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莫斯科最吸引人的地方:那些你不容错过的事情

Top Moscow attractions: What you can't miss
莫斯科最吸引人的地方:那些你不容错过的事情
1554字
2019-02-11 15:32
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火星译客

 Moscow, the capital of Russia, is brimming with historical sights, eye-popping architecture, world-class museums and cultural landmarks.

莫斯科,俄罗斯的首都,充满了历史名胜古迹,令人瞠目结舌的建筑,世界级的博物馆和文化地标。

It's a fascinating destination with clashing layers of history: the czarist era rubs against the decades of austere communism followed by a 21st-century economic boom of sometimes flagrant excess.

这是一个迷人的城市,有着不同历史层面的冲突:沙皇时代与几十年的共产主义制度相冲突,随后是21世纪的经济繁荣与公然过剩之间的冲突。

Whether you happen to be in Moscow for the 2018 World Cup and want a diversion or you're a longtime Russophile, figuring out what to see can be a bit bewildering in this huge, complex city.

无论你是碰巧在莫斯科观看2018年世界杯,想要转移一下注意力,还是你是一个长期的亲俄者,在这个庞大而复杂的城市里,想要弄清楚要看什么可能有点令人困惑。

Here's a quick roundup of some of Moscow's top attractions -- both tourist favorites and a few unexpected places -- when you travel here:

当你在莫斯科旅行时,这里有一些莫斯科最受欢迎的景点,包括旅游胜地和一些意想不到的地方:

Moskva River

莫斯科河

London has the Thames. Paris has the Seine. And Moscow has the Moskva. It may not get the same attention, but it's nonetheless a good place for a walk or boat tour.

伦敦有泰晤士河,巴黎有塞纳河,莫斯科有莫斯科河。尽管它可能不会得到同样的关注,但它仍然是一个散步或乘船游览的好地方。

A riverside stroll between the Cathedral of Christ the Savior and Gorky Park (with one bridge crossing) would take about 90 minutes, depending on your walking speed and how much you stop to gawk. And if you're a fan of religious buildings, you can begin or end your walk with a tour of the cathedral, which was destroyed on Josef Stalin's orders in the 1930s but rebuilt in the 1990s.

沿着基督大教堂到高尔基公园(之间有一座桥)的河岸边散步大约需要90分钟,而且这取决于你的步行速度和你停下来看风景的时间。如果你是一个宗教建筑的爱好者,你可以以参观这座教堂开始或结束你的旅程。这座教堂在上世纪30年代被约瑟夫·斯大林下令毁坏,但却在90年代重建。

A river cruise in any major city with a waterway lets you get a whole new take on it, and Moscow is no exception. You can book cruises of varying times and routes from different companies. Night cruises get special raves from tourists online. Just remember Moscow has long winters, and the river can freeze over for months.

在任何一个有河流的大城市里乘船游览都能让你有全新的感受,莫斯科也不例外。你可以从不同的公司预订不同时间和路线的邮轮。而且夜间游轮在网上受到游客的特别追捧。但要记住莫斯科的冬天很长,河水会结冰好几个月。

Lenin's Mausoleum

列宁墓

Visiting the various sights in historic Red Square can really hit you in the wallet, but here's an attraction that's still free: the mausoleum holding the embalmed body of communist revolutionary Vladimir Lenin.

游览历史悠久的红场上的各种景点确实会让你大饱眼福,但在这里有一个景点一直是免费的:共产主义革命领袖弗拉基米尔·列宁(Vladimir Lenin)的防腐陵墓。

The mausoleum once had an almost religious pull for citizens of the officially atheistic Soviet Union, with people waiting long hours just to get a glimpse of Lenin and perhaps leave a flower.

这座陵墓曾经对信奉无神论的苏联公民产生了近乎宗教般的吸引力,人们为了一睹列宁的风采,甚至要等上好几个小时,当然还会留下一簇鲜花。

In today's Russia, it's a less somber atmosphere along the walls of the Kremlin. There's even talk of closing the mausoleum to visitors, so if you want to see the preserved body of the man who set the historical trajectory for much of the 20th century, act quickly. Hours are limited; plan your schedule well. And you can't take cameras or bags inside.

