如何使用谷歌隐私设置
How to Use Google Privacy Settings
1656字
2019-09-01 21:16
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火星译客

© Provided by Consumers Union of United States, Inc. 

©美国消费者联盟提供

Google has joined other technology companies on the privacy hot seat over the past year, with sometimes-troubling revelations about how the company handles user data and also criticism of how clearly it communicates with consumers.

过去一年,谷歌与其它科技公司一样成为了隐私领域的热门话题。该公司处理用户数据的方式有时令人不安,同时也有人批评它与消费者间沟通的透明程度。

In January, French regulators announced they were fining Google close to $57 million for privacy violations under Europe's recently enacted General Data Protection Regulation, or GDPR.

今年1月,法国监管机构宣布,根据欧洲最近颁布的《全面数据保护条例》,他们将对侵犯隐私的谷歌处以近5700万美元的罚款。

In a statement, France's privacy watchdog, the National Data Protection Commission (known as the CNIL), says the information Google provides about its data practices is unclear, incomplete, and hard to find.

法国隐私监管机构国家数据保护委员会在一份声明中表示,谷歌提供的关于其数据操作的信息是不清楚、不完整的,而且很难找到。

"People expect high standards of transparency and control from us," a Google spokesperson told CR. "We’re deeply committed to meeting those expectations and the consent requirements of the GDPR. We’re studying the decision to determine our next steps."

谷歌的一名发言人对《消费者报告》表示:“人们期望从我们这里得到高标准的透明度和控制。我们致力于满足这些期望和《全面数据保护条例》的要求。我们正在研究措施,以决定下一步的行动。”

The fine is only the latest in a series of privacy dustups the company has faced in recent months. Last fall, Google sparked criticism after a change to the settings in its Chrome browser. Shortly afterward, the company introduced a redesign to the Search home page that makes some settings easier to find. The company also announced that it was shutting the consumer version of its Google+ social network after it discovered a security bug

这次罚款只是该公司近几个月来面临的一系列隐私纠纷中的最新一起。去年秋天,谷歌对其Chrome浏览器的设置进行了修改,引发了批评。不久之后,该公司对搜索主页进行了重新设计,使一些设置页面更容易找到。该公司还宣布在发现一个安全漏洞后,他们会关闭其Google+社交网络的消费者版。

There are a number of simple steps you can take to protect your privacy and security on Google's products and services. Note that the layout and description Google uses for some of the settings below has changed slightly in recent months.

在谷歌的产品和服务上,有许多简单的步骤可以保护您的隐私和安全。请注意,最近几个月,谷歌在下面的一些设置中使用的布局和描述发生了轻微的变化。

Give Chrome a Privacy Tuneup

给Chrome一个隐私调整

When you log in to Chrome and sync with your Google Account, your browsing data are stored on Google’s servers and linked with your account. That includes the websites you go to, your bookmarks, and your saved passwords.

当你用谷歌账户登录Chrome并授权同步后,你的浏览数据就会存储在谷歌的服务器上,并与你的账户关联。这包括你访问的网站、书签和你保存的密码。

You can be logged into Chrome without syncing your data across devices. But starting with a controversial update to the desktop version of Chrome, Google logs you into the browser by default when you sign in to Gmail or another Google service on a computer. 

你可以登录到Chrome,而不需要跨设备同步数据。但是,但是从一个备受争议的桌面版Chrome升级开始,当你在电脑上登录Gmail或其他谷歌服务时,谷歌默认会你用浏览器登录。

In newer versions of Chome (starting with version 70, released in October 2018), you can opt out of automatic sign-ins. 

在最新版本的Chome中(从2018年10月发布的版本70开始

),您可以选择退出自动登录。

However, says Robert Richter, program manager for privacy and security testing at Consumer Reports, "If you worry about your privacy, you may also want to consider a different browser.” (Firefox, Brave, and Opera are all marketed as privacy-enhancing options.)

