8种方法提高你的专注力
8 Ways To Improve Your Focus
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2021-02-08 11:07
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火星译客

The average human has an eight-second attention span–less than that of a goldfish, according to a 2015 study from Microsoft. That number has shrunk over the years due to our digital connectedness and the fact that the brain is always seeking out what's new and what's next.

根据微软2015年的一项研究,人类平均注意力集中的时间比金鱼少8秒。由于我们处于信息世界里,我们的大脑总是希望在下一秒能够找到更新的东西,以至于我们的专注时间锐减。

“No matter what environment humans are in, survival depends on being able to focus on what's important–generally what's moving. That skill hasn't changed, it's just moved online,” writes Alyson Gausby, consumer insights lead for Microsoft Canada.

微软加拿大的消费者洞察主管艾莉森·高斯比写道:“不论人们身处何种环境,必须专注于那些重要的事情才能生存,一般来说是那些动的东西。这一点没有什么变化,只是现在转移到了线上而已。“

So what do you do when you need to focus on work–and not what's moving around you? For most people, the first and most important step to increasing focus is to change the way you view it, says Elie Venezky, author of Hack Your Brain.

那么,当你需要专注于工作上而不是周围发生的事情时,你会怎么做呢?《入侵大脑》一书的作者埃利·维内斯基说,对大多数人来说,要提高注意力,第一步也是最重要的一步,是改变你看待它的方式。

“Focus is a muscle, and you can build it,” he says. “Too many people labor under the idea that they're just not focused, and this becomes a self-fulfilling prophesy. Once you drop this mistaken belief, you can take a much more realistic approach to building focus.”

他说:“专注力是一块肌肉,你可以打造它。许多人都觉得自己没有办法集中注意力,然后真的就变成了预言。当你抛开这些错误的观念时,你可以用更加真实的方法去打造你的专注力”

With a combination of mindset and tools, it's possible to set up an environment that fosters focus. Here are eight tricks and tips for eliminating distractions and paying attention to what you need to do:

通过思维方式和工具的结合,设定一个可以培养专注力的环境是可能的。这里有8个可以消除分心的方法和贴士告诉你该怎么做:

1. Prepare Your Brain

1.准备好头脑

Before a task, calm your brain, says Venezky. “Take a minute or two to sit in a comfortable position and breathe deeply into your stomach,” he says. “You don't have to sit cross-legged or chant. Let your body calm down before you approach your work. You'll find it really helps you concentrate.”

在开始一个任务之前,让头脑冷静下来。维内斯基说:“花一分钟或者两分钟时间坐在一个舒服的位置上,然后深呼吸。你不需要盘腿而坐,工作之前让你的身体先放松下来,你会发现真的能让你集中精力。”

2. Understand Where Your Focus Needs To Be

2.明白你的专注力需要放在哪里

Focus also involves an understanding of what is worthy of your distraction, says Ron Webb, an executive director at the American Productivity and Quality Center, a nonprofit research organization. “Success comes down to embedding that focus into the flow of how you work,” he says.

非营利研究机构美国生产力和质量中心的执行董事罗恩·韦伯说,“专注力还包括需要了解什么值得你分散注意力。他说,成功的关键在于将这种专注力融入到工作中去。”

Webb suggests taking time to identify what deserves your focus for the year, for the month, for the week, and for the day. Then look at your calendar and block time dedicated to focus.

韦伯建议花些时间去甄别今年,这个月,这周或者说今天有哪些事情是值得你去关注的。然后看下你的日历,安排时间去做。

“This keeps folks from being able to send calendar invites that are last-minute, nonemergency issues,” he says. “These are focus killers.”

他说:“这个方法会使人们避免去处理那些不太重要的事项,那些都是破坏注意力的杀手。”

3. Unplug For 30 Minutes

3.拔掉电源30分钟

If you need to focus, log out of email and social media. “Even if you live and die by email, do yourself a favor and log out for 30 minutes either in the beginning of the day or for a period in the afternoon,” says Jan Bruce, coauthor of meQuilibrium: 14 Days to Cooler, Calmer, and Happier. “You won't believe how much you can get done when you're not always interrupting yourself to return emails.”

