中国游客:旅行健康之见
China - Traveler view | Travelers' Health
2236字
2020-02-09 20:34
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火星译客

Learn actions you can take to stay healthy and safe on your trip. Vaccines cannot protect you from many diseases in China, so your behaviors are important.

从中了解如何确保旅行健康和安全的方法。在中国,注射难以保护我们免受多数疾病的侵害,在此情况下,自身的行为就显得十分重要。

Tap water is not drinkable in China, even in major cities. Bottled water is easily available.

在中国,即使是在大城市,自来水也不等同于饮用水。瓶装水随处可见可得。

Unclean food and water can cause travelers' diarrhea and other diseases. Reduce your risk by sticking to safe food and water habits.

不干净的食物和水会导致旅行者腹泻或感染其他疾病。保持良好的饮食习惯可降低患病风险。

Eat

可食用

  • Food that is cooked and served hot
  • Hard-cooked eggs
  • Fruits and vegetables you have washed in clean water or peeled yourself
  • Pasteurized dairy products
  • 熟食、热食
  • 熟透的鸡蛋
  • 用清水清洗过或经过去皮的果蔬
  • 巴氏杀菌乳制品
Don't Eat

不可食用

  • Food served at room temperature
  • Food from street vendors
  • Raw or soft-cooked (runny) eggs
  • Raw or undercooked (rare) meat or fish
  • Unwashed or unpeeled raw fruits and vegetables
  • Unpasteurized dairy products
  • ”Bushmeat” (monkeys, bats, or other wild game)
  • 在室温下存放的食物
  • 街边小贩的食物
  • 生的或半熟的鸡蛋
  • 生的或未煮熟的肉或鱼
  • 未经清洗或剥皮的生水果和蔬菜
  • 未经高温消毒的乳制品
  • “ 丛林肉 ” ( 猴子、蝙蝠或其他野生动物 )
Drink

可饮用

  • Bottled water that is sealed
  • Water that has been disinfected
  • Ice made with bottled or disinfected water
  • Carbonated drinks
  • Hot coffee or tea
  • Pasteurized milk
  • 密封瓶装水
  • 经过消毒的水
  • 用瓶装水或灭菌水制成的冰
  • 碳酸饮料
  • 热咖啡或热茶
  • 巴氏杀菌奶
Don't Drink

不可饮用

  • Tap or well water
  • Ice made with tap or well water
  • Drinks made with tap or well water (such as reconstituted juice)
  • Unpasteurized milk
  • 自来水或井水
  • 用自来水或井水制成的冰
  • 用自来水或井水制成的饮料 ( 如混合果汁 )
  • 未经高温消毒的牛奶
Take Medicine

用药

Talk with your doctor about taking prescription or over-the-counter drugs with you on your trip in case you get sick.

向医生咨询。在旅行时带上咨询过医生的处方药或非处方药,以防你生病。

Hide

隐藏物

Bugs (like mosquitoes, ticks, and fleas) can spread a number of diseases in China. Many of these diseases cannot be prevented with a vaccine or medicine. You can reduce your risk by taking steps to prevent bug bites.

在中国,昆虫 ( 如蚊子、扁虱和跳蚤 ) 能传播多种疾病,且许多这类疾病是无法用疫苗或药物预防的。你可以通过采取措施预防蚊虫叮咬以降低传染风险。

What can I do to prevent bug bites?

我怎样做才能防止蚊虫叮咬? 

  • Cover exposed skin by wearing long-sleeved shirts, long pants, and hats.
  • Use an appropriate insect repellent (see below).
  • Use permethrin-treated clothing and gear (such as boots, pants, socks, and tents). Do not use permethrin directly on skin.
  • Stay and sleep in air-conditioned or screened rooms.
  • Use a bed net if the area where you are sleeping is exposed to the outdoors.
  • 穿长袖衬衫、长裤和帽子遮住暴露在外面的皮肤。
  • 使用合适的驱虫剂 ( 见下文 ) 。
  • 使用经氯菊酯处理过的衣服和装备 ( 如靴子、裤子、袜子和帐篷 )。氯菊酯不可直接用于皮肤。
  • 待在有空调或纱窗的房间里。
  • 户外野营时,使用蚊帐。
What type of insect repellent should I use?

我应该使用哪种驱虫剂?