然而,《消费者报告》隐私与安全测试项目经理罗伯特·里希特表示:“如果你担心自己的隐私,你可能还需要考虑换一种浏览器。”(火狐、Brave和欧朋都被视为隐私级别高的选择。)

How to turn off Chrome's automatic sign-in: On a computer, click the icon with three dots in the top-right corner > Settings > Advanced > Switch off the "Allow Chrome sign-in" toggle. (This will let you sign into an app such as Gmail without signing into the browser.)

如何关闭Chrome的自动登录:在电脑上,点击右上角有三个点的图标>设置>高级>关闭“允许Chrome登录”切换。(这将让你无需登录浏览器就可以登录Gmail等应用程序。)

If you've already logged in to Chrome, logging out is simple.

如果你已经登录到Chrome,注销登录也很简单。

How to sign out of Chrome: In Chrome, click the icon with your profile picture or first letter of your user name in the top-right corner > Sign out. (The instructions are slightly different if you've already turned on Chrome's data syncing. In the same menu, click "Syncing to" and then hit "Turn off" on the next page to be signed out automatically.)

如何注销Chrome:在Chrome浏览器中,点击右上角>退出页面中带有你的头像或用户名首字母的图标。(如果你已经开启了Chrome的数据同步功能,那么说明就会略有不同。)在同一菜单中,点击“同步到”,然后点击下一页的“关闭”按钮,自动退出。)

Or you can stay logged in while disabling some or all of Chrome's data syncing functions.

或者你可以在禁用部分或全部Chrome数据同步功能的同时保持登录。

How to turn off Chrome’s sync settings: After signing in to Chrome, click the icon with three dots in the top-right corner > Settings > Sync > Switch off the “Sync everything” toggle > Switch off the toggles for some or all of the categories.

如何关闭Chrome的同步设置:登录Chrome后,点击右上角>设置>同步>的三个点图标,关闭“同步一切”切换>关闭部分或全部类别的切换。

Stop Google From Using Credit Card Data

禁止谷歌使用信用卡数据

Google has been trying to find ways to tell advertisers how well their online ads translate into real-world consumer purchases. One tool Google uses is Mastercard credit card data.

谷歌一直在设法告诉广告商,他们的在线广告在很大程度上能转化为现实生活中的消费者购买行为。谷歌使用的是万事达卡信用卡数据。

The partnership, described in a Bloomberg article, doesn’t include personal details about individual Google or Mastercard customers, according to both companies. “We do not sell individual transaction data,” says Seth Eisen, senior vice president for communications at Mastercard. “We never have and never will.”

彭博社的一篇文章描述了这一合作关系。据两家公司称,合作并没有包括谷歌或万事达个人客户的个人信息。“我们不出售个人交易数据,”万事达卡负责通信的高级副总裁塞思·艾森表示。“我们从来没有这么做过,将来也永远不会如此。”

A Google spokesperson tells CR, “We do not have access to any personal information from our partners’ credit and debit cards, nor do we share any personal information with our partners.”   

谷歌的一名发言人告诉《消费者报告》,“我们无法从客户的信用卡和借记卡上获取任何个人信息,也不会与合作伙伴分享任何个人信息。”

However, if you don’t want your data included in Google’s analysis, the company says you can opt out of the program by turning off the Web & App Activity control.

然而,如果你不希望你的数据被谷歌分析,该公司表示,你可以通过关闭网站&应用程序活动控制来选择退出该程序。

Web & App Activity also affects other functionality, such as search history and location tracking, as discussed below. But—as Google warns when you switch this off—toggling the setting could make Google services less personalized, and it will disable certain useful features within products like Maps and Google Assistant.

网站&应用程序活动还会影响其他功能,如搜索历史和位置跟踪,如下所述。但是,正如谷歌所警告的那样,当您关闭这个开关时,可能会降低谷歌服务的个性化程度,并将禁用产品中并且会禁用如谷歌地图和谷歌助理等某些有用功能。

"That makes for a terrible user experience," says Justin Brookman, director of privacy and technology policy for Consumers Union, the advocacy division of Consumer Reports. "It's bad practice for them to lump all these settings together, and disincentivize protecting your privacy."