在今天的俄罗斯,克里姆林宫周围的气氛似乎不再阴郁。甚至有人说要对游客关闭陵墓,因此,如果你想看到这位在20世纪开创历史的人,那就尽快行动吧。时间是有限的,好好计划你的日程。那里不允许带相机和包。

St. Basil's Cathedral

圣巴西尔大教堂

When you close your eyes and think of Moscow, you might picture St. Basil's Cathedral in your mind. You've probably seen its richly colored, onion-shaped domes on television during fireworks shows or as a backdrop for Western TV correspondents.

当你闭上眼睛去想象莫斯科时,在你的脑海中就可能会浮现出圣巴西尔大教堂。而且你可能已经在电视烟花表演或西方电视记者的背景中看到过它色彩丰富的洋葱形圆顶。

Czar Ivan the Terrible ordered its construction to mark a huge military victory over Mongols. It was finished in 1560 and is also known as Pokrovsky Cathedral.

当时,沙皇伊凡雷帝下令建造它,以标志着对蒙古的巨大军事胜利。它于1560年完工,在当时也被称为波克罗夫斯基大教堂。

These days, it's a museum and one of the major attractions of Red Square. A religious service is held once a year in October, on the Day of Intercession in Eastern Orthodoxy.

如今,它变成了一个博物馆,并成为了红场的主要景点之一。每年10月是东正教代祷的日子,在那里都会举行一次宗教仪式。

Gorky Park

高尔基公园

Gorky Park is the Wi-Fi-equipped epicenter of Moscow's metamorphosis into a kinder, friendlier urban space.

高尔基公园是见证莫斯科蜕变成一个友善的城市的中心,而且在那里还有WIFI设备。

Opened during the Great Terror of the late 1930s, the park showcases Stalin's imperial style: The central concrete strip down the middle was designed for tanks to lumber through after parades in Red Square.

这座公园于20世纪30年代末的大清洗时期开放,展示了斯大林的帝国主义风格:中心混凝土走廊位于道路中间,是为了坦克在红场阅兵后缓慢通过而设计的。

An overhaul has transformed Gorky Park into the city's most happening place to hang out. Gone are the rusting roller coasters of yore, replaced by cafés, an outdoor cinema, lounge chairs and free dance and yoga classes. And fans of the 1981 murder mystery novel "Gorky Park" by Martin Cruz Smith will get a kick from just being here.

高尔基公园经过彻底改造后,已成为这座城市最适合闲逛的地方。生锈的过山车已经不复存在,取而代之的是咖啡馆、露天电影院、躺椅、免费的舞蹈和瑜伽课程。1981年马丁·克鲁兹·史密斯(Martin Cruz Smith)的谋杀悬疑小说《高尔基公园》的粉丝们也可以到这里来寻找乐趣。

Bolshoi Theatre

莫斯科大剧院

Even people who don't follow ballet and opera have usually heard of the renowned Bolshoi Theatre.

即使不喜欢芭蕾舞和歌剧的人也会经常听说著名的莫斯科大剧院。

In 2011, Russia's beloved Bolshoi reopened after a long renovation. Visitors are now enjoying improved acoustics, new seating and touched-up mosaics that restored the theater to its imperial luster after decades of communist neglect.

2011年,俄罗斯备受喜爱的莫斯科大剧院在经过长期的整修后重新开放。游客们现在可以享受更好的音响效果、更新的座位和装饰的镶嵌壁画,这些都让被共产党忽视了几十年的大剧院又恢复了帝国的光彩。

The opera and ballet productions are more popular than ever, but it's not just the same old "Swan Lake." Experimental stagings of classics such as "Ruslan and Lyudmila" were sending traditionalists into a tizzy -- and winning the theater new cultural relevance.

歌剧和芭蕾作品比以往任何时候都更受欢迎,但它不只与古老的“天鹅湖”相类似。像《鲁斯兰和柳德米拉》这样经典的剧目试验性地在舞台表演,这让传统主义者陷入了一种慌乱之中,并为戏剧赢得了新的文化意义。

The theater runs an online booking system. Reserve early, as tickets can sell out months in advance. In 2018, the Bolshoi is closed from July 29 to September 12 (though nothing can stop you from marveling at its exterior).

