2019年,美国工人的平均收入是多少?
What Is the Average Income in the U.S. in 2019?
1409字
2019-02-03 17:46
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火星译客

Exactly how is the economy for workers? Unemployment levels continue to go down, but automation and gig economy contract jobs can still make everything feel uncertain.

      工人们的经济状况到底如何?失业率继续下降,但自动化和零工经济的合同工作仍然让人们觉得有很大的不确定性。

So one way people may think to look at how the economy is doing for employees is income. This can help give a more solid idea by determining the mean or median income in the country, but a deeper look is required - one single number doesn't tell the whole story of how many factors, occupations, institutional biases and more go into what a person's income actually is.

        所以人们看待经济对员工的影响的一种方式就是收入的变化。这种变化可以通过确定该国的平均收入或收入中位数来体现,但仍需要更深入的研究——一个单一的数字并不能说明整体的情况,它无法反映各种因素、职业、制度偏见以及其他方面究竟如何影响一个人的收入。

But before all that, what, at the moment, is the average income in the U.S.?

但在此之前,美国工人的平均收入是多少?

Average Income in the U.S.

      美国工人的平均收入

Recently, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) released their report on the Usual Weekly Earnings of Wage and Salary Workers. Using information from the fourth fiscal quarter of 2018, the BLS claims that in that quarter, the median income for a full-time wage or salary worker on a weekly basis was $900. For a 40-hour work week, this translates to a yearly income of approximately $46,800. This is a 5% increase on the previous year.

        最近,美国劳工统计局(BLS)发布了关于全职领薪工人平常每周收入的报告。根据2018年第四财季的数据,劳工统计局称,在该财季,全职领薪工人的周平均收入为900美元。每周工作40小时,以此计算,年收入约46 800美元。这比前一年增加了5%。

When seasonal adjustments (holidays, severe weather, etc.) are taken into account by the BLS, the median weekly earnings are $897, or about $46,644 per year.

       如果劳工统计局将季节性调整(假期、恶劣天气等)考虑在内,每周的收入的中值为897美元,约合每年46644美元。

These are very general numbers. After all, according to the BLS for this quarter there were 115.9 million full-time wage and salary workers in the U.S.

        这些是非常普遍的数字。毕竟,根据美国劳工统计局(BLS)本季度的数据,美国有1.159亿全职全薪员工。

In addition, the BLS looked through the wage and salary information of  about 24.8 million part-time workers in the U.S. and determined that the median weekly earnings for these workers was $272. This is a 6.25% increase over the fourth quarter of 2017, when the median weekly earnings for the same group of workers was $256.

        此外,劳工统计局还查阅了美国约2480万名兼职工人的薪资信息,并确定这些工人的周收入中位数为272美元。这比2017年第四季度增长了6.25%,而在2017年第四季度,这一组工人的周收入中位数为256美元。

Year-to-Year Changes in Average Income

年平均收入的变化

Using seasonally adjusted figures, in addition to being a 5% increase on the fourth quarter of 2017, the weekly earnings of $897 were a 2.6% increase on the first quarter of 2018.

        使用按季度调整的数据,除了比2017年第四季度增长5%,897美元的周收益比2018年第一季度增长2.6%。

The increase from 2017-18 of 5% is much higher than what year-to-year increases have been in recent years. The fourth quarter of 2017's median weekly earnings of $854 was just a .09% increase on the same period of 2016, which was $846 in today's dollars. That was a 2.9% increase on the fourth quarter of 2015's median earnings of $822. The fourth quarter of 2012 saw median weekly earnings of $771, a 1.4% increase from 2011.

        从2017年到2018年,增幅为5%,远远高于近年来的同比增幅。2017年第四季度的周收入中位数为854美元,仅比2016年同期的846美元增长0.09%。这比2015年第四季度平均822美元的收入增长了2.9%。2012年第四季度的周收入为771美元,较2011年增长1.4%。

What Factors Impact Average Income?

影响平均收入的因素有哪些?

As stated, however, these are all very broad numbers for a large population. Different people with different factors in their life have different incomes based on these factors, such as education level, race, age and gender.

