臭名昭著的皇后:那不勒斯的乔安娜
Queens of Infamy: Joanna of Naples
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2021-03-03 22:53
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火星译客

Are you the sort of person who loves a high court drama with plenty of devious intriguing? Is learning about grisly murders one of your guilty pleasures? Do you get a voyeuristic thrill out of tracking the rise and fall of royal romances? What about plagues? Do you like plagues? If you are currently clutching your chest and muttering “yes, yes, a thousand times yes,” then: a) sick, and b) keep reading. We're about to take a deep dive into the life of Joanna I of Naples, and shit's about to get really, really real.

你是那种喜欢充满曲折曲折的高等法院戏剧的人吗?了解恐怖谋杀是你的一种罪恶感吗?你有没有从追踪皇室罗曼史的兴衰中得到一种窥阴癖的感觉?瘟疫呢?你喜欢瘟疫吗?如果你现在正紧抓着自己的胸膛,喃喃自语着“是,是,一千遍是”,那么:a)生病,b)继续读下去。我们将深入了解那不勒斯的乔安娜一世的生活,这一切将变得非常非常真实。

Joanna — or Giovanna, as she was and still is known in her mother tongue — was born in 1326 to Charles, Duke of Calabria and heir to the Kingdom of Naples, and Marie of Valois. Although she was Charles and Marie's fourth child, Joanna was predeceased by her three older siblings and became second in line to the throne at birth. A member of the Angevin dynasty, Joanna was the great-great-great-great-great granddaughter of Eleanor of Aquitaine. Like Eleanor, she would prove to have a knack for ruling. Also like Eleanor, her ambition and capability would threaten the powerful men around her. Perhaps unsurprisingly, both queens found themselves having to run for their lives. Joanna's flight — which involved escaping her besieged castle under the cover of night and then undertaking a dangerous journey across plague-ridden seas (all while pregnant, mind you) — might be less famous than that of her predecessor, but it's arguably an even more incredible story.

乔安娜在1326年出生,她的父母是卡拉布里亚公爵、那不勒斯王国的继承人查尔斯和瓦卢瓦的玛丽。虽然乔安娜是查尔斯和玛丽的第四个孩子,但她的三个哥哥姐姐都比她先出生,所以她在出生时就成为了王位的第二顺位继承人。作为安茹王朝的一员,乔安娜是阿基坦的埃莉诺的曾曾曾曾孙女。和埃莉诺一样,她也有统治的本事。和埃莉诺一样,她的野心和能力会威胁到她周围的权势男性。不出所料,两位女王都发现自己不得不逃命。乔安娜的逃亡——包括在夜幕的掩护下逃离她被围困的城堡,然后经历一段穿越瘟疫肆虐的海洋的危险旅程(注意,这一切都是在怀孕期间进行的)——可能没有她的前任那么出名,但可以说是一个更令人难以置信的故事。

Joanna was raised at the Neapolitan court by her grandfather, King Robert the Wise, and his second wife, Sancia. Joanna's father had died when she was just 8 months old; her mother, who was pregnant at the time of her father's death, had given birth to Joanna's sister Maria in 1329 and then died in 1331. Robert taught Joanna and Maria how to rule, and Sancia attended to their spiritual needs, but most of their care fell to a woman named Philippa the Catanian.

乔安娜在那不勒斯宫廷由她的祖父英王罗伯特和他的第二任妻子桑娅抚养长大。乔安娜的父亲在她八个月大的时候就去世了;她的母亲在她父亲去世时怀孕,在1329年生下了乔安娜的妹妹玛丽亚,然后在1331年去世。罗伯特教乔安娜和玛丽亚如何统治,桑娅照顾他们的精神需要,但他们的大部分照顾都落到了一位名叫菲利帕的卡塔尼亚人身上。

Philippa was a one-time wet nurse who, after a meteoric rise in the royal court, had become something akin to a foster mother to Joanna and Maria. She had been an impoverished Sicilian laundry maid until a twist of fate had landed her in the household of Robert the Wise's first wife. Always one to press any advantage she might have, Philippa had quickly made herself indispensable and then used her charm and beauty to further her social position. While the former laundress was elbowing her way through the medieval patriarchy, a young man named Raymond of Campagno was similarly rising in the king's estimation. Raymond was Ethiopian, and had been brought to Robert's father's court as a kitchen slave; he somehow managed to win his freedom and work his way up to the position of head chef. From there he was, quite improbably, made a guard of the king's wardrobe. Eventually, he would be appointed royal seneschal and become a close advisor of the king's.

菲丽帕曾经是一名奶妈,在宫廷里迅速崛起后,她成了乔安娜和玛丽亚的养母。她曾是西西里一个穷困潦倒的洗衣女工,后来命运的转折把她送到了智者罗伯特的第一任妻子家里。菲丽帕一向是一个善于利用自己的优势的人,她很快就使自己变得不可或缺,然后利用她的魅力和美貌来提高自己的社会地位。当这位昔日的洗衣妇在中世纪的父权制社会中艰难前行时,一位名叫雷蒙德的坎帕格诺年轻人在国王心中的地位也同样上升了。雷蒙德是埃塞俄比亚人,被带到罗伯特父亲的宫廷做厨房奴隶;他设法赢得了自由,并以自己的方式升到了厨师长的位置。从那里,他几乎不可思议地成为了国王衣橱的守卫。最终,他被任命为皇家总管并成为国王的亲密顾问。

Raymond and Philippa married and, through royal favor and shrewd money management, became incredibly wealthy. By the time Joanna was born, Philippa and Raymond were a power couple, who, in just three short decades, had risen from poverty and slavery to become two of the most successful people in Naples.

雷蒙德和菲丽帕结了婚,通过王室的青睐和精明的理财,他们变得无比富有。乔安娜出生时,菲丽帕和雷蒙德已是一对权势夫妇,在短短30年的时间里,他们从贫穷和奴役中崛起,成为那不勒斯最成功的两个人。

Predictably, everything was not chill.

可以预见的是,一切都不冷。

After being passed over for the Neapolitan crown because of his youth and inexperience, King Carobert had, ironically enough, turned into one of Europe's most formidable warriors. He also had heirs to spare — sons Louis, Andrew, and Stephen, as well as several daughters — and was still furious that he had been denied what he believed to be his birthright.

