凡尔赛宫
Versailles
953字
2020-10-28 11:36
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火星译客

Versailles is the palace other palaces were modeled after, the one many tried to outdo, but none succeeded. This Ultimate Royal Palace is all about this man, the Ultimate Divine Monarch...Louis XIV. He spent about half of France's entire annual GNP to turn his dad's hunting lodge into a palace suitable for Europe's king of kings. The chateau started small, just the middle stretch of this grand facade. That was the hunting lodge where little Louis spent his happiest boyhood years. Once king, the massive expansion began. While today's crowds are tourists, 300 years ago, this courtyard was a very different scene. The palace hosted nobles, thousands of nobles, each with an entourage. They'd buzz around from games to parties to amorous rendezvous in their sedan-chair taxis.

凡尔赛宫是仿照其他宫殿建造的,很多建筑试图超越它,但没有一个成功。这个终极的皇家宫殿是关于这个人的,终极神圣君主-路易十四。他花费了法国全年国民生产总值的一半,把他父亲的狩猎小屋变成了适合欧洲万王之王的宫殿。城堡一开始很小,只是这宏伟的正面中间部分。那是小路易度过最快乐的童年时光的狩猎小屋。一成为国王,大规模的扩张就开始了。虽然今天的人群都是游客,但在300年前,这个庭院是一个非常不同的场景。宫殿里招待贵族,成千上万的贵族每个人都有随从。从游戏到聚会,再到坐在轿子里的恋爱约会,他们忙个不停。

Imagine servants scurrying about,delivering secret messages and roast legs of lamb. And it's crowded to this day. Smart travelers avoid weekends, come late in the day, and use a museum pass to skip the ticket line. The Palace of Versailles was the residence of the king and the seat of France's government for a hundred years. It's a long series of lavish rooms, each with its own theme, and with every inch sumptuously decorated.In the late 1600s, Louis XIV... shown here with his capable hand literally on the rudder of state.. as creating the first modern centralized government. And in order to personally control as much as possible, he gathered everything here. United, under a strong king, with the continent's biggest population, a booming economy, and a powerful military, France under Louis was Europe's superpower.

想象一下仆人们跑来跑去,传递秘密信息的场景,直到今天都很拥挤。聪明的旅行者会避开周末,在一天的晚些时候来,使用博物馆入场券来跳过买票的队伍。凡尔赛宫是国王的居所,也是易百年来法国政府的所在地。这是一长串豪华的房间,每一间都有自己的主题,每一寸都装饰豪华。在17世纪晚期,路易十四...这里展示的是他的得力之手完全掌握国家的方向...创造了第一个现代中央政府。为了尽可能多地进行个人控制,他把所有东西都集中在这里。联合起来,在一个强大的国王统治下,拥有大陆上最多的人口,繁荣的经济和强大的军队,路易统治下的法国是欧洲的超级大国。

Around the year 1700, Versailles was the cultural heartbeat of Europe, and French culture was at its zenith. Throughout Europe, when you said, "the king'"you were referring to the French king, Louis XIV. French was the lingua franca. France was in vogue. You name it... clothes, hairstyles, music, theater, table manners... French taste spread across the Continent. Louis was a true Renaissance man, a century after the Renaissance. An accomplished musician, dancer, horseman, statesman, art lover, lover. He called himself the "Sun King" because he gave life and warmth to all he touched. He was symbolized by Apollo, the Greek god of the sun.

大约在1700年,凡尔赛宫是欧洲的文化中心,法国文化达到了顶峰。在整个欧洲,当你说“国王”时,你指的就是法国国王路易十四。法语是通用语言,法国当时很时髦。你的名字...衣服、发型、音乐、戏剧、餐桌礼仪...法国口味传遍了欧洲大陆。在文艺复兴之后的一个世纪,路易是一个真正的文艺复兴时期的人。多才多艺的音乐家、舞蹈家、骑手、政治家、艺术爱好者、情人。他称自己为“太阳王”,因为他把生命和温暖给了他所接触的一切,他象征着希拉太阳神阿波罗。

Versailles was designed to be the personal temple of this god on earth, decorated with statues and symbols of Apollo, of the sun, and of Louis himself. The classical themes throughout the palace, underlined the divine right of France's kings and queens to rule without limit. Here, Louis is shown with his entire royal family, all depicted as gods on Earth, ordained to rule without question. Versailles celebrated man, rather than God, by elevating Louis XIV to almost godlike status. Louis was a hands-on king. He ruled for about 70 years and he was the perfect embodiment of the absolute monarch. Louis summed it up best himself with his famous rhyme, "L'etat, clest moi!" "The state, that's me!" Pleasure ruled at Versailles.