      然而正如前面提到的,对于一个巨大的人口总量来说,这些都是非常宽泛的数字。不同的人,在他们的生活中,有着不同的影响他们收入的因素,如教育水平,种族,年龄和性别。

For example, the lowest-earning 10% of full-time employees whose highest form of education is a high school diploma make, at most, $421 weekly. This is roughly $21,892 a year. The lowest-earning 10% of those with a bachelor's degree, on the other hand, earned as much as $665, or $34,580 a year. This is even true if we look at top earners, the 10% of the group with the highest income. For those with just a high school diploma, the upper limit is around $1,534 per week ($79,768 per year); for those with a bachelor's degree, the highest earners averaged up to $2,696 ($140,192 per year).

      例如,在最高学历是高中文凭的全职员工中,收入最低的10%每周最多能挣421美元。这大约是21892美元一年。另一方面,在那些获得学士学位的人中,收入最低的10%的人每周收入高达665美元,年收入即34580美元。如果我们看看收入最高的人,在不同学历的两组中收入最高的10%中,那些只有高中文凭的人,上限是每周1534美元(每年79768美元);那些拥有学士学位的人,最高收入者的周收入平均高达2696美元(每年140192美元)。

Education is far from the only factor that will impact average income. Some may be understandable on some level, but others are unfortunate examples of institutional bigotry.

        教育远不是影响平均收入的唯一因素。有些在某种程度上可以理解是受教育水平在起作用,但另一些时候则是由于顽固的制度影响了收入水平。

Average Income Differences by Race

按种族划分的平均收入差异

The BLS, in this report, breaks down income disparities by race by looking at the numbers for four different demographics: white, black or African American, Asian and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity. The differences are striking.

        在这份报告中,劳工统计局通过分析四种不同的人口:白人、黑人或非裔美国人、亚裔和西班牙裔或拉丁裔的统计数据,按种族划分,分析他们的收入差距。这些差异是显著的。

While the median weekly earnings overall is $900, for white full-time employees it is $931 (about $48,412 per year) and for Asian full-time employees it is $1,095 (about $56,940 per year). However, the median weekly earnings for full-time black or African American workers is just $712, which is $37,024 per year. And full-time Hispanic or Latino workers - the second-highest population of full-time employees at over 20.46 million - have median weekly earnings of just $684. This, over a full year, is just $35,568 per year.

       尽管每周总收入中位数为900美元,但对于白人全职员工来说,每周总收入为931美元(约每年48412美元),而对于亚洲全职员工来说,每周总收入为1095美元(约每年56940美元)。然而,全职黑人或非裔美国工人的周收入中位数仅为712美元,即每年37024美元。全职西班牙裔或拉丁裔工人的周收入中位数仅为684美元,折算到一整年,每年仅为35568美元,而他们的人数是全职员工中第二高的,超过2046万人。

This is also true in older ages, as full-time black, Hispanic and Latino workers struggle to achieve the same level of upward mobility full-time white workers do. The lowest earning black and African American workers made $395 or lower a week; Hispanic and Latino workers didn't fare much better at just $399. The lowest earning 10% of white workers, though, made as much $460 per week. The highest earning white workers made up to $2,278, easily entering the six-figure range at $118,456 per year, but for black and African American workers it stalls at $1,655 ($86,060 per year) while Hispanic and Latino workers in the highest earning group made around $1,570 per week ($81,640 a year).

         在老年人中也是如此,尽管全职黑人、西班牙裔和拉丁美洲工人努力实现与全职白人工人相同的向上流动水平。最低收入的黑人和非裔美国工人每周收入为395美元,甚至更低;西班牙裔和拉丁美洲工人的收入仅为399美元,并没有明显地提高。然而,收入最低的10%的白人工人每周挣460美元。收入最高的白人工人,周收入高达2278美元,他们的年收入很容易进入六位数区间,为118456美元/年,但对黑人和非裔美国人来说,最高周收入为1655美元(86060美元/年),而收入最高的拉美裔和西班牙裔工人每周约为1570美元(81640美元/年)。

Average Income Differences by Sex

按性别划分的平均收入差异

Women made up nearly 45% of the full-time workers in the BLS report, yet earned significantly less than their male counterparts. Men's median weekly earnings was above the general average at $993 a week, or $51,636 per year. Women, though, were significantly below it, as their median weekly earnings were $794, which is just $41,288 per year.