由于年轻和缺乏经验,卡罗伯特国王错过了那不勒斯的王位,足够讽刺的是,他变成了欧洲最令人敬畏的战士之一。他还有几个后嗣——路易、安德鲁和斯蒂芬,还有几个女儿——但他对自己所谓的与生俱来的权利被剥夺仍感到愤怒。

In an attempt to resolve this problem and stave off a possible Hungarian invasion, Joanna was betrothed to Carobert's son Andrew, with the stipulation that Andrew's heirs would rule Naples, but he himself would only ever serve as Joanna's consort. Joanna would retain ultimate power throughout her lifetime, and her children would, through virtue of being raised in her court, be Neapolitan enough to rule Naples. This last part was especially important: a big part of the reason people disliked Carobert and his sons was that, in spite of their heritage, they were just too, well, foreign to rule Naples. The Neapolitans held a strong bias against the Hungarians, believing them to be rude, hairy barbarians; the idea of a Hungarian on the throne appalled their fragile sensibilities.

为了解决这个问题并阻止可能的匈牙利入侵,乔安娜与罗伯特的儿子安德鲁订了婚,约定由安德鲁的继承人来统治那不勒斯,但他本人只能作为乔安娜的配偶。乔安娜在她的一生中都拥有至高无上的权力,而她的孩子们,由于在她的宫廷中长大,也有足够的那不勒斯人来统治那不勒斯。最后一点尤其重要人们之所以不喜欢卡罗伯特和他的儿子们,很大程度上是因为,尽管他们有继承权,但他们对统治那不勒斯来说太过陌生。那不勒斯人对匈牙利人有强烈的偏见,认为他们是粗鲁、多毛的野蛮人;一个匈牙利人登上王位的想法震惊了他们脆弱的感情。

Joanna and Andrew were married in 1333, when she was 7 years old and he was 6. Robert drew up an illustrious guest list and organized an elaborate ceremony that involved an exchange of vows and even a brief kiss between the children. The opulence of the event was as much a power move as it was a tribute to Joanna's rank; Robert hoped that his pricy display would demonstrate to Hungary — and any others who might be intriguing for the crown — just how much might he wielded.

1333年,乔安娜和安德鲁结婚,当时她7岁,安德鲁6岁。罗伯特列出了一份引人注目的宾客名单,并组织了一场精心策划的仪式,包括交换誓言,甚至孩子们之间有一个短暂的亲吻。这场盛大的活动既是对乔安娜地位的一种敬意,也是一种权力举动;罗伯特希望他那昂贵的展品能够向匈牙利——以及其他可能对王位感兴趣的人——展示他的实力。

After the wedding, Andrew remained in Naples while his parents returned to Hungary. Before leaving, Carobert made sure his son had a well-appointed suite of rooms and a large Hungarian retinue, including a doctor, a furrier, and several sommeliers (because heaven forbid a 6-year-old be served inferior wine). From Robert's perspective, keeping his new grandson-in-law around was a smart move; it gave Andrew the chance to learn the customs of the Neapolitan court and eased his transition into his new role. From Joanna's perspective, it meant that she almost certainly came to view her husband as an obnoxious younger sibling.

婚礼结束后,安德鲁留在那不勒斯,而他的父母则回到了匈牙利。在离开之前,carrobert确保他的儿子有一套设备齐全的房间和一大群匈牙利随从,包括一名医生、一名皮货商和几名侍酒师(因为上帝不允许给6岁的孩子提供劣质酒)。在罗伯特看来,让他的新外孙女婿留在身边是明智之举;这给了安德鲁学习那不勒斯宫廷习俗的机会,也让他顺利过渡到新角色。从乔安娜的角度来看,这意味着她几乎肯定会把丈夫看作一个讨厌的小弟弟。

Andrew had a difficult time growing up in the court of Robert the Wise; he was isolated, lonely, and bombarded by anti-Hungarian sentiment. Unsurprisingly, he grew into a surly and intractable teenager who felt Very Hard Done By. By all accounts, he lagged behind his wife when it came to social and emotional maturity (pretty normal for teenage boys, who apparently haven't changed much since the Middle Ages), and by the time he was 15 and Joanna was 16, they still hadn't consummated their marriage. Meanwhile, Joanna's cousins, the Taranto boys, had just returned from Greece looking extremely dreamy. Boccaccio, years before writing The Decameron, described the Tarantos as having “remarkable beauty” as well as possessing a “notable excellence” that made them “exceedingly pretty to those who looked at them.” If Europe had been a suburban high school, the Tarantos would have been the quarterbacks and Andrew would have been that band geek with an awkwardly patchy beard.

安德鲁在智者罗伯特的宫廷里度过了一段艰难的成长时期;他被孤立,孤独,反匈牙利情绪狂轰滥炸。不出所料,他长成了一个脾气乖戾、难以管教的少年,觉得自己受到了严厉的对待。大家都说,在社交和情感成熟方面,他落后于他的妻子(对于十几岁的男孩来说,这很正常,自中世纪以来,他们显然没有太大的变化),到他15岁和乔安娜16岁时,他们仍然没有实现他们的婚姻。与此同时,乔安娜的堂兄弟——塔兰托男孩——刚从希腊回来,看起来非常梦幻。薄伽丘在写《十日谈》的数年前,曾描述塔兰托家族拥有“非凡的美”,以及“引人注目的卓越”,使他们“在那些看着他们的人看来非常漂亮”。如果欧洲是一所郊区高中,塔兰托(Tarantos)会是四分卫(quarterback),安德鲁(Andrew)会是那个留着凌乱胡子的乐队怪胎。

In 1343, Robert the Wise died at the age of 68; in a will written just four days before his death, he appointed a special council to help Joanna rule until she was 25. The Naples Robert left behind, however, was not the Naples he had overseen at the height of his power. The Medieval Climate Optimum had ended around 1300, and Europe had been beset by endless rain and poor crop yields. A series of famines, beginning in 1339, had weakened the general population. Seventeen-year-old Joanna, whose ability to govern was already considered doubtful because of her age and sex, came to the throne at an incredibly precarious time.

1343年,智者罗伯特去世,享年68岁;在他去世前四天写的一份遗嘱中,他任命了一个特别委员会帮助乔安娜统治她直到25岁。然而,罗伯特留下的那不勒斯,已不是他在权力巅峰时期监管的那个那不勒斯了。中世纪最适宜的气候在1300年左右结束,欧洲一直被连绵不断的雨水和歉收所困扰。从1339年开始,一系列的饥荒削弱了总体人口。由于年龄和性别的原因,17岁的乔安娜的治理能力已经受到质疑,她在一个难以置信的危险时期登上了王位。

If Europe had been a suburban high school, the Tarantos would have been the quarterbacks and Andrew would have been that band geek with an awkwardly patchy beard.

如果欧洲是一所郊区高中,塔兰托一家(Tarantos)就会是四分卫乐队(quarterback),安德鲁(Andrew)就会是留着凌乱胡子的乐队怪胎。

Andrew, drunk on the heady power of toxic masculinity (and maybe on all that wine his sommeliers were giving him), decided that he should be king. This was unsurprising, considering that he had been raised on the idea that Naples was rightfully his. While Robert had been alive, forwarding this agenda would have been impossible. Now that he was gone, Andrew took advantage of what he and his family perceived as a vacuum in power.

