课外辅导填满了学生的课余时间
After-school tuition fills downtime for students
1372字
2019-01-26 14:09
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火星译客

Children undertake night classes designed to help them raise their grades in Nanjing, Jiangsu province. [PHOTO BY HAN YUQING/XINHUA]

江苏省南京市,孩子们在为提高学习成绩开办的夜校上课。[韩玉清拍摄/新华社]

More parents are sending their children to private establishments since the government cut class hours in public schools. Zou Shuo reports.

自从政府缩短公立学校的上课时间以来,越来越多的家长把孩子送到私立学校。邹硕报道。

"Tsinghua and Peking universities have to admit students, so why shouldn't one of them be my child?"

“清华大学和北京大学都得招收学生,为什么我的孩子不能是他们当中的一个呢?”

That's what many "tiger parents" think when they send their offspring to as many after-school classes as possible, starting at an early age to give their child a head start and gain entry to prestigious universities such as those mentioned above.

许多“虎爸虎妈”在把他们的子女送到尽可能多的课外辅导班时,心里就是这样的想法。从孩子很小的时候就要让他们在起跑线上领先一步,力争被上述名校录取的机会。

In recent years, the government has moved to ease the academic burden on primary and middle school students by cutting class hours, reducing the number of homework assignments, making tests easier and downplaying the importance of exam scores.

近年来,政府通过缩短课时,减少家庭作业的数量,简化考试,淡化考试成绩的重要性,努力减轻中小学生的学业负担。

In response, ambitious parents have usurped the measures by sending their children to extracurricular classes designed to help them stand out from their peers.

然而作为回应,望子成龙的父母背道而驰地将孩子送到课外辅导班,期望他们从同龄人中脱颖而出。

In 2016, there were about 180 million school-age children in China, and more than 137 million of them were taking after-school classes or off-campus training, producing a market worth more than 800 billion yuan ($117 billion), according to a report by the Chinese Society of Education.

中国教育学会的一份报告显示,2016年中国大约有1.8亿学龄儿童,其中参加课外或校外培训学生规模超过1.37亿人次,中小学课外辅导行业市场规模超过8000亿元(约合1170亿美元)。

After-school tutoring, usually an expensive exercise, has become such a financial, physical and psychological burden for children and their parents that last year the government introduced a key reform to regulate providers of extracurricular education.

课外辅导费用通常都是一笔不小的经济支出,增加了家庭的的经济负担,也造成了孩子的身体和心理负担。因此政府在去年推出了一项关键改革措施,以规范校外教育培训机构管理。

The Ministry of Education held three news conferences related to the regulation of after-school classes last year, while other issues in the sector each averaged just one media briefing across the 12 months.

教育部在去年举办了三次与校外培训机构管理有关的新闻发布会,而在这12个月内该部门的其他问题平均只有一次媒体简报。

Guidelines

指导方针

In February, the ministry and three other government departments issued a guideline to regulate after-school education.

去年2月,教育部和其他三个政府部门联合发布了一项关于规范校外教育的指导方针。

The measure prohibited middle schools from using entrance exams to evaluate prospective students and they were also banned from taking a child's extracurricular qualifications into consideration during enrollment. It also forbade after-school training establishments from exam-oriented tuition methods or hiring teachers from public schools.

这项措施禁止中学自行组织以选拔生源为目的的考试,同时禁止采用社会培训机构自行组织的各类考试结果。另外禁止校外培训机构采用以考试为导向的教学方法或从公立学校聘用教师。

These establishments must not teach anything outside the national syllabus, and must submit their course plans, enrollment targets and class hours to local education authorities for approval.

校外培训机构不得教授国家教学大纲以外的任何课程,必须将课程计划、招生目标和学时提交当地教育主管部门批准。

In August, the General Office of the State Council, China's Cabinet, attempted to ease the heavy workloads of primary and middle school students by issuing a similar guideline aimed at regulating cram schools.

去年8月,国务院办公厅(即中国的内阁)发布了一项旨在规范补习学校的类似指导方针,努力减轻中小学生的繁重学业负担。

The guideline highlighted activities such as teaching students materials that are too advanced for their school grade in core subjects such as Chinese, math and English. Also, teachers at cram schools must hold recognized teaching certificates and are forbidden from giving students homework. Moreover, classes must end by 8:30 pm.

