没有天敌的顶端捕食者是食物链顶端的捕食者
A predator at the top of a food chain with no natural predators
1179字
2020-11-03 17:20
20阅读
火星译客

A predator is an animal that survives by killing others, and an Apex predator is a predator at the top of a food chain, with no natural predators. Based on those definitions, us humans are the world’s most dangerous and successful of all species, but we are not the only ones. We share the planet with other predators who have filled every ecological niche available. The following 10 being the deadliest of all. BE AMAZED!

捕食者是指靠捕杀其他动物来生存的动物,顶端捕食者是指于食物链的顶端的捕食者,它们没有天敌。根据这些定义,我们人类是世界上最危险和最优于其它其它生物的物种,但我们并不是唯一危险的物种。我们与其他捕食者共同生活在这个星球上,占据着每一个生态位。下面是10种最致命的动物,前方高能!

Number ten, Kemodo Dragon, also called Komodo Monitor.

第十位,科莫多巨龙,也叫科莫多追踪者。

These magnificent creatures are found on several Indonesian islands. They are the biggest lizards in the world. They are able to grow up to 3 meters or 10 feet in length and weigh as much as 150 pounds or 70 kilograms. Despite being able to see as far as away as 980 feet, komodos rely mostly on their tongues to sense prey as far as 5.9 miles away. Their favorite food is carrion, but they will attack pigs, goats, and even people if they are hungry enough.

这些壮观的生物生活在印度尼西亚的几个岛屿上。它们是世界上最大的蜥蜴,它们能长到3米或10英尺长,重达150磅或70公斤。尽管能看到980英尺远的地方,科莫多龙还主要是依靠舌头感知猎物,它们的舌头能够感知到离自己5.9英里的猎物。它们最喜欢的食物是腐肉,但如果它们非常饿,就会攻击猪、山羊、甚至人。

They can print up to 13 miles or 20 kilometers per hour to bite victims but they don’t feast on them straight away. Though it has been claimed that their saliva contains a variety of highly septic bacteria that helps bring down prey, a study in 2013 refuted this idea, stating they have relatively good mouth hygiene compared to other carnivores. The idea that prey die of sepsis may be because after water buffaloes are attacked, they run into warm feces-filled water which would then cause infections.

它们可以冲刺到每小时13英里或20公里的速度去咬伤猎物,但并不会马上吃掉。尽管有报道称它们的唾液中含有多种高度导致败血症的细菌,有助于杀死猎物。2013年的一项研究驳斥了这一观点,声称与其他肉食动物相比,它们的口腔卫生相对较好。猎物死于败血症的想法可能是因为水牛受到攻击后,他们 会跑进充满粪便的温水中,然后导致感染。

But what Komodo Dragons do have is a venomous gland in the back of their lower jaw with ducts leading to openings between their teech. The venom they inject upon biting will mainly lower their prey’s blood pressure and interfere with coagulation. So all they will do is let their prey go, tracking them till they die. But sometimes they don’t have to wait, because they are powerful beasts. They have been seen knocking down small deer and pigs with their strong tails before pinning them to the ground with their massive claws as they munch away.

但科莫多龙的确拥有毒腺,位于下颚的后部,并有导管通向牙齿之间的开口。它们咬住猎物时注入毒液主要作用是降低猎物的血压,并干扰凝血。所以它们只需放走猎物,然后跟踪它们知道死去。但有时它们不需要等待,因为它们是强壮的猛兽。人们曾经见过它们用强壮的尾巴击倒小鹿和小猪,然后用巨大的瓜子将它们按倒在地,大嚼特嚼。

Number nine, polar bears.

第九位,北极熊。

While grizzly bears are famous throughout North America, they pale in comparison to polar bears. Grizzlies have evolved into different species, the biggest standing as high as 6 and a half feet and weighing up to 79- pounds. Most are shiny, so your chances of surviving one are pretty high. Polar bears, on the other hand, evolved in harsher climates so they are more aggressive apex predators. They are the largest land carnivore of all, so you would be lucky to survive an attack from one.

虽然灰熊在整个北美都很有名,但与北极熊相比,他们 就相形见绌了。灰熊已经进化成不同的物种,最大的站起来有6.5英尺高,重达790磅。它们大多很害羞,所以你遭遇灰熊时存活下来的几率比较高。相反,北极熊在更严酷的气候条件下进化,所以它们是更具攻击性的顶端捕食者。它们是陆地上最大的肉食动物,所以你要足够幸运才能在它们的攻击下存活下来。

Males have been known to grow up to 12 feet tall and weigh up to 2,200 pounds. Just look at how puny a human looks compared to one of this size! They will eat anything within reach including humans, but their favorite prey are seals which they can smell up to 20 miles away, even if that seal is swimming in a hole in the ice. They then walk up to it, stay perfectly still while covering their black noses to blend with the snow, and then pounce. With a bite force of 1,200pounds per square inch, nothing can survive their bit.

已知雄性北极熊可以长到12英尺高,重达2200磅。看看一个人跟这么大的北极熊比起来又多渺小!它们会吃掉任何能抓到的动物,包括人类。但它们最喜欢的猎物是海豹,它们能闻到距离20英里内的海豹的气味。即使那只海豹正在被破了洞的冰层下游泳。然后他们走过去,一动不动,用雪挡住黑色的鼻子,等待时机,然后猛扑过去。以每平方英里1200磅的咬合力,没有任何动物能在它们的撕咬下存活下来。

With so much muscle power behind them, they can kill most animals with a single swipe of their paw. You would be lucky to survive the blunt force trauma. But if that doesn’t work, they can always rip you apart with their three and a half inch claws.