“这样的用户体验很糟糕。”《消费者报告》倡导部门消费者联盟隐私与技术政策主管贾斯汀·布鲁克曼表示。“对他们来说,把所有这些设置都打开不利于保护个人隐私,这种做法不好。”

According to Brookman, the privacy boost is still worth the trade-off, and you can always switch the setting back on if you need to.

布鲁克曼表示,保护隐私仍然是值得的,如果需要,你可以随时打开设置。

How to turn it off: Go to the Google Search home page > Click "Settings" > Your data in Search > Web & App Activity > If the "Web & App Activity" toggle appears in blue, click on it, then hit Pause.

关闭方法:转到谷歌搜索主页>,在搜索>网站&应用程序活动>中点击“设置”>,如果“网站&应用程序活动”切换为蓝色,点击它,然后点击暂停。

Stop Location Tracking for Real This Time

停止位置追踪

Google has a setting called Location History. The description used to read: “With Location History off, the places you go are no longer stored. When you turn off Location History for your Google Account, it’s off for all devices associated with that Google Account.”

谷歌有一个名为位置历史的设置。描述曾经是:“随着位置历史记录的关闭,你去的地方不再被存储。当你关闭谷歌账户的位置历史记录时,所有与该谷歌账户相关的设备都将关闭。

However, in August 2018, Google users learned that the company continued to collect location data regardless of how they adjusted that setting.

然而,在2018年8月,谷歌用户了解到,无论他们如何调整这个设置,该公司都在继续收集位置数据。

The company has now changed the language describing Location History—and tells users that they really can stop location tracking by turning off Web & App Activity as well.

该公司现在已经改变了描述位置历史的语言,并告诉用户,他们真的可以通过关闭网站和应用程序活动来停止位置跟踪。

Yes, that’s the same control described above. Here are the directions to switch off both settings.

是的,就是上面描述的那个控件。下面是关闭这两个设置的说明。

How to turn it off: Go to the Google Search home page > Click "Settings" > Your data in Search > Scroll down to "Google-wide controls" > See all Activity Controls > If the "Location History" toggle appears in blue, click on it, then hit "Pause." Then do the same for "Web & App Activity."

关闭方法:转到谷歌搜索主页>点击“设置”>你的数据在搜索>向下滚动到“谷歌范围的控件”>看到所有的活动控件>如果“位置历史”切换成蓝色,点击它,然后点击“暂停”。然后对“网站&应用程序活动”执行相同的操作。

Limit Data Sharing With Other Sites and Services

限制与其他站点和服务的数据共享

There are a number of reasons you might want to give third-party apps and services access to your data from your Google account. You may want to share your contacts with Twitter or LinkedIn, or give an app like Evernote access to files in Google Drive. You can also use Google Sign-in to log in to some apps and services instead of creating new accounts.

您可能想让第三方应用程序和服务访问您的谷歌帐户中的数据,原因有很多。你可能想与推特r或LinkedIn分享你的联系人,或者让一个像Evernote这样的应用程序访问谷歌驱动器中的文件。您还可以使用谷歌登录来登录一些应用程序和服务,而不是创建新帐户。

These arrangements are convenient, but they're also a privacy trade-off. It’s a good idea to periodically review which apps are connected to your Google account and remove permissions for services you no longer use.

这些操作很方便,但同时也是一种隐私风险。定期检查哪些应用程序连接到您的谷歌帐户,并删除不再使用的服务的权限是一个好主意。

How to turn it off: Go to the Google Search home page > Click the grid icon near the top-right corner > Account > Security > Manage third-party access > Under "Third-party apps with account access," click on the row with the app’s name and select "Remove Access." Then do the same with apps under "Signing in with Google."

关闭方法:转到谷歌搜索主页>,点击右上角>账户>安全>管理第三方访问>下的“有账户访问的第三方应用”,点击应用名称所在行,选择“删除访问”。然后在“使用谷歌登录”下对应用程序执行同样的操作。

Make Ads a Little Less Personal

让广告不那么个人化

Google uses the information it collects about you for targeted advertising. If you find irrelevant ads particularly annoying, you may prefer targeted advertising. But for people who want to keep their fondness for expensive shoes to themselves, Google does allow users to decouple their personal preferences from the ads they see online.