  • FOR PROTECTION AGAINST TICKS AND MOSQUITOES: Use a repellent that contains 20% or more DEET for protection that lasts up to several hours.
  • FOR PROTECTION AGAINST MOSQUITOES ONLY: Products with one of the following active ingredients can also help prevent mosquito bites. Higher percentages of active ingredient provide longer protection.
    • DEET
    • Picaridin (also known as KBR 3023, Bayrepel, and icaridin)
    • Oil of lemon eucalyptus (OLE) or para-menthane-diol (PMD)
    • IR3535
    • 2-undecanone
  • 为了防止蜱虫和蚊子的叮咬:使用DEET含量为20%或以上的驱蚊剂,其驱蚊效用可以持续几个小时。
  • 仅用于预防蚊虫叮咬:含有下列任一有效成分的产品,亦可预防蚊虫叮咬。活性成分含量越高,保护时间越长。

DEET

羟哌酯 ( 也称为KBR 3023、Bayrepel 和 icaridin )

柠檬桉叶油 ( OLE ) 或对甲二醇 ( PMD )

IR3535

2-十一烷酮

  • Always use insect repellent as directed.
  • What should I do if I am bitten by bugs?
    • 一定要按照指示使用驱虫剂。如果我被虫子咬了该怎么办?
    • Avoid scratching bug bites, and apply hydrocortisone cream or calamine lotion to reduce the itching.
    • Check your entire body for ticks after outdoor activity. Be sure to remove ticks properly.
    • 避免抓挠蚊虫叮咬处,使用氢化可的松霜或炉甘石洗剂可减少瘙痒。
    • 户外活动后,检查全身是否有蜱虫。务必采取恰当方法清除蜱虫。
    What can I do to avoid bed bugs?

    我怎样才能避免臭虫呢?

    Although bed bugs do not carry disease, they are an annoyance. See our information page about avoiding bug bites for some easy tips to avoid them. For more information on bed bugs, see Bed Bugs.

    虽然臭虫不携带疾病,但它们确实令人心烦。登录网站查看关于避免蚊虫叮咬的信息,了解一些有效避免蚊虫叮咬的小技巧。有关臭虫的更多信息,请参见臭虫(页面介绍)

    For more detailed information on avoiding bug bites, see Avoid Bug Bites.

    有关避免蚊虫叮咬的详细信息,请参见避免蚊虫叮咬(页面介绍)

    Some diseases in China—such as dengue and leishmaniasis—are spread by bugs and cannot be prevented with a vaccine. Follow the insect avoidance measures described above to prevent these and other illnesses.

    登革热和利什曼病等疾病在中国的传播介质是细菌,无法利用疫苗预防。请遵循上述的避虫措施以预防登革热及其他疾病。

    Hide

    隐藏页 

    If your travel plans in China include outdoor activities, take these steps to stay safe and healthy during your trip.

    如果你在中国的旅行计划包括户外活动,请采取以下步骤以确保旅行安全和健康。

    • Stay alert to changing weather conditions and adjust your plans if conditions become unsafe.
    • Prepare for activities by wearing the right clothes and packing protective items, such as bug spray, sunscreen, and a basic first aid kit.
    • Consider learning basic first aid and CPR before travel. Bring a travel health kit with items appropriate for your activities.
    • Heat-related illness, such as heat stroke, can be deadly. Eat and drink regularly, wear loose and lightweight clothing, and limit physical activity during high temperatures.
      • If you are outside for many hours in heat, eat salty snacks and drink water to stay hydrated and replace salt lost through sweating.
    • 对天气状况的变化保持警惕,一旦出现危险,就调整你的计划。
    • 做好户外活动前的准备,穿合适的衣服,带上防护用品,比如杀虫剂、防晒霜和基本的急救箱。
    • 在旅行前可考虑学习基本的急救和心肺复苏术。带一个便于活动的旅行健康包。
    • 高温引发的疾病,如中暑,可能导致致命后果。注意饮食规律,穿宽松轻便的衣服,在高温天气时减少体力活动。

    如果你在炎热的室外待了很长时间,吃些含盐的零食,多喝水以补充水分和因出汗而流失的盐分。

  • Protect yourself from UV radiation: use sunscreen with an SPF of at least 15, wear protective clothing, and seek shade during the hottest time of day (10 a.m.–4 p.m.).
  • Be especially careful during summer months and at high elevation. Because sunlight reflects off snow, sand, and water, sun exposure may be increased during activities like skiing, swimming, and sailing.
  • Very cold temperatures can be dangerous. Dress in layers and cover heads, hands, and feet properly if you are visiting a cold location.
  • Stay safe around water
    • 保护自己免受紫外线辐射:使用防晒系数至少为15的防晒霜,穿上防护服,在气温升至最高的时段 ( 上午10点至下午4点 ) 找个荫凉处小憩。
    • 在夏季和高海拔地区要特别小心。因为阳光遇雪、沙和海水会发生反射,所以在滑雪、游泳和航海等活动中,受阳光照射的强度会增加。
    • 很冷的温度是很危险的。如果你要去一个寒冷的地方,多穿几层衣服,头、手和脚都要保护好。

