谁是第一个飞行的人?
Who Was the First Person to Fly?
365字
2021-01-14 22:23
21阅读
火星译客

On Dec. 17, 1903, the Wright brothers' Flyer took to the air at Kitty Hawk, N.C.

1903年12月17日,莱特兄弟的飞行器在北卡罗来纳州基蒂霍克起飞

(Image: © NASA)

图片:©NASA)

Orville and Wilbur might jump to mind. But the Wright Brothers were half a century late.

奥维尔和威尔伯可能会在脑海中闪现。但是莱特兄弟晚了半个世纪。

Lots of pioneers risked their necks over many decades (and even centuries) to get humans off the ground by various means, from flapping their pseudo-wings to gliding off cliffs.

几十年来(甚至几个世纪),许多先驱者冒着生命危险,用各种方法把人类带离地面,从拍打假翅膀到滑下悬崖。

Still, few are remembered so well or mentioned so often as the Wright Brothers, whose "Flying Machine" was the first powered airplane to execute controlled and sustained flight. They did it on Dec. 17, 1903. The pilot was Orville, since Wilbur had taken his turn in a failed previous attempt. The Wright Flyer was in the air for 12 seconds and went 120 feet.

然而,很少有人能像莱特兄弟那样为人所熟知或经常被提及。莱特兄弟的“飞行机器”是第一架动力飞机,能够执行控制和持续飞行。他们在1903年12月17日做到了。飞行员是奥维尔,因为威尔伯之前也试过一次,但失败了。莱特飞行器在空中飞行了12秒,飞了120英尺。

But this was not the first human flight.

但这并不是人类第一次飞行。

Modern flight began in 1783 when Joseph-Michael and Jacques-Ètienne Montgolfier engineered the first hot-air balloon flights. On Oct. 15, 1783, the Montgolfiers brothers launched a balloon on a tether with Jean-François Pilâtre de Rozier, a chemistry and physics teacher, as the passenger. In that era, nobody knew if a person could withstand the rigors of being up in the air, so a previous flight had included animals, to see if they survived. They did, as did de Rozier. Later that year, the first untethered flight was made.

现代飞行始于1783年,当时约瑟夫·迈克尔和雅克·艾蒂安·孟格菲设计了第一次热气球飞行。1783年10月15日,孟戈菲兄弟用绳子放飞了一个气球,乘客是化学和物理老师让-弗朗索瓦·皮拉特·德·罗齐耶(Jean-Francois Pilatre de Rozier)。在那个时代,没有人知道一个人是否能承受在空中的严酷,所以之前的一次飞行包括动物,看看他们是否能活下来。他们做到了,德罗齐尔也做到了。同年晚些时候,人类完成了第一次无系绳飞行。

The Wright Brothers' achievement is sometimes erroneously called "the first powered flight." Even that's disputed.

莱特兄弟的成就有时被错误地称为“第一动力飞行”。即使这是有争议的。

The first powered flight was Henri Giffard's steam-powered airship (image below) in 1852. On Sept. 24, 1852, Giffard traveled almost 17 miles (27 kilometers) from Paris to Trappes moving at about 6 miles per hour (10 kilometers/hour). His airship could be steered only in calm weather, though. In wind, it could fly only in slow circles.

1852年,亨利·吉福的蒸汽动力飞艇(见下图)成为第一架动力飞机。1852年9月24日,吉福从巴黎出发,走了近17英里(27公里),到达以每小时6英里(10公里/小时)的速度移动的困物。不过,他的飞艇只能在风平浪静的天气里驾驶。在风中,它只能缓慢地绕圈飞行。

Clément Ader went half the length of a football field in a bat-winged setup that many view as the first manned, powered, heavier-than-air flight in 1890.

克莱门特·阿德(Clement Ader)驾驶着蝙蝠翼的飞行器飞行了半个足球场的距离,许多人认为这是1890年第一次载人、有动力、比空气重的飞行。

The Wright Brothers achievement is properly called "the first manned, powered, heavier-than-air and (to some degree) controlled" flight.

莱特兄弟的成就被恰当地称为“第一个有载人、有动力、比空气重(在某种程度上)有控制的”飞行。

Follow Life's Little Mysteries on Twitter @llmysteries. We're also on Facebook & Google+.

在Twitter上关注生活中的小秘密@llmysteries。我们也在Facebook和谷歌+上。

0 条评论
评论不能为空