安德鲁被有毒的男子气概的令人陶醉的力量(也许是他的侍酒师给他的所有葡萄酒)所陶醉,决定他应该成为国王。这并不奇怪,因为他从小就认为那不勒斯应该归他所有。在罗伯特还活着的时候,这是不可能实现的。现在他走了,安德鲁利用了他和他的家人所认为的权力真空。

Remarkably, Andrew was not satisfied by this response and continued to press his cause. Even after Joanna became pregnant — potentially ensuring that one of Carobert's heirs would, in fact, someday wear the Neapolitan crown — Andrew refused to let up. He began making veiled threats toward Joanna (who, in return, apparently taunted him mercilessly). He bullied and insulted everyone at court who wasn't a member of his personal household. He freed the Pipinis, three brothers who had been imprisoned for terrorizing the country, and offered them knighthoods if they promised to take up his cause. To say that he was unpopular in Naples would be a vast understatement.

值得注意的是,安德鲁对这种回应并不满意,并继续推动他的事业。甚至在乔安娜怀孕之后——这可能会确保罗伯特的一个继承人,实际上,有一天会戴上那不勒斯王冠——安德鲁也没有放弃。他开始隐晦地威胁乔安娜(而乔安娜则毫不留情地嘲笑他)。他欺负侮辱朝廷里的每一个人,只要不是他的家人。他释放了因恐吓国家而入狱的三兄弟皮皮尼斯,并授予他们骑士头衔,条件是他们答应接手他的事业。说他在那不勒斯不受欢迎实在是太轻描淡写了。

On September 18, 1345, after spending an evening of drinking and dancing with his buddies, Andrew returned to his rooms. Joanna was already there, apparently fast asleep in bed. Andrew was just getting ready to join her when a servant came to the door telling him to come quickly to see a courier with important papers he needed to sign. Andrew hurried out into the gallery, where he was seized by a group of armed men. They strung a rope around his neck and dragged him to a balcony, where they dangled him over the railing. In the garden below, several men grabbed his ankles and pulled in an effort to speed up the strangling process. While this was happening, Andrew's nurse, Isabella the Hungarian, stumbled on the scene. Her screams scattered the attackers and roused the royal household, but it was too late. Andrew was already dead.

1345年9月18日,安德鲁和朋友们喝了一晚上酒,跳了一晚上舞,然后回到了自己的房间。乔安娜已经在床上睡着了。安德鲁正准备去见她,这时一个仆人来到门口,叫他赶快去见一个信使,信使手里有重要文件要他签字。安德鲁急忙跑到走廊里,一群武装人员抓住了他。他们用绳子套住他的脖子,把他拖到阳台上,把他吊在栏杆上。在下面的花园里,几个男人抓住他的脚踝,用力拉他,想加快他被勒死的速度。就在这一切发生的时候,安德鲁的护士,匈牙利人伊莎贝拉,偶然发现了这一幕。她的尖叫驱散了攻击者,唤醒了王室成员,但为时已晚。安德鲁已经死了。

Joanna, six months pregnant and nineteen years old, was a widow. She was also the prime suspect in her husband's murder.

19岁的乔安娜已经怀孕6个月了,是个寡妇。她也是她丈夫谋杀案的主要嫌疑人。

Rumors began to swirl in the wake of Andrew's death. Some described the queen as being unable to cry and guiltily refusing to make eye contact with anyone; others said that she immediately fled the castle where Andrew had died out of fear that her involvement in his death might be discovered; still more said that she neglected Andrew's corpse for three days until the canon at a local cathedral took it on himself to bury the body. All of these things were untrue: there are dated letters with Joanna's seal on them that prove that she remained at the castle after Andrew's death, and historical record shows that he was interred the day after his murder. But they made for such salacious gossip that people believed them anyway. Certainly there were some elements that made Joanna look less-than-innocent — aside from having spent several years openly loathing her husband, there was also the somewhat damning fact that after Andrew had been lured from the rooms he shared with Joanna, someone had locked the door from the inside so that he couldn't get back in — but there was nothing that conclusively tied her to the attack.

安德鲁死后流言四起。一些人说女王不会哭,并且内疚地拒绝与任何人有眼神交流;其他人说,她立即逃离了安德鲁死亡的城堡,因为害怕她与他的死有关,可能会被发现;更有甚者,她忽略了安德鲁的尸体三天,直到当地大教堂的牧师亲自埋葬了他的尸体。所有这些都不是真的:有一些刻有日期、盖有乔安娜印章的信件,证明安德鲁死后乔安娜还留在城堡里;历史记录表明,安德鲁死后的第二天就被埋葬了。但他们制造了如此淫秽的流言蜚语,以至于人们无论如何都相信他们。当然有一些元素,让乔安娜看起来less-than-innocent——除了度过几年公开厌恶她的丈夫,也有些确凿的事实,安德鲁已经吸引了从房间后,他与乔安娜,有人从里面锁上门,这样他不能回来,但没有最终与她的攻击。

Less than two days after the murder, a man named Tommaso Mambriccio was arrested in connection with the crime. In their zeal to avenge Andrew's murder, prosecutors skipped an actual interrogation in favor of public torture that involved the removal of the prisoner's tongue. This created a problem, because although it was very clear that Tommaso hadn't acted alone, the violence inflicted on him by his captors meant he couldn't name any names. Was this simply an oversight on the part of over-enthusiastic torturers? Or were they trying to protect someone by making sure that Tommaso couldn't identify any of his co-conspirators? It was rumored that Philippa the Catanian and Raymond of Compagno were somehow involved; some thought that by having Tommaso's tongue cut out, Joanna was ensuring not only her own safety, but the safety of two of her favorites.

谋杀案发生不到两天,一个名叫托马索·曼布里奇奥的男子因与此案有关而被捕。为了为安德鲁的死报仇,检察官们跳过了真正的审讯,而选择了公开的酷刑,包括摘除犯人的舌头。这就产生了一个问题,因为尽管托马索不是单独行动,但他的绑架者对他施加的暴力意味着他无法说出任何名字。这仅仅是过度热情的施虐者的疏忽吗?还是他们想通过确保托马索认不出同谋来保护某人?据传,卡塔尼亚的菲利帕和科帕哥诺的雷蒙德不知何故与此有关;有人认为,让人割掉托马索的舌头,乔安娜不仅确保了自己的安全,也确保了她最喜欢的两个孩子的安全。

Joanna, six months pregnant and nineteen years old, was a widow. She was also the prime suspect in her husband's murder.