该指导方针强调指出,校外培训机构不得对语文、数学和英语等核心科目开展超前培训,培训班次必须与招生对象所处年级相匹配。此外补习学校的教师必须持有公认的教师资格证,禁止给学生布置家庭作业。另外培训结束时间不得迟于晚上8:30。

Certificates and licenses will be reviewed annually, and local government websites will publish lists of certified establishments and name those that fail to meet standards, the guideline added.

该指导方针还补充:每年将对教师资格证和培训机构许可证进行审查,当地政府网站将公布认证合格的培训机构名单,并点名通报那些不符合标准的机构。

The ministry also issued several notices outlining the progress it has made in regulating cram schools, and put pressure on local authorities by naming provinces judged to have made slow regulatory headway.

教育部还发布了其他几份通知,概述了在管理补习学校方面取得的进展,并通过点名进展缓慢的省份的方式向地方当局施加压力。

In its latest notice, issued this month, the ministry said 269,911 after-school institutions, or 98.9 percent of the 272,842 establishments that were found to be problematic, had completed rectifications by Dec 30.

教育部在本月发布的最新通知中表示,截至去年12月30日,269911家校外机构(即272842家存在问题的机构中的98.9%)已完成整改。

In addition, 401,050 institutions had been assessed as part of a national campaign targeting unlicensed operators and extracurricular programs that put students under too much pressure.

此外,全国共摸排校外培训机构401050所,主要针对无证经营和给学生太大学业压力的课外培训。

Last month, an online management platform was launched to tighten scrutiny of providers of after-school education, and to allow education authorities nationwide to blacklist poorly-managed outfits and receive public complaints about training programs.

上个月,教育部开发的全国中小学生校外培训机构管理服务平台上线,允许全国的教育当局将管理不善的机构列入黑名单,同时接受公众对培训项目的投诉。

2019-25-01-20-47-25-5c4b055d7fe65.jpeg

A father waits for his child outside a classroom for extracurricular study at 9 pm in Nanjing. [LI XIANG/XINHUA]

南京晚上9点,一位父亲在在教室外等待他的孩子进行课外学习。 [李祥/新华社]

New survival methods

新的生存方式

However, despite what many experts have called the "toughest-ever crackdown" on after-school education, these classes have not gone away. Indeed, many of the providers have simply found new ways to survive.

然而,尽管许多专家称之为对课外教育“有史以来最严厉的打击”,这些辅导班并没有消失。事实上,许多培训机构只是找到了新的生存方式。

"If the inspectors come, we tell them we are teaching students how to paint," said Wang Jun, head of a small institution in the Haidian-Huangzhuang area in western Beijing that offers extracurricular tutoring in Chinese.

王军是北京西部海淀区黄庄一所开展语文课外辅导的小型机构的负责人,他说:“如果检查人员来了,我们会告诉他们我们在教学生学画画。”

The area, which is close to several renowned high schools, including the High School Affiliated to Renmin University of China and Beijing Bayi School, and prestigious universities, such as Tsinghua and PKU, is home to many after-school establishments that offer intensive tuition to raise students' grades.

该地区靠近几所著名的高中,包括中国人民大学附属中学和北京市八一学校,以及清华大学和北京大学等著名高校,是许多为提高学生成绩提供强化教学的校外机构聚集地。

Wang conceded that his establishment, which is not certified, does not meet national standards. However, the government's regulation focuses on classes related to core academic subjects, such as math, Chinese and English. That means as long as Wang pretends his establishment only teaches art, the inspectors are unlikely to delve deeper.

王承认,他的机构没有经过认证,并不符合国家标准。然而,政府的监管重点是与核心学科相关的课程,如数学、语文和英语等。这意味着,只要王假装他的机构只教授艺术,检查人员就不太可能深入考察。

To bolster the illusion, he has hung paintings and examples of calligraphy on the walls, and every desk is equipped with a set of paintbrushes. When inspectors visit, there are no textbooks in the classroom so it appears the that students are attending art classes, he said.

为了增强这种错觉,他在墙上挂了绘画和书法的样本,每一张桌子都配备了一套画笔。他说,当检查人员来访时,教室里并没有课本,所以看起来学生们似乎正在上美术课。

However, when the inspectors leave, the teachers return to teaching Chinese, he added.

他补充说,不过当检查人员离开时,教师们又开始教语文了。

Wen Zhe started attending classes for the National Mathematical Olympiad at a different after-school establishment in Haidian-huangzhuang when he was in the first grade.

