时间轴:电动汽车的历史
Timeline: History of the Electric Car
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2021-03-03 22:35
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Timeline: History of the Electric Car

时间轴:电动汽车的历史

Not an invention of modern times, the electric car has a long and storied history. Travel back in time as we explore the history of the electric car. 

电动汽车并不是现代的发明,它有着悠久而传奇的历史。当我们探索电动汽车的历史时,回到过去。

Introduced more than 100 years ago, electric cars are seeing a rise in popularity today for many of the same reasons they were first popular.

电动汽车于100多年前推出,如今越来越受欢迎,原因与它们最初流行的原因相同。

Whether it’s a hybrid, plug-in hybrid or all-electric, the demand for electric drive vehicles will continue to climb as prices drop and consumers look for ways to save money at the pump. Currently more than 3 percent of new vehicle sales, electric vehicles sales could to grow to nearly 7 percent -- or 6.6 million per year -- worldwide by 2020, according to a report by Navigant Research.

无论是混合动力汽车、插电式混合动力汽车还是全电动汽车,随着价格的下降,以及消费者寻找省钱的方法,对电动汽车的需求将继续攀升。根据Navigant Research的一份报告,目前电动汽车在全球新车销量中占比超过3%,到2020年,电动汽车的销量可能会增长到近7%,即每年660万辆。

With this growing interest in electric vehicles, we are taking a look at where this technology has been and where it’s going. Travel back in time with us as we explore the history of the electric car.

随着人们对电动汽车的兴趣日益浓厚,我们正在审视这项技术的发展历程和发展方向。和我们一起回到过去,探索电动汽车的历史。

The birth of the electric vehicle

电动汽车的诞生

It’s hard to pinpoint the invention of the electric car to one inventor or country. Instead it was a series of breakthroughs -- from the battery to the electric motor -- in the 1800s that led to the first electric vehicle on the road.

很难确定电动车是哪个发明者或哪个国家发明的。相反,从电池到电动马达,19世纪的一系列突破导致了第一辆上路的电动汽车。

In the early part of the century, innovators in Hungary, the Netherlands and the United States -- including a blacksmith from Vermont -- began toying with the concept of a battery-powered vehicle and created some of the first small-scale electric cars. And while Robert Anderson, a British inventor, developed the first crude electric carriage around this same time, it wasn’t until the second half of the 19th century that French and English inventors built some of the first practical electric cars.

20世纪初,匈牙利、荷兰和美国的革新者——包括佛蒙特州的一名铁匠——开始尝试电池驱动汽车的概念,并制造出了首批小型电动汽车。大约在同一时期,英国发明家罗伯特·安德森(Robert Anderson)发明了第一辆原始的电动马车,但直到19世纪下半叶,法国和英国的发明家才制造出首批实用的电动汽车。

Here in the U.S., the first successful electric car made its debut around 1890 thanks to William Morrison, a chemist who lived in Des Moines, Iowa. His six-passenger vehicle capable of a top speed of 14 miles per hour was little more than an electrified wagon, but it helped spark interest in electric vehicles.

在美国,第一辆成功的电动汽车在1890年左右首次亮相,这要归功于威廉·莫里森,一位住在爱荷华州得梅因的化学家。他的六人车最高时速可达每小时14英里,和一辆电动货车差不多,但它激发了人们对电动汽车的兴趣。

Over the next few years, electric vehicles from different automakers began popping up across the U.S. New York City even had a fleet of more than 60 electric taxis. By 1900, electric cars were at their heyday, accounting for around a third of all vehicles on the road. During the next 10 years, they continued to show strong sales.

