就会失去它们在世界上的特殊地位。”

The cleaner wrasse (Labroides dimidiatus) is about 10cm long with a stripe, and lives in coral reefs. Previous research has revealed these fish have complex social lives, forming allegiances and enemies, making logical inferences about whether they will beat other fish in fights and showing a capacity for deception. The fish live in mutually beneficial partnerships with larger client fish from whom they feed on dead skin and parasites.

裂唇鱼长约10厘米,有条纹,生活在珊瑚礁中。之前的研究已经揭示了这些鱼有着复杂的社会关系,形成了效忠和敌对的关系,对它们是否能在战斗中打败其他鱼做出逻辑推断,并显示出有欺骗的能力。这些鱼以死皮和寄生虫为食,与较大的鱼保持互利共生的伙伴关系中。

During the mirror test, the researchers placed a mark on the fish in a location that could only be seen in a mirror reflection. Initially, the fish reacted aggressively and repeatedly tried to bite their reflections. But over the next few days, they stopped biting and started “behaving weirdly” in front of the mirror, swimming upside down, for instance, or doing repeated bursts of acceleration past the mirror.

在镜子测试中,研究人员在鱼身上做了一个只能在镜子里看到的标记。起初,这条鱼的反应很激烈,并反复尝试咬自己的倒影。但在接下来的几天里,它们停止了咬倒影,开始在镜子前“表现怪异”,比如倒立游泳,在镜子前反复加速。

Orangutan.

Pinterest An orangutan recognises itself in a mirror, widely viewed as an indication of self-awareness. Photograph: David Allen Brandt/Tony Stone 

猩猩能在镜子里认出自己,这被广泛认为是一种自我意识的表现。

According to the authors, the fish were “contingency testing” – doing strange things to see whether the reflection did the same as a way of figuring out the function of the mirror. They were also observed attempting to remove the marks by scraping their body on hard surfaces after viewing themselves in the mirror. These activities were not seen when the fish were given marks without a mirror present or when they interacted with marked fish across a clear divider.

根据作者的说法,这些鱼是在做“偶然性测试”——做一些奇怪的事情,看看映像是在弄清镜子功能的方法一样。他们还被观察到在镜子里看自己身体上的痕迹之后,试图通过在坚硬的表面上刮擦自己的身体来去除这些痕迹。在没有镜子的情况下给这些鱼打上标记,或者在一个清晰的隔离带上与标记鱼互动时,是没有这些活动的。

“It’s not that this proves fish are as smart as chimpanzees,” said Jordan. “It shows that in this task the fish can perform in a similar way. They can understand what the mirror does and use the mirror to see its own body.”

乔丹说:“并没有这证明鱼和黑猩猩一样聪明,它表明,在这项任务中鱼可以以类似的方式表现。他们可以理解镜子的作用,并用镜子看自己的身体。”

He added it did not necessarily imply fish were self-aware, but the findings challenged the idea that animal intelligence follows a continuum, with chimpanzees at the top and fish, insects and reptiles at the bottom.

他补充说,这并不一定意味着鱼是有自我意识的,但这一发现挑战了动物智力遵循连续统一体的观点,即黑猩猩处于顶端,鱼、昆虫和爬行动物处于底部。

Prof Gordon Gallup, a psychologist at the University at Albany in New York, who pioneered the mirror test in 1970, disputed whether the fish really recognised themselves.

纽约奥尔巴尼大学(University at Albany)的心理学家戈登•盖洛普(Gordon Gallup)教授在1970年率先进行了镜像测试。

He said in their “zeal to undermine the integrity” of the gold standard test the authors may have overlooked other explanations. The behaviour could be explained because the fish were evolutionarily programmed to be interested in skin markings, Gallup suggested. “There is a distinct possibility that these findings may be an artefact of using marks that simulate ectoparasites,” he said.

他说,由于他们“热衷于破坏黄金本位测试的完整性”,作者可能忽略了其他解释。盖洛普认为,这种行为可以解释,因为鱼类进化过程中对皮肤斑纹很感兴趣。他说:“有一种明显的可能性是,这些发现可能是使用像是体外寄生虫的标记的人工制品。”

Jordan said some of the criticisms were prompted by people’s preconceptions about fish, rather than scientific objectivity, which he said was “a bit sad and disappointing”.

乔丹说,一些反对声音是由于人们对鱼类固执的看法,而不是科学的客观性,他说这“有点可悲和让人失望”。

Are We Smart Enough to Know How Smart Animals Are? by Frans de Waal – review 

我们是不是聪明到知道动物有多聪明?

“When it’s a fucking elephant and one of two elephants passes the test, everyone’s like ‘Yeah cool’,” said Jordan. “When it’s a fish they’re like, ‘Ooh you need a conspecific control and a control for empathy and a control for this and that … the fish are not doing this’.”

乔丹说:“当一头该死的大象和两头大象中的一头通过测试时,每个人都会说‘太酷了’。当它是一条鱼的时候,它们会说,‘哦,你需要一种同源控制,一种同理心控制,一种这种那种的控制……鱼不会这样做。’”

The authors said the findings raised questions about fish welfare. “We must be very careful as scientists and humans not to let our loss of empathy towards animals that look different to us influence our opinion of what they experience,” said Jordan.

作者说,这些发现提出了有关鱼类福利的问题。乔丹说:“作为科学家和人类,我们必须非常小心,不要让我们对外表不同的动物失去同情心,影响我们对它们所经历的事情的看法。”

“Otherwise, we conveniently forget or ignore that fish and other animals are sentient and, for instance, our entire practice of commercial fishing lets these animals die in stress and pain on the decks of boats.”

“否则,我们很容易忘记或忽视鱼和其他动物是有知觉的,例如,我们整个商业捕鱼让这些动物死在重压和痛苦的甲板上。”

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