孕妇可能对胎儿造成影响的7种情况
7 Ways Pregnant Women Affect Babies
1022字
2021-02-10 09:27
10阅读
火星译客

(Image: © Alexander Raths | Dreamstime)

(图片来源:©亚历山大·拉斯|梦幻时光)

Introduction

介绍

A doctor checks a pregnant woman's heart rate with a stethoscope.

(Image credit: Pregnancy photo via Shutterstock)

(图片来源:怀孕照片来自Shutterstock)

What a baby looks like and how it will act are, to a certain extent, determined by the genes the child inherits from it parents. But children's environments also play a role in whom they will ultimately become, and that environment starts in the womb.

从某种程度上来讲,婴儿的长相和行为方式主要是由父母的遗传基因导致的。但是,孩子最终会成为什么样的人,他们的成长环境也起了相当重要的作用,而这种环境从子宫里就开始了。

Most expectant women are warned that drinking alcohol, smoking and even eating unpasteurized cheeses can have serious consequences for the growth and development of their unborn children.

许多孕妇都被警告说饮酒、吸烟,甚至吃未经巴氏消毒的奶酪都可能对她们胎儿的生长发育造成不良后果。

But there are other ways in which a pregnant woman influences the later health of her child.

但是,除此之外,还有其他的一些情况也会使孕妇影响孩子今后的健康。

Nine months is "actually an incredibly short amount of time for so much growth," said Kim Yolton, a professor of pediatrics at Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center. "There are so many things that have to fall exactly into place, or there can be problems," she said.

辛辛那提儿童医院医疗中心的儿科教授金·约顿表示,实际上,九个月的孕期对孕育这么大的胎儿是非常短的,如果没有井井有条的话,会出问题。

Here are seven surprising ways that pregnant moms can affect their babies, and tips for how they can protect their pregnancies.

以下是7种孕妇会影响婴儿的情况和一些保障孕期安全的小贴士。

Shed pounds before pregnancy

孕前减肥

exercise during pregnancy, exercising while pregnant

(Image credit: Exercise photo via Shutterstock)

(图片来源:锻炼照片来自Shutterstock)

Maternal obesity increases the risk of a woman developing gestational diabetes or going into preterm labor, as well as the risk of obesity and diabetes in the child. Recent studies have also linked a woman's pre-pregnancy weight to her child's risk of asthma.

母体肥胖会增加患妊娠糖尿病或早产的风险,以及儿童肥胖和糖尿病的风险。最近的研究还发现,孕妇的孕前体重与孩子患哮喘的风险有关。

A study published in January found that nearly 12 percent of 1,100 children born to obese mothers had frequent wheezing at 14 months old, compared with less than 4 percent of those born to normal-weight mothers.

一月发表的一项研究发现,在14个月大的时候,1100个孩子里,有12%的孩子气喘频繁,相比之下,母亲体重正常的情况下,只有4%的孩子有这种情况。

Regular exercise can help. "Even if mothers were not active before becoming pregnant, they should strive to go on walks for at least 20 minutes, four times a week,” said Dr. Jennifer Wu, an OB-GYN at Lenox Hill Hospital in New York.

纽约勒诺克斯山医院的妇产科医生詹妮弗·吴医生说表示,常规锻炼是有用的,就算是母亲在怀孕之前没有运动的习惯,她们也应该努力一周走个4次,每次20分钟以上。

Drink coffee in moderation

慎饮咖啡

A woman holds a cup of coffee and looks at her computer screen

(Image credit: Busy morning photo via Shutterstock)

(图片来源:忙碌的早晨照片来自Shutterstock)

Doctors and researchers have known that high caffeine intake during pregnancy may harm the fetus, but just how much caffeine may be harmful has been the subject of much debate.

医生和研究人员都知道孕期摄取过多的咖啡·因对胎儿是有害的,至于到底摄入多少才算是有害的,一直以来都是有争议的。

The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists recommends that pregnant women limit themselves to 200 milligrams or less of caffeine daily, the equivalent to two cups of full-strength coffee.

美国妇产科医师学会建议孕妇每天孕妇每天只摄入200毫克或更少的咖啡·因,相当于两份浓度。

However, a study published last month found that far less caffeine was associated with an increased risk for babies being smaller than normal at birth.

然后,上个月发表的一项研究表明,咖啡·因摄入过少会让婴儿发育的比正常的来的小。

"If you have to drink coffee, keep it to less than six ounces a day. That's only half of a size tall at Starbucks," Wu said.

吴医生表示,如果非要喝的话,一天不要超过六盎司,差不多是星巴克中杯型一半的量。

Avoid secondhand smoke

拒绝二手烟

Broken Cigarette

(Image credit: Cigarette photo via Shutterstock)

(图片来源:雪茄照片来自Shutterstock)

Living in a smoky environment has long been tied to asthma and breathing problems in kids, but new research suggests that even exposure to secondhand smoke in the womb may lead to health problems later on.

长期以来,身处在抽烟的环境一直都跟儿童的哮喘和呼吸问题紧密相连,但是最新的研究表明,即使胎儿在子宫里接触到二手烟,也会引发日后的健康问题。

One study of mothers and children in China found that kids born to mothers exposed to secondhand smoke during pregnancy were more than twice as likely to develop attention and aggression problems by the age of five than the children of mothers unexposed to smoke.