在接下来的几年里,不同汽车制造商的电动汽车开始在美国各地涌现。纽约市甚至有60多辆电动出租车。到1900年,电动汽车处于全盛时期,约占道路上所有车辆的三分之一。在接下来的10年里,它们继续表现出强劲的销售势头。

The early rise and fall of the electric car

电动汽车的起起落落

To understand the popularity of electric vehicles circa 1900, it is also important to understand the development of the personal vehicle and the other options available. At the turn of the 20th century, the horse was still the primary mode of transportation. But as Americans became more prosperous, they turned to the newly invented motor vehicle -- available in steam, gasoline or electric versions -- to get around.

要了解1900年前后电动汽车的普及程度,了解个人汽车的发展和其他可用选择也很重要。在20世纪初,马仍然是主要的交通工具。但随着美国人变得更加富裕,他们转而使用新发明的汽车——有蒸汽、汽油或电动版本——来出行。

Steam was a tried and true energy source, having proved reliable for powering factories and trains. Some of the first self-propelled vehicles in the late 1700s relied on steam; yet it took until the 1870s for the technology to take hold in cars. Part of this is because steam wasn’t very practical for personal vehicles. Steam vehicles required long startup times -- sometimes up to 45 minutes in the cold -- and would need to be refilled with water, limiting their range.

蒸汽是一种经过考验的真正的能源,已被证明可以为工厂和火车提供可靠的动力。18世纪晚期,一些最早的自行推进的交通工具依赖于蒸汽;然而,直到19世纪70年代,这项技术才在汽车上站稳了脚跟。部分原因是蒸汽在个人交通工具上并不实用。蒸汽汽车需要很长的启动时间——有时在寒冷的环境下需要45分钟——而且需要重新注满水,这限制了它们的行驶范围。

As electric vehicles came onto the market, so did a new type of vehicle -- the gasoline-powered car -- thanks to improvements to the internal combustion engine in the 1800s. While gasoline cars had promise, they weren’t without their faults. They required a lot of manual effort to drive -- changing gears was no easy task and they needed to be started with a hand crank, making them difficult for some to operate. They were also noisy, and their exhaust was unpleasant.

随着电动汽车进入市场,也出现了一种新型汽车——汽油动力汽车——这要归功于19世纪内燃机的改进。虽然汽油车有希望,但它们也不是没有缺点。它们需要大量的手动工作来驱动——换档不是一件容易的任务,而且它们需要用一个手摇柄开始,这使得一些人很难操作它们。它们也很吵,它们排出的废气令人不舒服。

Electric cars didn’t have any of the issues associated with steam or gasoline. They were quiet, easy to drive and didn’t emit a smelly pollutant like the other cars of the time. Electric cars quickly became popular with urban residents -- especially women. They were perfect for short trips around the city, and poor road conditions outside cities meant few cars of any type could venture farther. As more people gained access to electricity in the 1910s, it became easier to charge electric cars, adding to their popularity with all walks of life (including some of the “best known and prominent makers of gasoline cars” as a 1911 New York Times article pointed out).

电动汽车没有任何与蒸汽或汽油相关的问题。它们很安静,容易驾驶,而且不像当时的其他汽车那样排放出难闻的污染物。电动汽车很快受到城市居民的欢迎,尤其是女性。它们非常适合在城市附近短途旅行,而城市外糟糕的道路条件意味着几乎没有任何类型的汽车可以冒险走得更远。20世纪10年代,随着越来越多的人用上电,给电动汽车充电变得更加容易,在各行各业都越来越受欢迎(包括1911年《纽约 时报》(New York Times)的一篇文章指出的一些“最知名和杰出的汽油车制造商”)。
 

Many innovators at the time took note of the electric vehicle’s high demand, exploring ways to improve the technology. For example, Ferdinand Porsche, founder of the sports car company by the same name, developed an electric car called the P1 in 1898. Around the same time, he created the world’s first hybrid electric car -- a vehicle that is powered by electricity and a gas engine. Thomas Edison, one of the world’s most prolific inventors, thought electric vehicles were the superior technology and worked to build a better electric vehicle battery. Even Henry Ford, who was friends with Edison, partnered with Edison to explore options for a low-cost electric car in 1914, according to Wired.