19岁的乔安娜已经怀孕6个月了,是个寡妇。她也是她丈夫谋杀案的主要嫌疑人。

The Hungarians were furious, and demanded a papal inquiry into Andrew's death. The pope agreed to launch one, but then proceeded to drag his feet on the matter. Andrew's older brother Louis, who was now king of Hungary, began to talk about invading Naples. International tensions heightened, and things seemed pretty grim for a few months.

匈牙利人非常愤怒,要求教皇调查安德鲁的死因。教皇同意设立一个,但后来又在这件事上拖延。安德鲁的哥哥,当时的匈牙利国王路易,开始谈论入侵那不勒斯。国际紧张局势加剧,几个月来局势似乎相当严峻。

Then, on December 25, 1345, Joanna gave birth to a healthy son. By producing an heir — and a male heir, at that — Joanna could finally imagine the possibility of a stable nation. She named the child Charles Martel and appointed Isabelle the Hungarian as his nurse, a move that was, no doubt, intended to placate her Hungarian in-laws. Some placating was definitely in order: the same emissaries sent to inform the Hungarian crown of their adorable new family member were also tasked with negotiating Joanna's way out of certain clauses in her nuptial treaty. The queen, having secured the line of succession, was hoping to remarry.

1345年12月25日,乔安娜生下了一个健康的儿子。通过生了一个继承人,一个男性继承人,乔安娜终于可以想象一个稳定的国家的可能性了。她给孩子起名为查尔斯·马特尔,并任命匈牙利人伊莎贝尔为他的保姆,此举无疑是为了安抚她的匈牙利公婆。一些安抚无疑是必要的:被派去通知匈牙利王室他们可爱的新家庭成员的使者也被派去与乔安娜谈判,以摆脱她的婚姻条约中的某些条款。女王在确定了王位继承顺序后,希望再嫁。

The man Joanna wanted to take as her second husband was none other than her hot blond cousin, Louis of Taranto. This astonished exactly no one, since there had long been speculation that the two were romantically involved; some even went so far as to say that Louis was the real father of Joanna's child. Whatever the truth was, Joanna's remarriage so soon after Andrew's death wasn't a great look. On the other hand, it might have been the threat of Hungarian invasion that pushed her to find a new husband right away. Louis, after all, was not just a pretty face; he was also a seasoned warrior, and, although Joanna's education had covered a lot of bases, military command was not something she'd learned. Given the political upheaval, it made sense that she wanted to secure her champion's loyalties by marrying him (not that marriage had ever made Andrew particularly loyal). Plus, again, Louis of Taranto was just really, spectacularly hot. Which was exactly what Joanna needed.

乔安娜想要嫁给她的第二个丈夫不是别人,正是她的金发堂兄,塔兰托的路易斯。这并没有让任何人感到惊讶,因为早就有人猜测他们两人在谈恋爱;有些人甚至说路易斯才是乔安娜孩子的亲生父亲。无论真相是什么,乔安娜在安德鲁死后这么快再婚的样子并不好看。另一方面,也可能是匈牙利入侵的威胁促使她马上找了个新丈夫。毕竟,路易斯不只是一张漂亮的脸;他还是个经验丰富的战士,尽管乔安娜接受的教育涵盖了很多基础知识,但她学不会军事指挥。考虑到当时的政治动荡,她想要通过嫁给她的拥护者来获得他的忠诚也就说得通了(并不是说这段婚姻让安德鲁变得特别忠诚)。再说一遍,塔兰托的路易斯真的非常性感。这正是乔安娜所需要的。

As the papal investigation continued, another faction of Joanna's family began plotting against her. Robert and Charles of Durazzo (who, along with the Tarantos and Louis of Hungary, were also Joanna's cousins — so many fucking cousins in this story, sometimes quite literally), saw the turmoil at the Neapolitan court as a chance to make their own grab at power. Claiming to be very concerned about finding justice for Andrew (an interest that had suddenly sprung up six months after his murder), the Durazzo brothers went to Naples to stir up some shit. They did their utmost to turn popular opinion against the queen, which frankly wasn't that hard — the ongoing delays in the papal inquest made it seem as if Joanna had something to hide. As the population grew more restless, court seneschal Raymond of Campagno issued a decree that forbade civilians from openly carrying weapons in public. On March 6, 1346, Raymond was ambushed while trying to enforce this decree and taken prisoner by the Durazzos.

随着教皇调查的继续,乔安娜家族的另一个派系开始密谋对付她。杜拉佐的罗伯特和查尔斯(他们,还有塔兰托家族和匈牙利的路易斯,也是乔安娜的堂兄弟——在这个故事中有很多的堂兄弟,有时是真的堂兄弟),把那不勒斯宫廷的动乱看作是他们攫取权力的机会。杜拉佐兄弟声称非常关心为安德鲁伸张正义(在他被谋杀6个月后,这种兴趣突然冒了出来),他们去了那不勒斯,想要挑起一些麻烦。他们尽了最大努力让公众舆论反对女王,坦白说这并不难——教皇调查的持续拖延让乔安娜看起来好像在隐瞒什么。由于民众越来越焦躁不安,坎帕格诺的最高法院院长雷蒙德颁布了一项法令,禁止平民在公共场合公开携带武器。1346年3月6日,雷蒙德在执行这一法令时遭到伏击,被杜拉佐人俘虏。

Having learned a thing or two from the non-interrogation of Tommaso Mambriccio, the Durazzo brothers immediately removed Raymond's tongue. They then had him publicly “confess” by nodding his head along to various statements, including the naming of his alleged co-conspirators. The people he listed off included his own wife, Philippa the Catanian, as well as his granddaughter Sancia. The mob, enraged by this 14th-century predecessor of Fake News, began trying to attack the castle, shouting “Death to the whore queen!” and “Surrender the traitors!”

从托马索·曼布里乔的不审讯中学到了一些东西后,杜拉佐兄弟立即拔掉了雷蒙德的舌头。然后他们让他通过点头接受各种陈述来公开“认罪”,包括他被指控的同谋的名字。他列出的人包括他自己的妻子,卡塔尼亚人菲利帕,以及他的孙女桑娅。这群暴民被这个14世纪的假新闻的前身激怒了,开始试图袭击城堡,高喊“女王去死!”和“交出卖国贼!”

Joanna eventually made the difficult decision to hand the accused over to the Durazzos, who, in turn, promised that the captives would be kept safe until the chief justice of the kingdom arrived to investigate. It didn't take the Durazzos long to break their promise, though — their ally, Hugo del Balzo, took the prisoners out to sea and tortured them in full view of the Neapolitan shore.

