爸爸陷阱
The Daddy trap
637字
2020-06-10 11:26
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火星译客

Americans see taking a break to care for children as a sign of lower commitment to work and even flakiness

美国人认为,休息去照顾孩子是对工作投入不足,甚至有些神经质的表现。

AN OVERWHELMING number of studies show that working mothers face a motherhood penalty—resulting in lower earnings and poorer evaluations from superiors—while men receive a fatherhood bonus. Stories abound of women struggling to balance motherhood and a career, while stories of men failing to balance children and a career are largely absent. A new study helps to explain why. According to research by Kate Weisshaar of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, opting out of work to care for children has negative consequences for both parents, but it is considerably worse for fathers who choose to stay at home in competitive job markets.

大量的研究表明,职业女性面临着作为母亲的惩罚——导致收入降低,上级对她们的评价也更差——而男性则获得了为人父的奖励。关于女性努力平衡母亲和事业的故事比比皆是,而关于男性无法平衡孩子和事业的故事却很少。一项新的研究有助于解释其中的原因。北卡罗来纳大学教堂山分校(University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill)的凯特•维斯沙尔(Kate Weisshaar)的研究显示,选择不工作来照顾孩子对父母双方都有负面影响,但在竞争激烈的就业市场上,选择待在家里的父亲的影响要严重得多。

To analyse this effect Ms Weisshaar distributed thousands of fictitious cover letters and CVs to real job postings in 50 American cities for five different types of job. These fictional jobseekers were all parents with similar credentials. They differed only in their work history and in their gender. While some said they had jobs in the cover letter, others said they were unemployed as a result of lay-offs. The third group declared that they had been stay-at-home parents.

为了分析这种影响,维斯沙尔向美国50个城市的5种不同类型的实际招聘职位分发了数千封虚构的求职信和简历。这些虚构的求职者都是有着相似资历的父母们。他们的不同只是工作经历和性别。虽然有些人在求职信中说他们有工作,但也有些人说他们因为裁员而失业。第三组则声称自己是全职父母。

The study found that parents who had opted out of work to care for children were least likely to receive a call back for an interview. Whereas 15% of employed parents and 9-10% of unemployed fathers and mothers received interviews, only 5% of parents who had taken time out of the workforce to care for children were called back. The depressed responses were not simply a result of unemployment. Parents who opted out of work were about half as likely to get an interview as parents who were unemployed because of lay-offs.

研究发现,选择不工作来照顾孩子的父母接到面试回电的可能性最小。15%的在职父母和9-10%的失业父亲和母亲接受了面谈,而抽出时间照顾孩子的父母只有5%得到了回访。沮丧的反应不仅仅是失业的结果。选择失业的父母获得面试机会的可能性大约是因失业而失业的父母的一半。

According to Ms Weisshaar’s study, Americans see opting out to care for children as a sign of lower commitment to work and even flakiness. Employers are least likely to hire fathers who are caring for children when the job market is competitive. In less competitive markets, 7% of these fictitious stay-at-home dads got interviews. In more competitive ones, fathers received only one-third as many callbacks. By comparison, 5% of mothers received callbacks, and the rate was not affected by how competitive the market was.

根据Weisshaar女士的研究,美国人认为选择不去照顾孩子是对工作投入较少甚至有些奇怪。在就业市场竞争激烈的时候,雇主最不可能雇佣照顾孩子的父亲。在竞争不那么激烈的市场中,这些虚构的全职爸爸中有7%获得了面试机会。在竞争更激烈的家庭中,父亲们收到的回电只有三分之一。相比之下,5%的母亲收到了回复,而且这一比例不受市场竞争程度的影响。

Whereas mothers who take time off to rear offspring face difficulties when returning to work, opt-out fathers may fare worse, says Scott Behson, author of a book called “The Working Dad’s Survival Guide: How to Succeed at Work and at Home”. America has a workaholic culture, he says. Mothers who put their families first eschew that culture, resulting in costs to their careers. But fathers who do so are violating both the workaholic culture and traditional gender norms.

休产假抚育子女的母亲在重返工作岗位时会面临困难,而选择不工作的父亲的情况可能更糟,《工作爸爸的生存指南:如何在工作和家庭中取得成功》一书的作者斯科特·贝森说。他说,美国有一种工作狂文化。把家庭放在首位的母亲们避开了这种文化,结果导致了她们事业的损失。但是这样做的父亲既违反了工作狂文化,也违反了传统的性别规范。

According to the Pew Research Centre, women are the sole or primary breadwinners in 40% of American households, and 15% of mothers with children younger than 18 earn more than their husbands. In heterosexual unions, families often decide that a father should stay at home because he has been laid off from work or the mother has a higher-earning career, says Brad Harrington of the Boston College Centre for Work and Family. In 2016, 6% of fathers were stay-at-home. That number is likely to grow as women achieve higher levels of education than men, and American jobs shift away from male-dominated professions to female-dominated ones. Unless norms about who should be responsible for what change, the opt-out penalty will become a bigger problem as more fathers make the choice to stay at home.

皮尤研究中心(Pew Research Centre)的数据显示,在40%的美国家庭中,女性是唯一或主要的经济支柱,15%的母亲的子女年龄在18岁以下,她们的收入高于丈夫。波士顿大学(Boston College)工作与家庭中心(Centre for work and Family)的布拉德•哈林顿(Brad Harrington)说,在异性恋的婚姻中,家庭通常会认为父亲应该待在家里,因为他失业了,或者母亲有一份收入较高的职业。2016年,6%的父亲是全职爸爸。随着女性受教育程度高于男性,以及美国的职业从男性主导转向女性主导,这一数字可能还会增长。除非关于谁该为什么负责的规范有所改变,否则选择不在家的惩罚将成为一个更大的问题,因为越来越多的父亲选择待在家里。

This article appeared in the United States section of the print edition under the headline "The Daddy trap"(Jul 20th 2019)

此文文章出现在印刷版的美国版选文部分,标题为“爸爸陷阱”(2019年7月20日)

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