当时,许多创新者注意到电动汽车的高需求,并探索改进技术的方法。例如,同名跑车公司的创始人费迪南德•保时捷(Ferdinand Porsche)在1898年开发了一款名为P1的电动汽车。大约在同一时间,他创造了世界上第一辆混合动力汽车——一辆由电力和汽油引擎驱动的汽车。托马斯·爱迪生是世界上最多产的发明家之一,他认为电动汽车是最先进的技术,并致力于制造更好的电动汽车电池。据《连线》杂志报道,甚至是爱迪生的朋友亨利·福特也在1914年与爱迪生合作探索低成本电动汽车的选择。

Yet, it was Henry Ford’s mass-produced Model T that dealt a blow to the electric car. Introduced in 1908, the Model T made gasoline-powered cars widely available and affordable. By 1912, the gasoline car cost only $650, while an electric roadster sold for $1,750. That same year, Charles Kettering introduced the electric starter, eliminating the need for the hand crank and giving rise to more gasoline-powered vehicle sales.

然而,正是亨利·福特(Henry Ford)的大规模生产的T型车(Model T)对电动汽车造成了打击。T型车于1908年推出,使汽油驱动的汽车广泛普及,价格低廉。到1912年,汽油车的价格仅为650美元,而电动跑车售价为1750美元。同年,查尔斯·凯特林(Charles Kettering)推出了电动启动器,消除了对手动曲柄的需求,并带来了更多的汽油驱动汽车的销售。

Other developments also contributed to the decline of the electric vehicle. By the 1920s, the U.S. had a better system of roads connecting cities, and Americans wanted to get out and explore. With the discovery of Texas crude oil, gas became cheap and readily available for rural Americans, and filling stations began popping up across the country. In comparison, very few Americans outside of cities had electricity at that time. In the end, electric vehicles all but disappeared by 1935.

其他的发展也导致了电动汽车的衰落。到了20世纪20年代,美国有了更好的连接城市的道路系统,美国人也想走出去探索一番。随着德州原油的发现,美国农村地区的天然气价格变得低廉,加油站也开始在全国各地出现。相比之下,当时只有很少的美国人在城市之外有电。最终,到1935年,电动汽车几乎全部消失。

Gas shortages spark interest in electric vehicles

汽油短缺引发了人们对电动汽车的兴趣

Over the next 30 years or so, electric vehicles entered a sort of dark ages with little advancement in the technology. Cheap, abundant gasoline and continued improvement in the internal combustion engine hampered demand for alternative fuel vehicles.

在接下来的30年左右的时间里,电动汽车进入了一种技术几乎没有进步的黑暗时代。廉价而充足的汽油和不断改进的内燃机阻碍了对替代燃料汽车的需求。

Fast forward to the late 1960s and early 1970s. Soaring oil prices and gasoline shortages -- peaking with the 1973 Arab Oil Embargo -- created a growing interest in lowering the U.S.’s dependence on foreign oil and finding homegrown sources of fuel. Congress took note and passed the Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Research, Development, and Demonstration Act of 1976, authorizing the Energy Department to support research and development in electric and hybrid vehicles.

快进到60年代末和70年代初。油价飙升和汽油短缺(1973年阿拉伯石油禁运达到顶峰)使美国对降低对外国石油的依赖和寻找本土燃料来源的兴趣日益浓厚。国会注意到并通过了1976年的《电动和混合动力汽车研究、开发和示范法案》,授权能源部支持电动和混合动力汽车的研究和开发。

Around this same time, many big and small automakers began exploring options for alternative fuel vehicles, including electric cars. For example, General Motors developed a prototype for an urban electric car that it displayed at the Environmental Protection Agency’s First Symposium on Low Pollution Power Systems Development in 1973, and the American Motor Company produced electric delivery jeeps that the United States Postal Service used in a 1975 test program. Even NASA helped raise the profile of the electric vehicle when its electric Lunar rover became the first manned vehicle to drive on the moon in 1971.