乔安娜最终做出了一个艰难的决定,把被告交给了杜拉佐家族,而杜拉佐家族则承诺,在王国首席大法官前来调查之前,他们会保护这些俘虏的安全。但没过多久,杜拉佐夫妇就违背了自己的诺言——他们的盟友雨果·德尔·巴尔佐(Hugo del Balzo)把俘虏们带到海上,在那不勒斯海岸的众目睽睽之下折磨他们。

Meanwhile, in the east, two forces were preparing to invade Naples: the Hungarians, and the Black Death. Only one of them would make people poop blood (presumably; I mean, I don't know what kind of spooky shit Louis of Hungary was capable of). Both would arrive in early 1348 and change the future of the Neapolitan crown forever.

与此同时,在东部,两股势力正准备入侵那不勒斯:匈牙利人和黑死病。只有一种能让人大便流血(大概;我的意思是,我不知道匈牙利的路易斯能做出什么可怕的事情)。他们都在1348年初到达,永远地改变了那不勒斯国王的未来。

As Louis of Hungary made his way across the Italian countryside, conquering towns and villages as he went, the Neapolitans had to figure out what to do. The Durazzos, who had initially promised to set their differences with the queen aside and fight with their fellow Neapolitans, defected to the enemy camp; two of Louis of Taranto's brothers, Robert and Philip, quickly followed suit. Meanwhile, Joanna decided that the best course of action was to lose the battle in order to win the war. Pregnant with Louis' child, the queen fled her castle in the middle of the night with Avignon — the site of the papal court at the time — as her eventual destination. Louis of Taranto, who was fighting the Hungarians in Capua when he received news about the queen's hasty departure, chose to do the same.

当匈牙利的路易穿越意大利乡村,征服城镇和村庄时,那不勒斯人必须想出对策。杜拉佐家族最初承诺将他们与女王的分歧搁置一边,与那不勒斯人并肩作战,但后来却投敌了;塔兰托家族路易的两个兄弟,罗伯特和菲利普也迅速效仿。与此同时,乔安娜决定最好的行动是为了赢得战争而输掉这场战斗。怀着路易十六的孩子,女王在午夜逃离了她的城堡,并将阿维尼翁——当时教皇法庭的所在地——作为她的最终目的地。塔兰托的路易斯在卡普亚与匈牙利人作战时,得知了女王匆忙离开的消息,他也选择了这样做。

Meanwhile, in the east, two forces were preparing to invade Naples: the Hungarians, and the Black Death. Only one of them would make people poop blood (presumably; I mean, I don't know what kind of spooky shit Louis of Hungary was capable of).

与此同时,在东部,两股势力正准备入侵那不勒斯:匈牙利人和黑死病。只有一种能让人大便流血(大概;我的意思是,我不知道匈牙利的路易斯能做出什么可怕的事情)。

Before leaving, Joanna had made the heartbreaking decision to leave her toddler son, Charles Martel, behind. Considering that she was often described as a loving and attentive mother, the queen could not have made this decision lightly. She would have known that her flight would be difficult and dangerous — possibly even deadly — to a small child. She would also have known that the Hungarians would take good care of her son; after all, he was Andrew's son too. After assessing the situation, she decided that it was safer not to bring him with her.

在离开之前,乔安娜做出了一个令人心碎的决定:把她蹒跚学步的儿子查尔斯·马特尔留在身后。考虑到她经常被描述为慈爱和细心的母亲,女王不可能轻易做出这个决定。她应该知道她的飞行对一个小孩子来说是困难和危险的——甚至可能是致命的。她也知道匈牙利人会好好照顾她的儿子;毕竟,他也是安德鲁的儿子。在评估了情况之后,她决定不带他一起来更安全。

Louis was not a man to let bygones be bygones and he had a long list of grievances against his cousins. In spite of the fact that they had openly betrayed their queen in favor of the Hungarian invaders, the night ended with the arrest of the Neapolitan nobles. Robert and Philip of Taranto were thrown in prison, as were Louis and Robert of Durazzo. Charles of Durazzo was condemned to death and then executed in exactly the same spot where Andrew had been murdered. Apparently their calculated risk was ill-calculated.

路易不是一个既往不咎的人他对他的表亲们有一长串的不满。尽管他们公开背叛王后,支持匈牙利侵略者,那不勒斯贵族的被捕结束了这个夜晚。塔兰托的罗伯特和菲利普,以及杜拉佐的路易斯和罗伯特都被关进了监狱。杜拉佐的查理被判处死刑,然后在安德鲁被谋杀的地点被执行死刑。显然,他们对风险的计算是错误的。

As Joanna was traveling towards Avignon, the Black Death was doing the same. It had arrived in Sicily the previous fall, in a fleet of Genoese vessels carrying the most dangerous cargo. Sailors, many of them already desperately ill, stumbled down the gangplank and into the dockyards of Messina. Within days, the plague held the city in its grip. By the spring of 1348, it had spread to the rest of Italy and beyond.

乔安娜前往阿维尼翁时,黑死病也在肆虐。去年秋天,这艘船由一支载有最危险货物的热那亚船队载着抵达西西里岛。许多已经病入膏肓的水手,跌跌撞撞地走下跳板,进入了墨西拿的造船厂。没过几天,瘟疫就控制了这座城市。到1348年春,它已经蔓延到意大利的其他地方和更远的地方。

The general population, weakened by years of famine, died in droves. Mortality rates varied by region, but in some cities — like Florence — it hovered between fifty and ninety percent. Thousands of small villages were wiped off the map through a combination of people dying and fleeing. In many areas, the population wouldn't reach pre-plague rates again until the 17th century.

由于多年的饥荒,平民百姓变得虚弱,成群结队地死亡。死亡率因地区而异,但在佛罗伦萨等一些城市,死亡率徘徊在50%到90%之间。成千上万的小村庄被人们的死亡和逃离从地图上抹去。许多地区的人口直到17世纪才恢复到鼠疫爆发前的水平。

The plague moved swiftly and horribly; some contemporary accounts describe people who were healthy at sunrise and dead by sunset. Those who died so swiftly were fortunate, though; in most cases the illness, which was incredibly painful and debilitating, lasted for several days. Because of the (entirely justified) fear of contagion, many people had no one to nurse them while they were sick. They died alone and terrified, without even the spiritual comfort of the church's last rites. There were so many dead bodies that cities didn't have enough room to bury them. In Avignon, Pope Clement VI consecrated the Rhône river. Every day, hundreds of stinking corpses choked the river and slowly floated downstream to the open sea.

瘟疫迅速而可怕地传播着;一些当代的描述描述了日出时很健康,日落时就死了的人。不过,那些迅速死去的人是幸运的;在大多数情况下,这种疾病会持续好几天,令人难以置信地痛苦和虚弱。由于(完全有理由的)对传染的恐惧,许多人在生病时没有人照顾他们。他们孤独而恐惧地死去,甚至连教堂最后仪式带来的精神安慰都没有。尸体太多了,城市没有足够的地方埋葬他们。在阿维尼翁,教皇克莱门特六世圣化了Rhône河。每天,数以百计的臭气熏天的尸体堵塞了河流,慢慢地漂向大海。

After being driven out of her own city and spending months fleeing the Hungarian forces, the adoration of the people of Avignon must have been a balm for her soul. But she also knew that at the end of that long walk she would be tried in the papal court for the murder of her husband.