中国的一项关于妇女和儿童的发现,如果母亲孕期吸二手烟,孩子在五岁时,出现注意力和攻击性问题的概率要比不吸二手烟的母亲高出两倍。

Discuss antidepressants with your doctor

跟医生谈谈抗抑郁药

A pregnant woman's belly

(Image credit: Pregnant woman photo via Shutterstock )

(图片来源:孕照来自Shutterstock)

More than 13 percent of women take an antidepressant during pregnancy. Doing so may have lasting impacts on the developing fetus, according to recent review of studies.

根据最近的一项研究表明,13%的妇女在孕期服用过抗抑郁药物,这可能会对胎儿的发育产生持续性影响。

The researchers found that taking a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) while pregnant may be linked to a higher risk of miscarriages, birth defects, preterm delivery and behavioral problems, including autism. Around 3 percent of women who take antidepressants during pregnancy report using an SSRI.

研究人员发现,怀孕期间服用选择性5 -羟色胺再摄取抑制剂(SSRI)可能会增加流产、出生缺陷、早产和行为问题(包括自闭症)的风险。约有3%的孕妇在怀孕期间服用过SSRI这种抗抑郁药物。

Cognitive behavior therapy, which includes counseling but not medication, should be the first line of depression treatment in women of childbearing age, Alice Domar, a psychologist at a fertility clinic in Boston told reporters at a healthcare journalists meeting in March.

在三月份的一次医疗记者会上,波士顿一家生育诊所的心理学家爱丽丝·多玛表示,认知疗法应该是育龄妇女治疗抑郁症的首选,而非药物治疗。

But taking antidepressants benefits women with mental health conditions. "Talk with your doctor about the medications you are taking before you become pregnant," Wu said.

但是服用抗抑郁药对患有精神健康状况的的女性有益。吴医生说:“在怀孕之前跟你的医生聊一下你正在服用的药物吧。”

Get your 'D'

补充“维D”

pregnant-belly-100712-02

(Image credit: Dreamstime)

(图片来源:梦幻时光)

Women thinking about getting pregnant may want to have their vitamin D levels tested, according to one recent study.

根据最新的一项研究表明:备孕的女性可能会想做维生素D含量的测试。

There's growing evidence that low levels of the "sunshine vitamin" during pregnancy may lead to health problems for mother and child, the researchers at the University of Calgary said. The review of more than 30 studies linked low levels of vitamin D to an increased risk of gestational diabetes, pre-eclampsia and lower birth weight.

卡尔加里大学的研究人员表示,越来越多的证据表明,过低的维D水平可能会引发母亲和孩子的健康问题。过去的30多项研究都表明过低的维D水平与妊娠糖尿病、先兆子痫和低出生体重的风险增加有关。

Nuke your deli meats

用微波炉加热熟食

lunch meat, deli meat, cold cuts, nitrites, nitrates, healthy eating

(Image credit: Deli meat photo via Shutterstock)

(图片来源:熟食照来自Shutterstock)

Roughly 1,600 Americans yearly suffer from severe cases of listeriosis, a food born illness caused by the bacteria Listeria. About one in six cases occur during pregnancy, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

每年大约有1600名美国人患有严重的李斯特菌病,这是一种由李斯特菌引起的食物疾病。根据美国疾控中心的数据,大约六分之一的病例发生在怀孕期间。

Though the risk of getting listeriosis during pregnancy may be small, the effects can be grave. A Listeria infection can lead to premature delivery, infection in the infant and even stillbirth

虽然怀孕期间患上李斯特氏菌病的风险可能很小,但影响可能很严重。感染这种病可能会导致早产、婴儿感染甚至死产。

Processed meats, such as hot dogs, deli slices and smoked salmon can become contaminated with Listeria before they are packaged. "The unfortunate thing about Listeria is that it can be anywhere," said Dr. Melissa Goist, an OB-GYN at the Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center. She recommended washing all fruits and vegetables and heating all processed meats to at least 150 degrees in the microwave before eating.

加工过的肉类,如热狗、熟食切片和烟熏鲑鱼在包装之前就能被李斯特氏菌污染。俄亥俄州立大学威克斯纳医学中心的妇产科医生梅丽莎·哥斯特说:“不幸的是,到处都可能有李斯特氏菌。”她建议在入口之前,所有的水果和蔬菜都要清洗,所有加工过的肉类都要在微波炉里加热到至少150华氏度。

Guard against air pollution

防范空气污染

air-pollution-110224-02

(Image credit: Viktor Fiker | Dreamstime)

(图片来源:维克多·菲克勒丨梦幻时光)

Breathing outdoor air pollution caused by traffic, industry and even dust during pregnancy may slightly increase the risk that a baby will be born at a lower birth weight, according to a large, international study published earlier this year.

根据今年早些时候发表的一项大型国际研究表明:交通,工业和尘霾都有可能在孕期让你在户外呼吸到被污染的空气,这可能会增加婴儿出生时体重偏低的风险。

While women can't always change where they live or work, avoiding rush hour traffic as well as idling trucks, buses and cars may help.

虽然女性不能总是改变生活或工作地点,但避开高峰时段的交通以及卡车、公共汽车和小汽车可能会有用。

One study published last year found that increasing the intake of fruits and veggies during pregnancy may help protect  against the effects of air pollution.

去年的一项发现孕期增强果蔬的摄入可以防止空气污染带来的影响。

0 条评论
评论不能为空