如果你想集中注意力,必须要从邮件和社交媒体中抽离出来。《平衡:14天让你更冷静、更平静、更快乐》一书的合著者之一简·布鲁斯说:“即使你的生活和邮件息息相关,也务必帮自己一个忙,在一天开始的时候或者下午的某个时候,抽离出30分钟。如果没有打断自己回复邮件,你不会相信打断以后反而能完成更多的事情。”

4. Grab Some Coffee

4.喝点咖啡

That morning coffee doesn't just help you wake up; it helps you focus on the day. If you need an attention booster in the afternoon, a coffeeshop run might do the trick. In a study published in the Journal of Alzheimer's Disease, French physiologist Astrid Nehlig identifies a connection between caffeine and cognition. While caffeine doesn't improve learning or memory performance, Nehlig found it does increase physiological arousal, which makes you less apt to be distracted and better able to pay attention during a demanding task.

早上的咖啡不仅能唤醒你的身心,也能帮你集中精力。如果你下午需要提神,那么去咖啡店跑一趟可能会有效果。法国生理学家阿斯特丽德·内利格在《老年痴呆症杂志》上发表的一项研究表明,咖啡·因和认知能力之间存在联系。虽然它不能提高学习和认知能力,但它确实能增加生理上的兴奋感,使你不容易分心,并能在艰巨的任务中更好地集中注意力。

5. Check the Thermostat

5.检查恒温器

If it's too hot or too cool in your work environment, it could impact your focus. A study from Cornell University found that workers are most productive and make fewer errors in an environment that is somewhere between 68 and 77 degrees. Another study from the Helsinki University of Technology in Finland says the magic temperature is 71 degrees. If you don't control the thermostat, you can opt to bring a sweater or a fan.

如果工作环境太热或者太冷,也会影响你的专注力。康奈尔大学的一项研究发现:环境温度在20℃-25℃时,员工的工作效率最佳,犯错的次数也较少。芬兰赫尔辛基工业大学称,22℃是一个神奇的温度。如果你不想控制恒温器,你可以选择带一件毛衣或一个风扇。

6. Turn On Some Music

6.放点音乐

Too much background noise can be very distracting, but according to a study from the Wake Forest School of Medicine and the University of North Carolina published in Scientific Reports, having music playing helps you focus on your own thoughts. The catch? You had to like the song.

太多的背景噪音会让人分心,但根据维克森林医学院和北卡罗来纳大学发表在《科学报告》上的一项研究表明,放点音乐能帮助你集中注意力。重点吗,是你必须喜欢这首歌。

“Given that musical preferences are uniquely individualized phenomena and that music can vary in acoustic complexity and the presence or absence of lyrics, the consistency of our results was unexpected,” the researchers wrote.

研究人员指出,由于音乐偏好是一种独特的个性化现象,且音乐在声学的复杂性,有否歌词上也各不相同,我们的研究结果如此一致是有点意外的。

Whether it's Beethoven, the Beatles, or the Beastie Boys, turn it up and get to work.

别管它是贝多芬,披头士,还是野兽男孩,把声音调大,开始工作吧。

7. Take Short Breaks

7.休息片刻

Instead of succumbing to distraction, build it in, suggests a study from the University of Illinois. Psychologist Alejandro Lleras found that participants who were given short breaks during a 50-minute task performed better than those who worked straight through.

伊利诺斯大学的一项研究表明,与其与分心苦苦做斗争,不如让专注力融入其中。心理学家亚历杭德罗·雷拉斯发现,在一项50分钟的任务中,得到短暂休息的参与者比连续工作的参与者表现得更好。

The study examines a phenomenon called “vigilance decrement,” or losing focus over time. Taking a short break in the middle of a long task reenergizes the brain.

这项研究解释了一种被称为“警觉性下降”的现象,即随着时间的推移而失去注意力。在一项长时间的工作中休息一会儿,可以让大脑重新充满活力。

“We propose that deactivating and reactivating your goals allows you to stay focused,” writes Lleras. “Our research suggests that, when faced with long tasks, it is best to impose brief breaks on yourself. Brief mental breaks will actually help you stay focused on your task.”

雷拉斯写道:“我们建议停止或重启你的目标任务,这点有助于保持专注。我们的研究表明,当我们面对一项耗时较长的任务时,最好让自己短暂的休息一会,短暂的精神休息实际上有助于你集中注意力完成任务。”

8. Doodle

8.涂鸦

If you're sitting in on a long meeting or conference, improve your focus–and your artistic skills–by doodling. According to a study from the University of Plymouth in England, doodling aids in cognitive performance and recollection.

如果你正在参加一个时间很长的会议,可以通过涂鸦来提高你的注意力和艺术技巧。根据英国普利茅斯大学的一项研究,涂鸦有助于提高认知和记忆。

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