在被赶出自己的城市、花了几个月时间躲避匈牙利军队之后,阿维尼翁人民对她的崇拜对她的心灵来说一定是一种慰藉。但她也知道,在漫长的散步结束时,她将受到教皇法庭以谋杀她丈夫的罪名的审判。

This was the Avignon that Joanna entered with great fanfare on March 15, 1348. At the head of her procession were the bishop of Florence and the chancellor of Provence, followed by eighteen cardinals. Next came Joanna, dressed in a gold-and-crimson robe, her blond hair gleaming in the morning sun. She was a known beauty — the poet Petrarch had described her as “exquisite and enchanting”; Boccaccio had called her “fair and goodly to look upon” — and her charms were on full display during her march through the town. Louis, who was a few paces behind her, managed to look just as alluring; with his blond hair cut short and wearing a tight Spanish jacket, he was, as one observer put it, “as beautiful as the day.”

这就是1348年3月15日乔安娜大张旗鼓进入的阿维尼翁。在她聚集队伍的最前面是佛罗伦萨的主教和普罗旺斯的议长,后面跟着十八位红衣主教。接着是乔安娜,穿着一件金红色的长袍,金色的头发在晨光中闪闪发光。她是一个众所周知的美人——诗人彼特拉克形容她“精致而迷人”;薄伽丘说她“美丽而美丽”,当她在城里游街时,她的魅力得到了充分的展示。路易斯在她身后几步远的地方,也设法使自己看上去同样迷人;他的金发被剪短,穿着一件紧身的西班牙夹克,正如一位观察者所说的那样,“像白天一样美丽。”

This colorful parade was the first bright spot Avignon had seen in months, and people turned out in droves to watch the young queen make her way through town. After being driven out of her own city and spending months fleeing the Hungarian forces, the adoration of the people of Avignon must have been a balm for her soul. But she also knew that at the end of that long walk she would be tried in the papal court for the murder of her husband. If the pope found her to be innocent, she would have a chance of re-taking Naples. If she was found guilty, she faced certain death.

这场五彩缤纷的游街是几个月来阿维尼翁见到的第一个亮点,人们成群结队地前来观看年轻的女王穿过城镇。在被赶出自己的城市、花了几个月时间躲避匈牙利军队之后,阿维尼翁人民对她的崇拜对她的心灵来说一定是一种慰藉。但她也知道,在漫长的散步结束时,她将受到教皇法庭以谋杀她丈夫的罪名的审判。如果教皇发现她是无辜的,她就有机会重新夺回那不勒斯。如果她被判有罪,她必死无疑。

Joanna asked for permission to speak on her own behalf, an extremely unusual request in the papal Den for Men. The pope, who was also dressed to the nines in a triple tiara, white silk robes, and gold-embroidered slippers, granted the queen the right to defend herself. She was the only woman in a room full of dudes who were absolutely not accustomed to taking anything women said seriously.

乔安娜请求允许她代表自己发言,在教皇的书房里,这对于男人来说是一个非常不寻常的请求。教皇也穿戴着三重王冠,白色丝绸长袍,金色绣花拖鞋,授予女王保护自己的权利。在一屋子完全不习惯认真对待女人说的任何话的男人中,她是唯一的女人。

The papal court found Joanna not only innocent but, in fact, completely above the suspicion of guilt. And then, just over a month after Joanna's arrival in Avignon, Clement VI issued a papal bull legitimizing her marriage to Louis of Taranto. A few weeks later, he declared that Louis of Hungary should get the heck out of Naples. Having followed through on exacting revenge for his brother's murder, Louis of Hungary was just about ready to retreat anyway. It turned out that managing a kingdom whose population was both dying of the plague and also deeply hostile to their new overlords was more work than he wanted to put in, especially since he had his own affairs to handle back home.

教皇法庭发现乔安娜不仅是无辜的,事实上,她完全没有犯罪嫌疑。随后,乔安娜抵达阿维尼翁一个多月后,克莱门特六世(Clement VI)宣布她与塔兰托的路易斯(Louis of Taranto)的婚姻合法化。几个星期后,他宣布匈牙利的路易应该离开那不勒斯。在为他弟弟的死复仇之后,匈牙利的路易已经准备好撤退了。事实证明,管理一个人口死于瘟疫又对新领主充满敌意的王国比他想做的要多,尤其是他在国内还有自己的事情要处理。

In just a few short years, the Neapolitans had gone from yelling “Death to the whore of a queen!” to welcoming her back with open arms. It was nothing short of miraculous.

在短短的几年里,那不勒斯人已经不再高喊“去死吧,女王!”张开双臂欢迎她回来。这简直是个奇迹。

The queen spent the next few weeks preparing for her homecoming, dispatching letters to various high-ranking officials to solicit their help in reclaiming her crown. On June 30, she gave birth to a daughter, Catherine. On August 1, the queen, her husband, and their new baby boarded their fleet in Nice. On August 17, they disembarked just outside of Naples. Although some Hungarian forces remained in Naples, Joanna's army was eventually able to defeat Louis of Hungary and take back her kingdom. In just a few short years, the Neapolitans had gone from yelling “Death to the whore of a queen!” to welcoming her back with open arms. It was nothing short of miraculous.

接下来的几周,女王都在为返国做准备,她寄信给多位高官,请求他们帮助她夺回王位。6月30日,她生下了一个女儿凯瑟琳。8月1日,女王、她的丈夫和他们刚出生的孩子登上了尼斯的舰队。8月17日,他们在那不勒斯郊外下了船。尽管一些匈牙利军队留在那不勒斯,乔安娜的军队最终打败了匈牙利的路易,夺回了她的王国。在短短的几年里,那不勒斯人已经不再高喊“去死吧,女王!”张开双臂欢迎她回来。这简直是个奇迹。

I wish that I could tell you that everything was smooth sailing from then on out, but Joanna's life continued to be an endless series of obstacles and tragedies. Her young son, Charles Martel, had died while she was in Avignon. Louis, fearful that his nephew would meet the same fate as his brother, had sent the toddler to Hungary. But Joanna had been right in her suspicions that her child could not survive the difficulties and dangers of medieval travel, and Charles Martel died soon after his arrival in Hungary. He was just over 2 years old. In early 1349, Joanna's baby daughter, Catherine, also died. Around that same time, the queen's second marriage began to fall apart.