文哲从小学一年级起就开始在海淀黄庄另外一所校外机构学习,学习的是全国数学奥林匹克课程。

His mother would pick him up after school and they would take a 40-minute subway ride to the area. After a quick dinner, Wen would attend classes for around three hours before he and his mother went home at 9 pm.

他妈妈会在放学后接他,然后乘40分钟的地铁到达培训地点。快速吃完晚饭后,在和母亲晚上9点回家之前,文要上大约三小时的课。

The 14-year-old, who is now in the eighth grade, repeated this routine most days for eight years, until the establishment was closed by the authorities in November because it was discovered to be teaching advanced topics to the students.

这名14岁的孩子现在是八年级的学生,在八年的大部分时间里都在重复同样的培训日常,直到去年11月份当局关闭了这个机构,因为发现这家机构向学生教授超纲课题。

"I have no interest in the Olympiad, but my mother knows that if I can win a gold medal at the National Mathematical Olympiad, it will give me an advantage over students so I can attend a good high school and university," Wen said.

文说:“我对奥林匹克没有兴趣,但我妈妈知道如果我能在全国数学奥林匹克竞赛中获得一枚金牌,那我就比其他学生更有优势,这样我就能上一所好的高中和大学。”

As a result, when the institution was closed down, he and four other students in the class began online tuition via videoconferencing technology in a WeChat group.

结果,当这家机构关闭时,他和培训班的其他四名学生通过微信群的视频会议技术开始在线学习。

Wen no longer spends hours traveling back and forth, but he said the online classes are not as effective as one-on-one tuition.

文不需再花几个小时来回奔波,但他表示网上课程不如一对一的教学有效。

"I am not a big fan of the government's policies to reduce students' academic burdens, because there are only a limited number of good universities, which means only those who have studied hard can be admitted," he said.

他说:“我对政府减少学生学业负担的政策不太感兴趣,因为好的大学数量有限,这意味着只有努力学习的人才能被录取。”

"When the crackdown becomes less intense in the future, I hope I can go back to the training institution because it has become my second school."

“将来打压力度变得不那么厉害时,我希望能回到培训机构,因为它已成为我的第二所学校。”

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A primary school student has one-on-one after-school tuition at a private establishment in Nanjing. [JI CHUNPENG/XINHUA]

一名小学生在南京的一家私立培训机构接受一对一的课后辅导。[季春鹏/新华社]

Unbalanced system

不均衡的系统

Cui Shifeng, principal of Hefei Hupo Mingcheng Primary School in Anhui province, said the regulation on cram schools is part of the government's "academic burden reduction" policies, which have been around for decades.

安徽省合肥市琥珀名城小学校长崔世峰表示,对补习班的规定是政府“减轻学业负担”政策的一部分,这一政策已经存在了几十年。

The main reason students have to attend cram schools is the unbalanced distribution of educational resources, which prompts parents to do everything they can to send their child to the best schools, he said.

他解释道,学生必须上补习学校的主要原因是教育资源分配不均衡,这促使家长尽其所能把孩子送到最好的学校。

Although the education authorities have been discussing ways to reduce the burden on children since 1955, pupils' workloads have risen over the past few years, according to Cui.

按照崔的说法,尽管教育当局自1955年以来一直在讨论如何减轻孩子的学业负担,但学生的学业负担在过去几年中有所增加。

"It's ironic that the education authorities are asking parents to focus less on their child's academic scores and refrain from sending them to tutoring classes, but they continue to admit students to high schools and colleges solely on the basis of scores in entrance exams," Cui said.

崔说:“具有讽刺意味的是,教育部门要求家长少关注孩子的学业成绩,不要把他们送去辅导班,但教育部门还是只根据入学考试的成绩招收高中和大学的学生。”

As long as the gaokao, the national university entrance exam, is the only way students can gain admittance to higher education, parents will force their children to channel all their energy into their studies, he said.

他表示,只要高考(全国大学入学考试)是学生获得高等教育入学资格的唯一途径,家长就会强迫他们的孩子把全部精力投入到学习中。

The only thing the current regulations will achieve is to a make life more difficult for smaller after-school outfits in the sector and force substandard establishments to close, but it won't take long for parents to find new classes for their children to attend, he added.

他补充说,当前对校外教育培训机构的规定唯一将实现的是让该行业中规模较小的校外机构的日子变得更加艰难,并迫使不合格的机构关闭,但家长们很快就会为孩子找到新的辅导班。

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