这家剧院有一个网上订票系统。由于票会在几个月之前就卖光,所以你需要提前预定。2018年,莫斯科大剧院将从7月29日关闭至9月12日(但什么都不能阻止你对它的外观惊叹不已)。

Moscow State University (main building)

莫斯科国立大学(主楼)

The main building of Moscow State University is sure to leave a lasting impression. The Stalinist-era building is a tall, wide, white behemoth topped by a distinctive spire with a star.

莫斯科国立大学的主楼一定会给人留下深刻的印象。这栋建于斯大林时代的建筑是一个高大、宽阔、白色的庞然大物,而且在顶部有一个独特的星标尖顶。

It was the tallest building in Europe at the time of its construction and still holds the title of tallest educational building in the world. And what that means for the visitor: Along with a close-up view of communist architecture, a fantastic bird's-eye view of Moscow.

它在建造时就是欧洲最高的建筑,现在仍然是世界上最高的教育建筑。这对游客来说意味着什么呢?除了共产主义建筑的近景,你还能俯瞰到莫斯科美妙的景色。

GUM department store

国营百货商场

Moscow's national department store GUM on Red Square has a rich and mysterious history that few can rival. It has survived more than a century of tumult since opening in 1893.

莫斯科红场上的国营百货商场有着丰富而神秘的历史,几乎无人能与之匹敌。自1893年开业以来,它经历了一个多世纪的动荡。

The 242-meter-long (794 feet), three-story structure escaped the bulldozer three times. And it became Stalin's office in the 1920s.

这座242米(794英尺)高的三层建筑连续三次都躲过了推土机的破坏,最终在20世纪20年代,它成为了斯大林的办公室。

Its lavish toilets were shut down for being a bourgeois luxury in 1918. One of them -- branded Historic Toilet -- has now been restored to its pre-revolutionary grandeur and is open to anyone willing to spend just a little money.

1918年,它的豪华厕所因为是资产阶级的奢侈品而被关闭。但其中一间名为“历史厕所”的厕所,现在已恢复到革命前的状态,对那些愿意花钱的人开放。

Its communist era hasn't been forgotten; the Soviet-themed cafe Stolovaya No 57 serves up borscht, pies and pickles along with nostalgia. An ice rink opens each winter.

但它的共产主义时代没有被遗忘;以苏联为主题的斯道洛法亚57号咖啡馆供应罗宋汤、馅饼、泡菜以及那些怀旧的食物。而且溜冰场每年冬天都会开放。

Tretyakov Gallery

特列季亚科夫画廊

If you want to see great works from all over Europe, head to the excellent Pushkin Museum. But if you want to do a deeper dive into Russian art, then the Tretyakov Gallery is the place to go.

如果你想看全欧洲的伟大作品,那就去著名的普希金博物馆。但如果你想更深入地研究俄罗斯艺术,那么特列季亚科夫画廊则是一个不错的选择。

The main historical gallery holds more than 1,300 works of Russian art that span from the 11th century to the early 20th century. This is where you can see masterpieces such as "The Appearance of Christ to the People" by Alexander Ivanov and "Trinity" by Andrei Rublev.

这个历史画廊主要收藏了从11世纪到20世纪初的1300多件俄罗斯艺术作品。在这里,你可以看到亚历山大·伊万诺夫(Alexander Ivanov)的《基督显现》和安德烈·鲁伯列夫(Andrei Rublev)的《三体》等杰作。

If you want to see more modern works, from the past 100 years or so, then the New Tretyakovka is the place for you. About a 25-minute walk from the historical gallery, you can explore works in socialist realism, avant-garde and more here.

如果你想看到更多过去100年左右的现代作品,那么新的特列季亚科夫画廊就是你要去的地方。从历史画廊步行大约25分钟,你可以在这里探索社会主义现实主义、前卫主义和更多的作品。

If all this doesn't satiate your appetite for Russian art, then the Tretyakov has associated house museums of important artists.

如果这一切都不能满足你对俄罗斯艺术的胃口,那么特列季亚科夫画廊也会把重要艺术家的住宅和博物馆相联系起来。

MIBC (Moscow International Business Center)

MIBC(莫斯科国际商务中心)

You'll have lots of chances to see glories from distant and more recent Russian history. This is where to go if you want to see the future.