我希望我能告诉你,从那以后一切都很顺利,但乔安娜的生活仍然是无尽的障碍和悲剧。她在阿维尼翁的时候,她的小儿子查尔斯·马特尔去世了。路易担心他的侄子会遭遇和他哥哥一样的命运,就把这个蹒跚学步的孩子送到了匈牙利。但是乔安娜的怀疑是正确的,她的孩子无法在中世纪旅行的困难和危险中生存下来,查尔斯·马特尔到达匈牙利后不久就去世了。他才2岁多一点。1349年初,乔安娜的小女儿凯瑟琳也去世了。大约在同一时间,女王的第二次婚姻开始破裂。

Louis of Taranto, who had at first seemed so promising as a husband, turned out to be just as power-hungry as Andrew. He brutalized Joanna and publicly accused her of cheating on him; the queen, in a desperate bid to keep the peace, denied having been unfaithful and agreed to have him crowned king consort. Ever mindful of her need for an heir (and likely terrified of further angering her husband), the queen continued to share a bed with Louis and, in early 1350, gave birth to another daughter, Françoise. On May 27, 1352, Joanna and Louis celebrated his coronation with an elaborate procession through the streets of Naples, only to arrive home and learn that their child had suddenly taken ill and died during their brief absence. In the years that followed, Louis became even more tyrannical, doing his best to undermine her authority and impose his own rule over the kingdom. And then, on May 24, 1362, after 12 tumultuous years of marriage, Joanna lost her second husband to the Black Death.

塔兰托的路易斯起初看起来是个很有前途的丈夫,结果却和安德鲁一样渴望权力。他虐待乔安娜,公开指责她欺骗他;为了维持和平,王后不顾一切地否认了他的不忠,并同意让他成为王后。一直以来,女王都很清楚自己需要一个继承人(也很可能害怕进一步激怒她的丈夫),于是她继续与路易同床共枕,并在1350年初生下了另一个女儿Françoise。1352年5月27日,乔安娜和路易斯在那不勒斯的街道上举行了盛大的庆祝仪式,庆祝他的加冕。他们回到家,却发现他们的孩子突然生病,在他们短暂的离开期间去世了。在接下来的几年里,路易变得更加暴虐,竭尽全力削弱女王的权威,并将自己的统治强加于王国。1362年5月24日,在经历了12年动荡的婚姻后,乔安娜的第二任丈夫死于黑死病。

After Louis' death, Joanna was finally able to rule her country as she saw fit. “The queen delights in governing,” the archbishop of Naples wrote to the Pope. “She wants to do everything because she has waited so long for this moment.” Joanna excelled at legislation and policy; it was clear that the years she'd spent learning from Robert the Wise hadn't been wasted. Naples flourished under her hand (well, as much as a nation decimated by plague could flourish), and although she couldn't upend the patriarchy singlehandedly, she did create a nation where, by several metrics, women were able to succeed in ways that they couldn't elsewhere. Far more medical licenses were granted to women in Naples than anywhere else in Medieval Europe — 34 in the 14th century alone, as compared to four in Florence. Clearly the queen was doing something right.

路易死后,乔安娜终于能够以她认为合适的方式统治她的国家。“女王乐于执政,”那不勒斯大主教在给教皇的信中写道。“她什么都想做,因为她为这一刻等了太久。“乔安娜擅长立法和政策;很明显,她向智者罗伯特学习的这些年并没有白费。那不勒斯在她的统治下蓬勃发展(好吧,正如一个被瘟疫摧毁的国家可以蓬勃发展一样),尽管她无法单打独揽地推翻父权制,但她确实创造了一个国家,在某些方面,女性能够取得她们在其他地方无法取得的成功。与中世纪欧洲其他地方相比,那不勒斯女性获得的医疗执照要多得多——仅14世纪就有34张,而佛罗伦萨只有4张。显然女王做的事是对的。

Majorca had been invaded by Aragon when James was a teen, and he'd recently spent 14 years as a prisoner in a small iron cage. This, to say the least, did not make for the healthiest of husbands.

詹姆斯十几岁时,马略卡岛被阿拉贡入侵,最近他被关在一个小铁笼子里关了14年。至少,这对一个最健康的丈夫来说是不利的。

But Joanna still had to grapple with the fact that she had no heir. Louis' death also meant that she needed a new battlefield champion, just in case the Hungarians or anyone else tried to invade. So, at the age of 36, she decided to marry again. This time around she chose James IV of Majorca; his two major recommendations were that a) he was technically king of his own country and therefore probably wouldn't try to usurp Naples and b) he wasn't directly related to her and therefore, according to the beliefs of the time, would be more likely to provide her with a surviving heir (also, marrying cousins hadn't worked out very well for Joanna in the past). The only catch was that Majorca had been invaded by Aragon when James was a teen, and he'd recently spent 14 years as a prisoner in a small iron cage. This, to say the least, did not make for the healthiest of husbands.

但是乔安娜仍然不得不面对她没有继承人的事实。路易的死也意味着她需要一个新的战场冠军以防匈牙利人或其他人入侵因此,在她36岁的时候,她决定再婚。这一次,她选择了马略卡岛的詹姆斯四世;他的两个主要的建议,他在技术上自己国家的国王,因此可能不会试图篡夺那不勒斯和b)他对她并不直接相关,因此,根据当时的信仰,更有可能为她提供一个幸存的继承人(同样,表亲结婚没有乔安娜在过去干得很好)。唯一的问题是,詹姆斯十几岁的时候,马略卡岛被阿拉贡入侵,最近他被关在一个小铁笼子里关了14年。至少,这对一个最健康的丈夫来说是不利的。

James was subject to frequent physical illnesses, and the combination of toxic masculinity and a decade and a half of severe trauma had left him extremely troubled. He was given to frequent outbursts, and was physically violent with his wife — sometimes even publicly. Things became so bad that several family members had to sleep in the royal chambers in order to keep Joanna safe. The queen was advised to stop sharing a bed with James, but she was so desperate for an heir that she persisted; sadly, her only pregnancy while married to James ended in miscarriage.

詹姆斯经常受到身体疾病的困扰,有毒的男子气概和15年的严重创伤给他留下了极大的困扰。他经常发脾气,对妻子实施身体暴力——有时甚至在公开场合。事情变得非常糟糕,为了保证乔安娜的安全,几个家庭成员不得不睡在皇室的寝宫里。有人建议女王不要再和詹姆斯同床共枕,但她非常渴望有一个继承人,所以坚持要这么做;不幸的是,她与詹姆斯结婚后的第一次怀孕以流产告终。

Eventually, James left Naples to join Edward the Black Prince of England and Henry II of Castile in a war against the kingdom of Aragon. After a resounding defeat, James IV of Majorca died of his chronic illness in Aragon. Joanna was free again, but still without an heir.

