By Suresh Mahalingam and Adam Taylor, Griffith University
作者：格里菲斯大学Suresh Mahalingam；Adam Taylor
The World Health Organisation lists about 180 COVID-19 vaccines being developed around the world.
Each vaccine aims to use a slightly different approach to prepare your immune system to recognise and fight SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19.
However, we can group these technologies into five main types. Some technology is tried and trusted. Some technology has never before been used in a commercial vaccine for humans.
1.DNA / RNA基疫苗
DNA and RNA vaccines use fragments of genetic material made in the lab. These fragments code for a part of the virus (such as its spike protein). After the vaccine is injected, your body uses instructions in the DNA/RNA to make copies of this virus part (or antigen). Your body recognises these and mounts an immune response, ready to protect you the next time you encounter the virus.
DNA和RNA疫苗是用实验室基因片段材料制作。这些片段为病毒（例如刺突蛋白）编码。注射这种疫苗后体内用DNA / RNA中指令复制病毒（或抗原）。身体识别出这些病毒便产生免疫反应，遇到病毒侵蚀便能提供保护。
- these vaccines can be quickly designed based on genetic sequencing alone
- they can be easily manufactured, meaning they can potentially be produced cheaply
- the DNA/RNA fragments do not cause COVID-19.
- DNA / RNA片段不会引起COVID-19。
- there are no approved DNA/RNA vaccines for medical use in humans, hence their alternative name: next-generation vaccines. So they are likely to face considerable regulatory hurdles before being approved for use
- as they only allow a fragment of the virus to be made, they may prompt a poor protective immune response, meaning multiple boosters may be needed
- there's a theoretical probability vaccine DNA can integrate into your genome.
- 目前尚末批准人类用DNA / RNA疫苗，因此它有另一个替代名称是：下一代疫苗。因此，这种疫苗批准使用前存在相当大的法规障碍
The speed at which these vaccines can be designed, needing only the genetic sequence of the virus, is why these vaccines were among the first to enter clinical trials.
2. Virus vectors