大约在同一时间,许多大小汽车制造商开始探索替代燃料汽车的选择,包括电动汽车。例如,通用汽车(General Motors)开发了一个原型城市电动汽车,它显示在美国环境保护署在1973年第一次低污染电力系统发展研讨会上,和美国汽车公司生产电动交付吉普车,美国邮政服务中使用1975测试程序。1971年,当美国国家航空航天局(NASA)的电动月球车成为第一个在月球上驾驶的载人交通工具时,电动汽车的形象也得到了提升。

Yet, the vehicles developed and produced in the 1970s still suffered from drawbacks compared to gasoline-powered cars. Electric vehicles during this time had limited performance -- usually topping at speeds of 45 miles per hour -- and their typical range was limited to 40 miles before needing to be recharged.

然而,与汽油驱动的汽车相比,上世纪70年代开发和生产的汽车仍然存在缺陷。在此期间,电动汽车的性能有限——最高时速通常为45英里每小时——在需要充电之前,它们的典型行驶里程被限制在40英里。

Environmental concern drives electric vehicles forward

对环境的关注推动了电动汽车的发展

Fast forward again -- this time to the 1990s. In the 20 years since the long gas lines of the 1970s, interest in electric vehicles had mostly died down. But new federal and state regulations begin to change things. The passage of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendment and the 1992 Energy Policy Act -- plus new transportation emissions regulations issued by the California Air Resources Board -- helped create a renewed interest in electric vehicles in the U.S.

再一次快进——这一次是20世纪90年代。自20世纪70年代天然气公司排长队以来的20年里,人们对电动汽车的兴趣基本消退了。但是新的联邦和州法规开始改变这一切。1990年通过的《清洁空气法修正案》(Clean Air Act Amendment)和1992年通过的《能源政策法》(Energy Policy Act),以及加州空气资源委员会(California Air Resources Board)发布的新的交通排放规定,帮助美国重新燃起了对电动汽车的兴趣

During this time, automakers began modifying some of their popular vehicle models into electric vehicles. This meant that electric vehicles now achieved speeds and performance much closer to gasoline-powered vehicles, and many of them had a range of 60 miles.

在此期间,汽车制造商开始将一些受欢迎的车型改装成电动汽车。这意味着电动汽车现在的速度和性能更接近汽油驱动的汽车,其中许多汽车的行驶里程为60英里。

One of the most well-known electric cars during this time was GM’s EV1, a car that was heavily featured in the 2006 documentary Who Killed the Electric Car? Instead of modifying an existing vehicle, GM designed and developed the EV1 from the ground up. With a range of 80 miles and the ability to accelerate from 0 to 50 miles per hour in just seven seconds, the EV1 quickly gained a cult following. But because of high production costs, the EV1 was never commercially viable, and GM discontinued it in 2001.

这一时期最著名的电动汽车之一是通用汽车的EV1,它在2006年的纪录片《谁终结了电动汽车?》通用汽车没有对现有的汽车进行改造,而是从头开始设计和开发EV1。EV1的续航里程为80英里,加速速度从0英里到50英里每小时仅需7秒,因此它很快就赢得了一批狂热追随者。但由于生产成本高昂,EV1从未具备商业可行性,通用汽车于2001年停止了生产。

With a booming economy, a growing middle class and low gas prices in the late 1990s, many consumers didn’t worry about fuel-efficient vehicles. Even though there wasn’t much public attention to electric vehicles at this time, behind the scenes, scientists and engineers -- supported by the Energy Department -- were working to improve electric vehicle technology, including batteries.