有了如此强大的肌肉力量,它们只需要用爪子轻轻一击就能杀死大多数动物。你要是能挺过这样的钝击创伤,那就太幸运了。但如果不够幸运,它们就会用那3.5英寸的长爪子把你撕成碎片。

Number eight, Gray Wolf.

第八位,灰狼。

Also called the Timber Wolf, these predators are found throughout Eurasia and North America. They are different from other wolf species because of their bigger size. Hated by farmers and ranchers for attacking livestock, what wolves lack in size and power, they more than make up for in cunning. These creatures are opportunists, testing prey for any weaknesses before attacking. Generally social animals, they work together to bring down prey far bigger than themselves.

这种肉食动物也叫林狼,遍布欧亚大陆和北美。与其他狼类不同的是,它们的体型较大。它们攻击牲畜,遭到农民和牧场主的憎恨,而与人相比,狼在体型和力量上都处于弱势,因此,它们非常狡猾。这些家伙都是机会主义者,在攻击前会试探猎物的弱点。它们通常都是社群动物,会合力捕杀比自身大得多的猎物。

And this is what makes them dangerous. Wolves have a hierarchy based on age, gender,size, and other factors that dictate what they do during a hunt allowing them to work as a single unit. In the wild, their favorite prey are rabbits and other small animals, but bigger packs will hunt deer. Elk, caribou, moose, and even bison. When those are scarce, farm animals are the next best thing.

这就是通常都是社群动物,会合力捕杀比自身大得多的猎物。这就是它们的危险之处。狼群的等级制度是基于年龄、性别、体型。以及其他一些因素决定的,它们在狩猎过程中各司其职,使狼群能够作为一个整体来工作。在野外,它们最喜欢的猎物是兔子和其他小动物,但大一些的狼群会捕食鹿、麋鹿、北美驯鹿、驼鹿,甚至野牛。当这些动物短缺时,农场动物就成了最好的选择。

Number seven, eagles.

第七位,鹰。

There are 60 eagle species in the world, all of them dangerous. One of their most amazing tools is their eyesight, estimated to be four to eight times stronger than that of the average human, enabling them spot a rabbit that is more than 3.2 kilometers away. But each eagle is specially adapted to their environment. Sub-Saharan Africa and Southern Africa has the Crowned Eagle, considered the continent’s most dangerous because it can take down animals bigger than itself.

世界上有60多种鹰,它们都很危险。它们最神奇的工具之一是它们的视力,大约是人类平均视力的4-8倍,使它们能发现距离3.2英里的兔子。但是每只鹰都特别适应它们的环境。撒哈拉以南非洲和南部非洲拥有冠鹰。它们被认为是非洲大陆上最危险的,因为它能杀死比自己更大的动物。

Their favorite prey is the bushbuck, a type of antelope, but they are not overly picky. These creatures kill by creatures skulls with their beaks or talons, or suffocating prey with their claws. With a dive speed of 100 miles per hour, few escape them. Then there is the Harpy Eagle, the lion of the eagle world for having the most powerful beak and claws. Found in Brazil, they have no natural enemies, feeding on sloths, monkeys, snakes, deer, lambs, and goats. Harpy Eagles can pick up animals as heavy as 15 pounds. What they can’t carry, they slash to bite-sized pieces with their rear talons which measure at about four inches long, about the same size as a grizzly bear’s.

它们最喜欢的猎物是大羚羊,一种羚羊,但它们并不挑剔。这些生物用喙或爪子敲碎头骨,或用爪子窒息猎物,从而杀死猎物。以每小时100英里的潜水速度,几乎没有人能逃脱它们。还有大雕,鹰世界里的狮子,因为它的喙和爪是最有力的。它们生活在巴西,没有天敌,以树懒、猴子、蛇、鹿、羊羔和山羊为食。大雕能叼起重达15磅的动物。如果它们碰上无法携带的东西,就会用后爪切成一口大小的碎片,后爪大约有4英寸长,和灰熊的掌差不多大。

Number six, Saltwater Crocodile.

第六,咸水鳄。

There are many types of crocodiles, but the Saltwater Croc is the largest of all, with males growing up to 23 feet in length and weighing over 4,400 pounds. As their name suggests, they are amphibians, but prefer salt water in mangrove swamps, lagoons and rivers throughout Southeast Asia and Australia, with smaller cousins in Africa. They hunt by staying mostly underwater while keeping their eyes and nostrils on the surface to seek prey.

鳄鱼的种类很多,但咸水鳄是所有鳄鱼中最大的,雄性鳄鱼身长可达23英尺,体重超过4400磅。顾名思义,它们是两栖动物,但它们更喜欢东南亚和澳大利亚的红树林沼泽、泄湖和河流中的盐水,和非洲的表亲们住在一起。它们大多呆在水下,同时眼睛和鼻孔在水面上寻找猎物。

At best, they are completely invisible. At worst, they look like driftwood on water. Once they reach shore or their prey, they give a burst of speed and swallow small animals whole. Bigger prey including humans are clamped down on by their sharp teeth, before being rotated like a kebab on a skewer to tear chunks off with their deadly deathroll maneuver. With the strongest bite force in the world of 3,700 psi, nothing escapes those jaws, and bones are easily crushed. For comparison, it takes humans 150 psi to bite into steak.

最棒的是,它们把自己隐形了。最棒的是,它们把自己隐形了。但糟糕的是,它们看起来就像漂浮在水面上的木头。一旦它们到达岸边或它们的猎物接近它们,它们会突然加速,把小动物整个吞下。包括人类在内的更大的猎物被它们锋利的牙齿咬住,然后像烤肉串上肉一样旋转,用它们致命的死亡式滚动般的动作撕下一块肉。它的咬合力是世界上最强的,达到3700咬合力,没有任何东西能跳脱它的额骨,骨头也很容易被压碎。相比之下,人类咬牛排需要150咬合力。

0 条评论
评论不能为空