最终,詹姆斯离开那不勒斯,加入英格兰黑王子爱德华和卡斯提尔国王亨利二世的行列,与阿拉贡王国开战。在大败之后,马略卡岛的詹姆斯四世在阿拉贡死于慢性疾病。乔安娜重获自由,但仍然没有继承人。

Catherine of Siena, a future saint who claimed to only poop once a month, declared that Joanna was demonically misguided; she was not alone in this opinion.

锡耶纳的凯瑟琳(Catherine of Siena)是一位未来的圣徒,她声称自己一个月只拉一次屎,声称乔安娜被恶魔误导了;她并不是唯一有这种想法的人。

The period after James IV's death is considered by most historians to be the most stable and prosperous part of Joanna's rule. She helped finance the papacy's return to Rome, hosted the Byzantine emperor, and involved herself in the most minute aspects of governing. She even found time to marry again, this time to duke Otto of Brunswick; she was 48 to his 58 and far outranked him, so he was pretty happy to be bossed around by her. He was also a seasoned warrior, something that the country always needed — even in times of apparent peace.

詹姆斯四世死后的时期被大多数历史学家认为是乔安娜统治时期最稳定和繁荣的时期。她资助了教皇重返罗马,接待了拜占庭皇帝,并参与了管理最细微的方面。她甚至抽出时间再次结婚,这次是嫁给了布伦瑞克的奥托公爵;她48岁,而他58岁,地位比他高得多,所以他很高兴被她颐指气使。他也是一个经验丰富的战士,这是这个国家一直需要的——即使在表面上和平的时候。

Joanna seems to have had a few happy years in her fourth marriage (my God, I hope she had a few happy years, because she certainly deserved them), but then the pope died and shit went sideways. The papal court had recently returned to Rome, and things were tenuous. The last few popes had been French (since, you know, the court was in Avignon), and most of the cardinals were French as well. When the pope died, the Romans insisted that the next one should be Roman; to underscore their point, they rioted outside the papal palace. In the spirit of compromise, the College of Cardinals elected a Neapolitan archbishop, who took the name Urban VI. Since he had been plucked out of relative obscurity and elevated to the rank of pope by the grace of the cardinals, they assumed they would be able to control him. They were very wrong.

乔安娜在她的第四段婚姻中似乎度过了几年快乐的时光(天哪,我希望她度过了几年快乐的时光,因为她值得拥有),但后来教皇去世了,一切都出了问题。当时,教皇法庭刚刚回到罗马,一切都很脆弱。前几任教皇都是法国人(因为,你知道,宫廷在阿维尼翁),大多数红衣主教也是法国人。教皇死后,罗马人坚持下一任教皇应该是罗马人;为了强调他们的观点,他们在教皇宫殿外暴动。本着妥协的精神,枢机主教团(College of Cardinals)选举了一名那不勒斯大主教,起名为厄本六世(Urban VI)。由于他是在红衣主教的恩惠下,从一个相对默默无闻的人提拔到教皇的,枢机主教团认为自己有能力控制他。他们大错特错了。

Joanna supported Clement VII's claim to Popedom, but not everyone in Naples agreed with her decision. Urban VI declared her rule to be null and void and, improbably, some people took this proclamation seriously. Catherine of Siena, a future saint who claimed to only poop once a month, declared that Joanna was demonically misguided; she was not alone in this opinion. Sensing the burgeoning unrest in Naples, Louis of Hungary made a final power move: he turned Joanna's prospective heir, her cousin Charles, against her and financed his invasion of Naples.

乔安娜支持克莱门特七世要求得到教皇的权利,但并不是那不勒斯的每个人都同意她的决定。乌尔班六世宣布她的统治无效,不可能的是,有些人认真对待这个宣言。锡耶纳的凯瑟琳(Catherine of Siena)是一位未来的圣徒,她声称自己一个月只拉一次屎,声称乔安娜被恶魔误导了;她并不是唯一有这种想法的人。察觉到那不勒斯的动荡不安,匈牙利的路易做出了最后的权力行动:他策反了乔安娜的未来继承人,她的堂兄查尔斯,并资助他入侵那不勒斯。

Charles sashayed his way across Italy, his path eased by the governments of various cities that preferred to surrender immediately rather than fight; he soon entered Naples and, after a few days of fighting, took the queen prisoner. Joanna, who had fought for so long to keep her kingdom safe, was murdered by yet another treacherous cousin on July 27, 1382. Because the details of her death were kept secret, no one is sure exactly how she died. Some say she was strangled with a silken cord while praying, and others claim she was smothered between two feather mattresses. Because she was in a state of excommunication (according to Urban VI, at least), she couldn't be buried in consecrated ground. Instead, her body was thrown down a well at the Church of Santa Chiara.

查理在意大利一路走来,他的道路上得到了各城市政府的帮助,这些政府宁愿立即投降,也不愿开战;他很快进入那不勒斯,经过几天的战斗,俘虏了王后。乔安娜为保卫王国的安全奋斗了这么久,在1382年7月27日被另一个奸诈的表亲杀害。由于她死亡的细节保密,没有人确切知道她是怎么死的。有人说她是在祈祷时被一根丝绳勒死的,也有人说她是被夹在两张羽毛床垫之间闷死的。因为她处于被逐出教会的状态(至少根据Urban VI),她不能被葬在圣地。相反,她的尸体被扔进了圣塔基亚拉教堂的一口井里。

It was an ignominious ending for a queen who had once been the most powerful woman in Europe. Joanna's life had never been easy, and the brutal details of her death are no exception. In spite of this, she had managed to hold on to and stabilize her country for nearly four decades, a feat that few kings can claim. Against all odds, she survived invasions, plagues, and three terrible husbands (Otto of Brunswick, who by all accounts was not terrible, survived her by sixteen years and never remarried). Historians have been shitting on her for the past 600 years or so — her notorious reputation and alleged sluttiness are usually the first things they mention — but the truth is that she did amazingly well with what she had. It's well past time that we recognize her tenacity and bravery.

对于一位曾经是欧洲最有权势的女性的女王来说,这是一个不光彩的结局。乔安娜的生活从来都不轻松,她死亡的残酷细节也不例外。尽管如此,她还是成功地将国家维持了近40年的稳定,这是很少有国王能取得的成就。历经千辛万苦,她挺过了入侵、瘟疫和三个可怕的丈夫(大家都说布伦瑞克的奥托并不可怕,但他比她活了16年,并没有再婚)。历史学家在过去的600年里一直在她身上拉屎——她臭名昭著的名声和所谓的放荡通常是他们提到的第一件事——但事实是,她用她所拥有的一切做得非常好。我们早就该承认她的坚韧和勇敢了。

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