上世纪90年代末,随着经济的蓬勃发展、中产阶级的不断壮大以及油价的走低,许多消费者并不担心节油型汽车。尽管当时公众对电动汽车的关注并不多,但在幕后,由能源部支持的科学家和工程师们正在努力改进电动汽车技术,包括电池。

A new beginning for electric cars

电动汽车的新起点

While all the starts and stops of the electric vehicle industry in the second half of the 20th century helped show the world the promise of the technology, the true revival of the electric vehicle didn’t happen until around the start of the 21st century. Depending on whom you ask, it was one of two events that sparked the interest we see today in electric vehicles.

虽然电动汽车工业在20世纪下半叶的所有起止都向世界展示了这项技术的前景,但真正的电动汽车复兴直到21世纪初才发生。这取决于你问谁,它是两个事件之一,引发了我们今天看到的对电动汽车的兴趣。

The first turning point many have suggested was the introduction of the Toyota Prius. Released in Japan in 1997, the Prius became the world’s first mass-produced hybrid electric vehicle. In 2000, the Prius was released worldwide, and it became an instant success with celebrities, helping to raise the profile of the car. To make the Prius a reality, Toyota used a nickel metal hydride battery -- a technology that was supported by the Energy Department’s research. Since then, rising gasoline prices and growing concern about carbon pollution have helped make the Prius the best-selling hybrid worldwide during the past decade.

许多人认为,第一个转折点是丰田普锐斯(Prius)的推出。1997年,普锐斯在日本上市,成为世界上第一辆大规模生产的混合动力汽车。2000年,普锐斯在全球发布,并迅速在名人中获得成功,帮助提高了汽车的形象。为了让普锐斯成为现实,丰田公司使用了镍金属氢化物电池——这项技术得到了美国能源部的研究支持。自那以后,不断上涨的汽油价格和对碳污染的日益担忧,帮助普锐斯成为过去十年全球最畅销的混合动力车。

(Historical footnote: Before the Prius could be introduced in the U.S., Honda released the Insight hybrid in 1999, making it the first hybrid sold in the U.S. since the early 1900s.)

(历史注脚:在普锐斯进入美国市场之前,本田于1999年发布了Insight混合动力车,使其成为20世纪初以来在美国销售的第一款混合动力车。)

The other event that helped reshape electric vehicles was the announcement in 2006 that a small Silicon Valley startup, Tesla Motors, would start producing a luxury electric sports car that could go more than 200 miles on a single charge. In 2010, Tesla received at $465 million loan from the Department of Energy’s Loan Programs Office -- a loan that Tesla repaid a full nine years early -- to establish a manufacturing facility in California. In the short time since then, Tesla has won wide acclaim for its cars and has become the largest auto industry employer in California.

另一个帮助重塑电动汽车的事件是,2006年,硅谷的一家小型初创公司特斯拉汽车(Tesla Motors)宣布将开始生产一款豪华电动跑车,充一次电可行驶200英里以上。2010年,特斯拉从美国能源部贷款项目办公室(Department of Energy’s loan Programs Office)获得了4.65亿美元的贷款——特斯拉提前整整九年还清了这笔贷款——以便在加州建立一家制造工厂。在那之后的短短时间里,特斯拉因其汽车赢得了广泛的赞誉,并成为加州最大的汽车行业雇主。

Tesla’s announcement and subsequent success spurred many big automakers to accelerate work on their own electric vehicles. In late 2010, the Chevy Volt and the Nissan LEAF were released in the U.S. market. The first commercially available plug-in hybrid, the Volt has a gasoline engine that supplements its electric drive once the battery is depleted, allowing consumers to drive on electric for most trips and gasoline to extend the vehicle’s range. In comparison, the LEAF is an all-electric vehicle (often called a battery-electric vehicle, an electric vehicle or just an EV for short), meaning it is only powered by an electric motor.

