评说世界种种不同疫苗技术
Assessing the various vaccine technologies
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2020-10-16 06:43
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火星译客

By Suresh Mahalingam and Adam Taylor, Griffith University

作者:格里菲斯大学Suresh Mahalingam;Adam Taylor

The World Health Organisation lists about 180 COVID-19 vaccines being developed around the world.

世界卫生组织列出了全世界在开发的COVID-19疫苗约有180种

Each vaccine aims to use a slightly different approach to prepare your immune system to recognise and fight SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19.

每种疫苗都是采用各自略有不同方法实现免疫,达到自身免疫系统识别和抵抗SARS-CoV-2病毒。感染SARS-CoV-2病毒会罹患新冠肺炎COVID-19。

However, we can group these technologies into five main types. Some technology is tried and trusted. Some technology has never before been used in a commercial vaccine for humans.

这些免疫技术方法可分为五大类型。一些技术方法已通过测试得到认可;有些技术方法还未通过人类商用疫苗测试。

As we outline in our recent paper, each technology has its pros and cons.

我们在这篇文章中将介绍各种技术的不同优缺点。

1. DNA/RNA-based

1.DNA / RNA基疫苗

DNA and RNA vaccines use fragments of genetic material made in the lab. These fragments code for a part of the virus (such as its spike protein). After the vaccine is injected, your body uses instructions in the DNA/RNA to make copies of this virus part (or antigen). Your body recognises these and mounts an immune response, ready to protect you the next time you encounter the virus.

DNA和RNA疫苗是用实验室基因片段材料制作。这些片段为病毒(例如刺突蛋白)编码。注射这种疫苗后体内用DNA / RNA中指令复制病毒(或抗原)。身体识别出这些病毒便产生免疫反应,遇到病毒侵蚀便能提供保护。

Pros

优点

  • these vaccines can be quickly designed based on genetic sequencing alone
  • they can be easily manufactured, meaning they can potentially be produced cheaply
  • the DNA/RNA fragments do not cause COVID-19.
  • 根据基因测序即可快速设计这些疫苗
  • 制造容易,价格低廉
  • DNA / RNA片段不会引起COVID-19。

Cons

缺点

  • there are no approved DNA/RNA vaccines for medical use in humans, hence their alternative name: next-generation vaccines. So they are likely to face considerable regulatory hurdles before being approved for use
  • as they only allow a fragment of the virus to be made, they may prompt a poor protective immune response, meaning multiple boosters may be needed
  • there's a theoretical probability vaccine DNA can integrate into your genome.
  • 目前尚末批准人类用DNA / RNA疫苗,因此它有另一个替代名称是:下一代疫苗。因此,这种疫苗批准使用前存在相当大的法规障碍
  • 这种疫苗仅采用部分片段病毒生产,所以保护性免疫反应较差,这意味着需要多次加强免疫
  • 从理论上讲,疫苗的DNA可以会整合到基因组中。

The speed at which these vaccines can be designed, needing only the genetic sequence of the virus, is why these vaccines were among the first to enter clinical trials.

这种疫苗设计仅需要病毒基因序列,因此可率先进入临床试验。

An RNA vaccine, mRNA-1273, being developed by Moderna and the US National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, advanced to clinical testing just two months after the virus was sequenced.

Moderna和美国国家过敏与传染病研究所共同开发的RNA疫苗mRNA-1273 ,在对病毒测序后仅两个月就进入临床测试。

2. Virus vectors

2.病毒载体疫苗

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