凡尔赛宫被设计成人间之神的私人神殿,装饰着阿波罗的雕像和象征的符号,太阳,还有路易本人。整个宫殿充斥着古典的主题,整座宫殿的古典主题强调了法国国王和王后拥有无尽统治的神圣权力。在这里,路易和他的整个皇室家族,都被描绘成为地球上的神,他们毫无疑问被任命为统治者。凡尔赛宫通过将路易十四提升至近乎神的地位来颂扬人类,而非上帝。路易是个事必躬亲的国王。他统治了大约70年,他是集权帝王的完美化身。路易用他那首著名的押韵诗作了最好的总结“国家,就是我!”凡尔赛宫以享乐至上。

The main suppers, balls, and receptions were held in this room. The ceiling is like a sunroof opening up to heaven, filled with action parallel to the action right here in Louis'court. The style is pure Baroque, which lends itself to propaganda art, a riot of exuberant figures. The Venus Room is a reminder that love ruled at Versailles. Here, couples would cavort, blessed from above by the goddess of love. As if to encourage the fun, Venus sends down a canopy of garlands to ensnare mortals in delicious amour. Louis invited the nobility to Versailles to control or "domesticate" them. The"domesticated" aristocracy lived lives of almost enforced idleness. Games were part of Louis'political strategy.

主要的晚餐、舞会和招待会都会在这个房间里举行。天花板就像一个通往天堂的天窗,与路易宫的作风类似。他的风格是纯粹的巴洛克风格,适合宣传艺术和充满活力的人物。维纳斯厅提醒我们,爱统治着凡尔赛宫。在这里,情侣们在爱神的庇佑下欢愉。仿佛是为了鼓励这种乐趣,维纳斯降下一项花环的华盖,让人类陷入每妙的爱情。路易邀请贵族到凡尔赛宫来控制或“驯服”他们。“家庭”贵族的生活几乎是被迫闲散。游戏是路易政策策略的一部分。

By distracting his nobles with billiards, gambling, and dancing, Louis was free to run the country. The good life was addictive, and under Louis, the blue bloods were hooked. This was Louis'ceremonial bedroom. His daily life was a series of symbolic rituals. For example, while he'd actually sleep elsewhere, right here, the Sun King would "rise" and"set"with the sun each day. Once mighty, now domesticated, dukes and barons actually competed to see who would hold the candle while Louis slipped into his royal jammies. Bedtime, wake up, meals...it was all public ritual. The royal bedroom faced the rising sun. It was the center of the palace and the center of France. When you understand the themes of the palace's many rooms, a stroll through Versailles is a stroll through French history. The War Room reminds us that Louis had Europe's leading army, and hisreign came with lots of expensive wars.

依靠台球、赌博和跳舞来转移贵族们的注意力,路易得以自由地治理国家。美好的生活让人沉迷,在路易的统治下,贵族们也沉迷住了。这是路易举行仪式的卧室,他的日常生活是一系列象征性的仪式。例如,虽然他是睡在别的地方,就在这里,太阳王每天会随着太阳“升起”和落下。曾经强大,现在被驯服,公爵和男爵们实际上是在比赛,看谁会在路易穿着皇家睡衣的时候拿着蜡烛。睡觉、起床、吃饭...这都是公共仪式。皇家卧室面朝初生的太阳。它是宫殿和法国的中心。当你了解宫殿里许多房间的主题后,在凡尔赛宫漫步就是在法国历史中漫步。战争室提醒着我们,路易斯有欧洲最强大的军队,他的通知伴随着许多昂贵的战争损耗。

Louis ruled from 1643 to 1715. By the end, he was tired of fighting. Here in the Peace Room, peace is granted to Germany, Holland, and Spain, as cupids play with discarded weapons and swords are pounded into violins. Louis bestows an olive branch on Europe, as his queen cradles their baby twin daughters. At the end of his long reign, Louis, having exhausted France with his many wars, gave this advice to his great-grandson, the next Louis... "Be a peaceful king." The Hall of Mirrors was the highlight of the palace. No one had ever seen anything like it.

路易从1643年统治到1715年。最后,他厌倦了战争,在这个和平厅里,德国、荷兰和西班牙获得了和平,当丘比特玩着被丢弃的武器时,他们的剑被打成了小提琴。路易向欧洲伸出了橄榄枝,他的王后怀抱这他们的双胞胎女儿。在他漫长的统治末期,路易发动的多次战争使得法国疲惫不堪,他给了他的曾孙这样的建议,下一个路易...“做一个和平的国王。”镜厅是宫殿的亮点,从来没有人见过这样的东西。

Mirrors were a great luxury at the time, and this long hall was astounding. Imagine this place lit by the flames of thousands of candles, filled with elegant guests in fine silks, wigs, and fake moles, as they danced to the orchestra. Under gilded candelabra and amid busts of Roman emperors, servants would glide by with silver trays of hors d'oeuvres. And from the palace, guests would gaze awestruck at Louis amazing gardens.

镜子在当时是一种奢侈品,这条长长的走廊令人惊叹。想象一下,这个地方呗成千上万支蜡烛的火焰照亮,里面坐满了穿着精美丝绸的优雅客人,戴着假发,贴着假痣,他们随着管弦乐队起舞。在镀金的烛台下和罗马皇帝的半身像之间,仆人们会端着盛有开胃小菜的银托盘从旁边走过。客人们会在宫殿里面敬畏地注视这路易令人惊叹的花园。

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