面部识别禁令的下一个目标?纽约
The Next Target for a Facial Recognition Ban? New York
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2021-02-08 11:20
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火星译客

Civil rights activists have successfully pushed for bans on police use of facial recognition in cities like Oakland, San Francisco, and Somerville, Massachusetts. Now, a coalition led by Amnesty International is setting its sights on the nation's biggest city—New York—as part of a drive for a global moratorium on government use of the technology.

民权活动家已经成功地在奥克兰,旧金山和马萨诸塞州萨默维尔等城市推动了禁止警察使用面部识别的命令。目前,由大赦组织领导的一个联盟将目光投向了美国最大的城市纽约,这是推动全球暂停政府使用该技术的驱动力的一部分。

Amnesty's #BantheScan campaign is backed by Legal Aid, the New York Civil Liberties Union, and AI for the People, among other groups. After New York, the group plans to target New Delhi and Ulaanbaatar in Mongolia.

大赦组织的禁用面部识别活动得到了法律援助,纽约市民自由联盟和人工智能等组织的支持。在纽约之后,该组织计划将目标锁定在蒙古的新德里和乌兰巴托。

“New York is the biggest city in the country,” says Michael Kleinman, director of Amnesty International's Silicon Valley Initiative. “If we can get New York to ban this technology, that shows that it's possible to ban it almost anywhere.”

大赦组织的硅谷倡议组织主任迈克尔·克莱曼说:“纽约是美国最大的城市。” “如果我们能够让纽约禁止这种技术,那表明几乎有可能在任何地方禁止它。”

Activists have long sounded the alarm about the risks of police use of facial recognition. The technology is less accurate on dark-skinned people, contributing to the wrongful arrests of Black men in New Jersey and Michigan. Last year, BuzzFeed News reported the NYPD had run over 11,000 facial recognition searches using software purchased from Clearview AI.

活动人士长期以来一直在警惕警察使用面部识别的风险。该技术对肤色黝黑的人的准确性较低,导致在新泽西州和密歇根州非法逮捕一些黑人。去年,据BuzzFeed新闻报道,纽约警察局使用从Clearview AI购买的软件运行了超过11,000次面部识别搜索。

Banning facial recognition in the city won't be easy. Digital rights groups have long pushed the New York City Council to ban use of facial recognition by city agencies. Though the council has taken up bills regulating landlords' or businesses' use of the tech, it has not advanced a ban. So Amnesty has shifted some attention to Albany, pushing for the state to enact Senate Bill S79, introduced by state Senator Brad Hoylman, which would ban law enforcement use of biometric surveillance technology, including facial recognition. The bill would also create a task force to recommend regulations around its use.

在城市中禁止面部识别并不容易。数字版权组织长期以来一直在推动纽约市议会禁止城市机构使用面部识别。尽管市议会已经通过了有关规范房东或企业使用该技术的法案,但尚未提出禁令。因此,特赦组织已将注意力转移到奥尔巴尼,促使该州颁布由州参议员布拉德·霍伊曼提出的参议院法案S79,该法案将禁止执法人员使用生物识别技术,包括面部识别。该法案还将成立一个工作队,以就其使用提出建议。

“We could then evaluate whether law enforcement should be permitted to use this technology and if so, create a regulatory framework to determine, what's prohibited, minimum accuracy standards, and protections for due process and privacy,” Hoylman says.

霍伊尔曼说:“我们可以评估是否应允许执法人员使用该技术,如果可以,就建立一个监管框架,以确定禁止的内容,最低准确性标准以及对正当程序和隐私的保护。”

In a statement, NYPD spokesperson Detective Sophia Mason said, “The NYPD uses facial recognition as a limited investigative tool, comparing a still image from a surveillance video to a pool of lawfully possessed arrest photos. This technology helps bring justice to victims of crimes. Any facial recognition match is solely an investigative lead and not probable cause for arrest—no enforcement action is ever taken solely on the basis of a facial recognition match.”

纽约警察局发言人侦探索菲亚·梅森在一份声明中说:“纽约警察局将面部识别作为一种有限的调查工具,将监视视频中的静止图像与合法持有的逮捕照片池进行了比较。这项技术有助于将犯罪受害者绳之以法。任何面部识别比赛都仅是调查线索,而不是可能的逮捕原因——从来没有单纯基于面部识别而采取执法行动。”

Amnesty International's Kleinman questions whether facial recognition is a vital investigative tool. “The police already have tremendous resources,” he says. “The idea that without facial recognition, they're left powerless ignores the powers they already have.

大赦组织的克莱曼质疑面部识别是否是至关重要的调查工具。他说:“警察已经拥有大量资源。” “如果没有面部识别功能,他们无能为力从而忽略了他们已经拥有的权利。

“That kind of argument, ‘If you don't allow us to do X then we can't do our job,' can be used to justify any level of surveillance,” Kleinman says. “There's no stopping point to that argument.”

克莱曼说:“'如果您不允许我们做X,那么我们就做不到',这种论点可以用来证明任何级别的监视都是合理的,这一论点没有反驳的余地。”

In December, the NYPD released a list of surveillance technologies the department uses in its investigations, including facial recognition, in response to a new city law. The disclosures covered dozens of technologies, including closed-circuit TV cameras, license plate reading cameras, drone surveillance, Wi-Fi geolocation services, and more.

12月,纽约警察局公布了该部门在调查中使用的监视技术清单,以响应新的城市法律,包括面部识别。披露内容涵盖了数十种技术,包括闭路电视摄像机,车牌阅读摄像机,无人机监控,Wi-Fi地理定位服务等。

Chief among Amnesty International's concerns about facial recognition is the potential “chilling effect” on and activism. .

大赦组织对面部识别的关注中,最主要的是对异议和行动主义的潜在“寒蝉效应”。如果人们担心被警察摄像机照到或被面部识别来识别,他们可能不希望自由聚集。

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The WIRED Guide to Artificial Intelligence

有线人工智能指南

Supersmart algorithms won't take all the jobs, But they are learning faster than ever, doing everything from medical diagnostics to serving up ads.

超智能算法无法胜任所有工作,但它们的学习速度比以往任何时候都要快,从医学诊断到投放广告的一切工作都应运而生。

The concern is top of mind for Dwreck Ingram, organizer and co-founder of the advocacy group Warriors In The Garden, another member of the #BantheScan campaign. Last summer, during the George Floyd protests, the NYPD used facial recognition to identify Ingram, confronting him outside his apartment. Ingram believes the comparison photos were sourced from his Instagram. Police claim Ingram assaulted a police officer, a felony offense, by allegedly shouting into an officer's ear using a megaphone. Eventually, Ingram turned himself in to police and the Manhattan district attorney reduced the charge to a misdemeanor.

这是倡导组织“花园里的勇士”的组织者和联合创始人德瑞克·英格拉姆,同时也是禁用面部识别活动的另一位成员的首要考虑。去年夏天,在乔治·弗洛伊德异议期间,纽约警察局使用面部识别技术来识别英格拉姆,并在他的公寓外与他对峙。英格拉姆认为比较照片来自他的Instagram。警方声称英格拉姆使用扩音器向警员的耳朵大喊,触犯袭击警察的重罪。最终,英格拉姆向警察求情,曼哈顿区检察官将指控减为轻罪。

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