        在劳工统计局的报告中,女性占全职工人的近45%,但收入却明显低于男性。男性每周收入的中位数高于平均水平,为每周993美元,即每年51636美元。不过,女性的周收入中位数为794美元,仅为每年41288美元,远远低于男性的水平。

Race is an important factor in the income disparities between sexes as well. The median weekly earnings for white women who worked full-time was $816. This was considerably smaller than the same figure for white men who work full-time ($1,016 per week). However, this is actually larger than the median weekly earnings of black and African American men, as well as Hispanic or Latino men - and much more than black and Hispanic women. The median weekly earnings for a black or African American women was just $665, while the figure for Hispanic and Latino women was even lower at $610.

       种族也是影响两性收入差距的一个重要因素。全职工作的白人女性的周收入中位数是816美元。这远远低于全职工作的白人男性(每周1016美元)。然而,这实际上比黑人和非洲裔美国男性,以及拉美裔或拉美裔男性的每周收入中位数还要高,而且比黑人和拉美裔女性要多得多。黑人或非裔美国妇女的周收入中位数仅为665美元,而西班牙裔和拉丁美洲妇女的周收入中位数甚至更低,为610美元。

Average Income Differences by Age

按年龄划分的平均收入差异

One of the somewhat more understandable income gaps has to do with age. The three largest age brackets the BLS uses to track weekly earnings are 16-24, 25-54 and 55 and older. The youngest age bracket, often in minimum wage and entry level positions, easily make the least with a median weekly earning of $581, or about $30,160 per year. The 25-54 demographic's median weekly earnings rise significantly to $924, or $48,048 per year, while it's $1,015 a week, or $52,780 per year, for those 55 and over.

        年龄对收入差距的影响在某种程度上是可以理解的。劳工统计局用来追踪周收入的三个最大年龄段分别是16-24岁、25-54岁和55岁及以上。最年轻的年龄段的工人们,通常拿着最低工资,担任入门级职位,他们的周收入是最低的,每周收入中位数为581美元,或每年约30160美元。25-54岁人群的周收入中位数大幅上升至924美元,即每年48048美元,而55岁及以上人群的周收入中位数为1015美元,即每年52780美元。

Average Income Differences by Job

按工作划分的平均收入差异

The field you work in and the job you have within that field make a strong impact on the income an employee makes. The median weekly earnings for someone who works in management for business and financial operations is $1,384, or $71,968 a year. Service workers, despite their hard work at tough jobs, have median weekly earnings of just $574, which is just under $30,000 a year.

       工作的领域和在该领域内的担任的岗位对员工的收入产生了很大的影响。在商业和金融运营管理部门工作的人的周收入中位数是1384美元,折算到每年为71968美元。对于服务工人而言,尽管在艰苦的岗位上努力工作,但他们的周收入中位数仅为574美元,年收入低于3万美元。

Full-time employees in jobs related to sales have median weekly earnings of $826, or about $42,952. Those who work in occupations pertaining to installation, maintenance and repair had median earnings of $957, or $49,764 a year.

       从事销售相关工作的全职员工的周收入中位数为826美元,年收入约为42952美元。那些从事与安装、维护和修理有关的职业的人的周收入中位数为957美元,年收入即为49764美元。

Average Income vs. Average Net Worth

平均收入与平均资产净值

Income, while important, does not tell the entire story of an individual or family's financial situation. That's why someone's average income tends to be far different than someone's average net worth.

        收入虽然重要,但并不能说明个人或家庭财务状况的全部情况。这就是为什么一个人的平均收入往往与一个人的平均资产净值有很大差异。

Net worth is someone's assets minus their liabilities, and the more liabilities a person has, the lower their net worth is going to be. It's why the median weekly earnings of a full-time employee aged 25-34 is $820, or $42,640 annually, yet the median net worth of an American under 35 is only $11,100. Not old enough to own assets like a home but old enough to have potentially accrued up to hundreds of thousands of dollars in student loan debt, a young person making this salary - under the general median earnings - isn't likely to have a very high net worth.

       资产净值是指某人的资产减去负债,一个人负债越多,其资产净值就越低。这就是为什么25-34岁的全职员工的周收入中位数是820美元,年收入为42640美元,而35岁以下的美国人的资产净值中位数只有11100美元。在这个年龄段,大多数人没有拥有像房子这样的资产,但却累积了数十万美元的学生贷款债务,一个年轻人的工资在一般收入中位数下时,不太可能有很高的资产净值。

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