谷歌使用它收集到的关于你的信息进行定向广告。如果你觉得不相关的广告特别烦人,你可能更喜欢有针对性的广告。但对于那些想要继续看到自己喜欢的昂贵鞋子的人来说,谷歌的确允许用户将个人喜好与他们在网上看到的广告脱钩。

How to turn it off: Go to the Google Search home page > Click "Settings" > Your data in Search > Scroll down and click on "Ad personalization" > If the "Ad personalization" toggle appears in blue, click on it, then hit "Turn off."

关闭方法:转到谷歌搜索主页>点击“设置”>搜索>中的数据向下滚动,点击“广告个性化”>如果“广告个性化”切换以蓝色显示,点击它,然后点击“关闭”。

Protect Your Account From Hackers

保护您的帐户免受黑客攻击

One of the simplest ways to create roadblocks for hackers is to turn on two-factor authentication. Once you do that, Google will send you a verification code—typically via a text message—to confirm your identity anytime you try to log in to your account from an unverified location, device, or browser.

为黑客设置障碍的最简单方法之一是启用双重身份验证。一旦您这样做,谷歌就会向你发送一个验证码(通常是通过短信),以便在你试图从未经验证的地点、设备或浏览器登录到你的账户时确认你的身份。

Once you turn on two-factor authentication, you can also add other safeguards, such as single-use codes you can print out and use if you don’t have access to your phone, and a physical security key that you can plug into your laptop’s USB port to confirm your identity rather than receiving a text message. (You need to buy one of the U2F, or universal second factor, devices separately.)

一旦你打开双重身份验证,你还可以添加其他保护措施,如一次性密码,如果你没有能用于验证的手机来接收短信或一个可以插入笔记本电脑的 USB 端口来确认你的身份物理安全密钥(你需要分别购买U2F或通用第二重设备。),你可以打印出来使用。

How to turn it on: Go to the Google Search home page > Click the grid icon near the top-right corner > Account > Security > 2-Step Verification > Get Started.

开启方法:转到谷歌搜索主页>,点击右上角>账户>安全> 2步验证>开始。

Delete Your Activity History

删除您的活动历史记录

If you’ve been feeling guilty about neglecting your diary, you can rest easy: Google keeps one for you. Your “My Activity” page includes a detailed list of places you’ve been, websites you’ve gone to, the apps you've used on your phone, and your search history, along with minute-by-minute time stamps for all this activity.

如果你因为忽略了你的日记而感到内疚,你可以放心了:谷歌为你保留了一个。你的“我的活动”页面包括一个详细的列表,上面列有你去过的地方、浏览过的网站、在手机上使用过的应用程序、你的搜索历史,以及所有这些活动的具体时间。

Turning off settings on the Activity Controls page will limit new additions to this list. You can delete all your prior activity history as well, or choose a specific time frame you want to erase. On Google's "Your data in search" page, the company makes it easy to delete your search history, but you can follow these steps to wipe out even more information.

关闭“活动控件”页上的设置将限制对此列表的新增内容。您还可以删除所有以前的活动历史记录,或者选择要删除的特定时间段。在谷歌的“你的数据在搜索”页面,该公司可以很容易地删除你的搜索历史,但你可以按照这些步骤删除更多的信息。

How to delete it: Go to the Google Search home page > Click "Settings" > Your data in Search > Google Activity > Click “Delete activity by” on the left-hand side > Select “All Time” from the menu under "Delete by date" > Delete.

删除方法:到谷歌搜索主页>点击“设置”>您的数据在搜索>谷歌活动>点击“删除活动”>左侧选择“所有时间”菜单下的“按日期删除”>删除。

Consumer Reports is an independent, nonprofit organization that works side by side with consumers to create a fairer, safer, and healthier world. CR does not endorse products or services, and does not accept advertising. Copyright © 2019, Consumer Reports, Inc.

《消费者报告》是一个独立的、非盈利的组织,它与消费者共同努力,创造一个更公平、更安全、更健康的世界。《消费者报告》不推销产品或服务,也不接受广告。版权所属©2019,消费者报告公司。

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