特斯拉的声明以及随后的成功促使许多大型汽车制造商加速研发自己的电动汽车。2010年末,雪佛兰伏特(Chevy Volt)和日产聆风(Nissan LEAF)在美国市场上市。Volt是第一款商用插电式混合动力车,它有一个汽油发动机,在电池耗尽后补充其电力驱动功能,允许消费者在大多数行程中使用电动车,而汽油则可以扩大汽车的续航里程。相比之下,聆风是一款全电动汽车(通常被称为电池电动汽车、电动汽车或简称为EV),这意味着它只由电动马达提供动力。

Over the next few years, other automakers began rolling out electric vehicles in the U.S.; yet, consumers were still faced with one of the early problems of the electric vehicle -- where to charge their vehicles on the go. Through the Recovery Act, the Energy Department invested more than $115 million to help build a nation-wide charging infrastructure, installing more than 18,000 residential, commercial and public chargers across the country. Automakers and other private businesses also installed their own chargers at key locations in the U.S., bringing today’s total of public electric vehicle chargers to more than 8,000 different locations with more than 20,000 charging outlets.

在接下来的几年里,其他汽车制造商开始在美国推出电动汽车;然而,消费者仍然面临电动汽车早期的一个问题——在路上如何给汽车充电。通过《复苏法案》,能源部投资了1.15亿美元帮助建设全国范围内的充电基础设施,在全国范围内安装了超过1.8万个住宅、商业和公共充电器。汽车制造商和其他私营企业也在美国的关键地点安装了自己的充电器,使今天的公共电动汽车充电器总数超过8000个不同的地点,有超过20,000个充电插座。

At the same time, new battery technology -- supported by the Energy Department’s Vehicle Technologies Office -- began hitting the market, helping to improve a plug-in electric vehicle’s range. In addition to the battery technology in nearly all of the first generation hybrids, the Department’s research also helped develop the lithium-ion battery technology used in the Volt. More recently, the Department’s investment in battery research and development has helped cut electric vehicle battery costs by 50 percent in the last four years, while simultaneously improving the vehicle batteries' performance (meaning their power, energy and durability). This in turn has helped lower the costs of electric vehicles, making them more affordable for consumers.

与此同时,由美国能源部汽车技术办公室(Energy Department’s Vehicle Technologies Office)支持的新电池技术开始投放市场,帮助提高了插电式电动汽车的续航里程。除了几乎所有第一代混合动力车的电池技术,能源部的研究还帮助开发了用于Volt的锂离子电池技术。最近,能源部在电池研发方面的投资在过去四年中帮助电动车电池成本降低了50%,同时也提高了汽车电池的性能(即它们的动力、能源和耐久性)。这反过来帮助降低了电动汽车的成本,让消费者更能负担得起。

Consumers now have more choices than ever when it comes to buying an electric vehicle. Today, there are 23 plug-in electric and 36 hybrid models available in a variety of sizes -- from the two-passenger Smart ED to the midsized Ford C-Max Energi to the BMW i3 luxury SUV. As gasoline prices continue to rise and the prices on electric vehicles continue to drop, electric vehicles are gaining in popularity -- with more than 234,000 plug-in electric vehicles and 3.3 million hybrids on the road in the U.S. today.

在购买电动汽车方面,消费者现在比以往有更多的选择。如今,市面上有23款插电式电动汽车和36款混合动力汽车,它们的尺寸各不一样——从可搭载两名乘客的Smart ED到中型的福特C-Max Energi,再到宝马i3豪华SUV。随着汽油价格持续上涨,电动汽车价格持续下跌,电动汽车越来越受欢迎——目前美国有超过23.4万辆插电式电动汽车和330万辆混合动力车在路上行驶。

The future of electric cars

电动汽车的未来

It’s hard to tell where the future will take electric vehicles, but it’s clear they hold a lot of potential for creating a more sustainable future. If we transitioned all the light-duty vehicles in the U.S. to hybrids or plug-in electric vehicles using our current technology mix, we could reduce our dependence on foreign oil by 30-60 percent, while lowering the carbon pollution from the transportation sector by as much as 20 percent.