你将有很多机会看到来自过去和近代俄罗斯历史的荣耀。而且在这里你也可以看到未来。

Also called "Moscow City," it's still a work in progress. The vision of the project is to combine commercial skyscrapers with residential and commercial buildings. The observation platform on the 58th floor of the Imperia business center gets mixed reviews online, in part because other buildings block some of the views.

它也被称为“莫斯科城”,但目前仍在建设中。该项目的愿景是将商业摩天大楼与住宅相结合起来。人们对于帝国商业中心58层的观景台的评论褒贬不一,其中一部分原因是由于其他的建筑挡住了视线。

But if you're the kind of traveler who likes to see parts of a city off the tourist trail or you like modern skyscrapers, this may be for you.

但如果你是那种喜欢在旅游线路之外游览其他地区的旅行者,或是你喜欢现代化的摩天大楼,那么这可能是最适合你的地方。

The Central Museum of Armed Forces

中央武装力量博物馆

One of the world's finest military museums offers an exhaustive look at the entire history of the Soviet military. Most of the 24-room museum is devoted to the Great Patriotic War (known in the West as World War II).

这是世界上最好的军事博物馆之一,提供了苏联军队的完整历史。这个有着24个房间的博物馆主要是为了纪念伟大的爱国战争(即第二次世界大战)。

Among thousands of artifacts, the original Soviet victory flag hoisted over the Reichstag in Berlin in 1945 is here.

1945年在柏林国会大厦升起的原苏联胜利旗帜就在这数千件文物中。

Cold War relics include weaponry, spy technology and pieces of Gary Powers' U-2 spy plane, which was brought down over the USSR in 1960 and has been on display here ever since. Outside, more than 150 weapons, planes, missiles and battle vehicles are on display.

冷战的遗迹包括武器、间谍技术和加里·鲍尔斯的U-2侦察机的碎片。1960年,这架侦察机在苏联上空被击落,此后就一直在这里展出。在博物馆外面,还展出了150多件武器、飞机、导弹和作战车辆。

Winzavod Center for Contemporary Art

Winzavod当代艺术中心

Winzavod, a cluster of galleries, shops and cafes in a former wine factory, has been at the heart of Moscow's cultural transformation since it was founded in 2007.

Winzavod曾是一家葡萄酒工厂,但如今已成为莫斯科文化转型的中心地带。

Winzavod has an excellent swathe of contemporary Russian visual art and photography, with spaces for contemporary art, artists' studios, creative showrooms, children's studios, a bookstore and more.

这里拥有大量优秀的俄罗斯当代视觉艺术和摄影作品,包括当代艺术空间、艺术家工作室、创意陈列室、儿童工作室和书店等。

Be sure to visit some of the 11 galleries there, such as Osnova Gallery founded in 2014.

一定要去参观那里的11个画廊,比如2014年成立的奥斯诺瓦画廊(Osnova Gallery)。

Farmers' markets

农贸市场

A trip to a farmers' market, or "rynok," imparts the sights and smells of the countryside without forcing you to leave the city.

去一趟农贸市场,或者去“rynok”,就能让你在不离开城市的情况下领略到乡村的景色和气息。

Babushkas sell sour brusniki (cowberry) jam, pickled tomatoes and honey in more variations than you knew existed, while men from the Caucasus hawk spices, honey-drenched nuts and hand-painted teapots nearby. Kiosks serve draft beer poured into plastic two-liter bottles for carting home.

婆婆们出售的酸意式烤面包酱、腌西红柿和蜂蜜的品种比你知道的要多,而高加索地区的男人则在兜售香料、蜂蜜浸透的坚果和附近的手绘茶壶。而且在售货亭,你还可以往你的两升塑料瓶里灌生啤酒,然后装回家。

Dorogomilovsky is the city's best-known market. Danilovsky has more character. Near the entrance there's a booth selling hot lavash flatbread, which you can watch being baked.

多罗戈米洛夫斯基是这个城市最著名的市场。丹尼洛夫斯基市场更有个性。在入口附近有一个摊位出售亚美尼亚式面包,而且你可以看到烘烤的过程。

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