很难说电动汽车的未来会如何发展,但很明显,它们在创造一个更可持续的未来方面有很大的潜力。如果我们把美国所有的轻型汽车都换成混合动力车或插电式电动汽车,使用我们现有的技术组合,我们可以减少对外国石油的依赖30%到60%,同时减少交通部门的碳污染达20%。

To help reach these emissions savings, in 2012 President Obama launched the EV Everywhere Grand Challenge -- an Energy Department initiative that brings together America’s best and brightest scientists, engineers and businesses to make plug-in electric vehicles more as affordable as today’s gasoline-powered vehicles by 2022. On the battery front, the Department’s Joint Center for Energy Storage Research at Argonne National Laboratory is working to overcome the biggest scientific and technical barriers that prevent large-scale improvements of batteries.

为了帮助实现这些减排目标,2012年,奥巴马总统发起了“电动汽车无处不大挑战”(EV Everywhere Grand Challenge)——这是能源部的一项倡议,将美国最优秀、最聪明的科学家、工程师和企业聚集在一起,到2022年让插电式电动汽车的价格更便宜,像今天的汽油驱动汽车一样。在电池方面,能源部位于阿贡国家实验室的储能研究联合中心正在努力克服阻碍电池大规模改进的最大科学和技术障碍。

And the Department’s Advanced Research Projects Agency-Energy (ARPA-E) is advancing game-changing technologies that could alter how we think of electric vehicles. From investing in new types of batteries that could go further on a single charge to cost-effective alternatives to materials critical to electric motors, ARPA-E’s projects could transform electric vehicles. 

能源部的高级研究计划局-能源(ARPA-E)正在推进改变游戏规则的技术,这些技术可能会改变我们对电动汽车的看法。从投资于单次充电就能走得更远的新型电池,到对电动马达至关重要的具有成本效益的替代材料,ARPA-E的项目可能会改变电动汽车。

In the end, only time will tell what road electric vehicles will take in the future. 

最后,只有时间才能告诉我们未来电动汽车将走什么样的道路。

What's the Difference?

有什么区别呢?

  • A hybrid electric vehicle (or HEV for short) is a vehicle without the capacity to plug in but has an electric drive system and battery. It's driving energy comes only from liquid fuel. Learn about the history of the hybrid -- from the world's first one to the world's best selling one.
  • A plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (also called a PHEV) is a vehicle with plug-in capability, and it can use energy for driving from either its battery or liquid fuel. Read about the first commercially available plug-in hybrid.
  • An all-electric vehicle (often called a battery-electric vehicle, an electric vehicle, or an EV or AEV for short) is a vehicle that gets its energy for driving entirely from its battery and it must be plugged in to be recharged. Explore the evolution of the electric vehicle, covering everything from its early popularity to the middle ages to its revival today.
  • A plug-in electric vehicle (or PEV) is any vehicle that can be plugged in (either a plug-in hybrid or an all-electric vehicle). Learn how plug-in electric vehicles could help us create a more sustainable future.

1.混合动力汽车(简称HEV)是一种没有插入电源,但有电力驱动系统和电池的汽车。它的动力来自于液体燃料。了解混合动力车的历史——从世界上第一辆到世界上最畅销的。
2.插电式混合动力汽车(也称为PHEV)是一种具有插电式功能的汽车,它可以使用电池或液体燃料来驱动。阅读关于第一种商用的插入式混合动力车。
3.全电动汽车(通常称为电池电动汽车,电动汽车,或简称EV或AEV)是一种车辆,它的能源完全从它的电池,它必须插入充电。探索电动汽车的演变,涵盖从早期流行到中世纪,再到今天的复兴。
4.插电式电动汽车(或PEV)是指任何一种可以插电的汽车(无论是插电式混合动力车还是全电动汽车)。了解插电式电动汽车如何帮助我们创造一个更可持续的未来。

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