    在水边需注意安全

    • Swim only in designated swimming areas. Obey lifeguards and warning flags on beaches.
    • Practice safe boating—follow all boating safety laws, do not drink alcohol if driving a boat, and always wear a life jacket.
    • Do not dive into shallow water.
    • Do not swim in freshwater in developing areas or where sanitation is poor.
    • Avoid swallowing water when swimming. Untreated water can carry germs that make you sick.
    • To prevent infections, wear shoes on beaches where there may be animal waste.
    • 只在指定的游泳区游泳。在海滩上服从救生员和警告旗的指示。
    • 安全驾船---遵守船上的安全规定,驾驶船只时不要饮酒,并且要穿救生衣。
    • 不要潜入浅水。
    • 不要在发展中地区或卫生条件差的淡水中游泳。
    • 游泳时避免吞咽海水。未经处理的海水可能携带致病细菌。
    • 为了防止感染,尽量在有动物排泄物的海滩上穿鞋。

    Schistosomiasis, a parasitic infection that can be spread in fresh water, is found in China. Avoid swimming in fresh, unchlorinated water, such as lakes, ponds, or rivers.

    血吸虫病,一种可以在淡水中传播的寄生虫感染病,在中国被发现。不要在淡水或未氯化的水中游泳,如湖泊、池塘或河流。

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    隐藏页

    Most animals avoid people, but they may attack if they feel threatened, are protecting their young or territory, or if they are injured or ill. Animal bites and scratches can lead to serious diseases such as rabies.

    大多数动物一般选择避开人类,但他们也可能出于胁迫感、保护幼仔或领地、受伤或生病等原因向人类发起袭击。被动物咬伤和抓伤可能导致严重的疾病,如狂犬病。

    Follow these tips to protect yourself:

    遵循以下自卫性提示:

    • Do not touch or feed any animals you do not know.
    • Do not allow animals to lick open wounds, and do not get animal saliva in your eyes or mouth.
    • Avoid rodents and their urine and feces.
    • Traveling pets should be supervised closely and not allowed to come in contact with local animals.
    • If you wake in a room with a bat, seek medical care immediately. Bat bites may be hard to see.
    • 不要接触或喂养任何陌生动物。
    • 不要让动物舔舐你的伤口,不要让动物的唾液进入你的眼睛或嘴里。
    • 避免接触啮齿动物及其尿液和粪便。
    • 携带宠物旅行时,应严格看管,避免与当地的动物发生接触。
    • 如果你在睡醒时发现与蝙蝠共处一室,请立即就医,因为因蝙蝠而产生的伤口可能难以发现。

    All animals can pose a threat, but be extra careful around dogs, bats, monkeys, sea animals such as jellyfish, and snakes. If you are bitten or scratched by an animal, immediately:

    • 任何动物都可能构成威胁,尤其得格外小心周边的狗狗,蝙蝠,猴子,海洋动物如水母或蛇。如果你被动物咬伤或抓伤,立即采取以下措施:
    • Wash the wound with soap and clean water.
    • Go to a doctor right away.
    • Tell your doctor about your injury when you get back to the United States.
    • 用肥皂和清水清洗伤口。
    • 马上去看医生。
    • 回到美国后再向医生咨询伤势。

    Consider buying medical evacuation insurance. Rabies is a deadly disease that must be treated quickly, and treatment may not be available in some countries.

    可考虑购买医疗疏散保险。狂犬病是一种致命疾病,需要立即就医,在某些国家可能无法得到治疗。

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    隐藏页

    Reduce your exposure to germs

    减少接触细菌

    Follow these tips to avoid getting sick or spreading illness to others while traveling:

    遵循以下建议,以避免在旅行时生病或感染他人:

    • Wash your hands often, especially before eating.
    • If soap and water aren't available, clean hands with hand sanitizer (containing at least 60% alcohol).
    • Don't touch your eyes, nose, or mouth. If you need to touch your face, make sure your hands are clean.
    • Cover your mouth and nose with a tissue or your sleeve (not your hands) when coughing or sneezing.
    • Try to avoid contact with people who are sick.
    • If you are sick, stay home or in your hotel room, unless you need medical care.
    • 经常洗手,尤其是在吃东西之前。
    • 如果没有肥皂和水,用洗手液洗手(至少含有60%的酒精)。
    • 不要触摸你的眼睛、鼻子或嘴巴。如果你需要摸脸,确保你的手是干净的。
    • 咳嗽或打喷嚏时,用纸巾或袖子(而不是手)捂住口鼻。
    • 尽量避免与生病的人接触。
    • 如果你生病了,除非你需要医疗护理,否则就呆在家里或旅馆房间里。

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    隐藏页

    Avoid sharing body fluids

    避免共用含有体液的物品

    Diseases can be spread through body fluids, such as saliva, blood, vomit, and semen.

    疾病可以通过体液传播,如唾液、血液、呕吐物和精/液

    Protect yourself:

    保护自己的方法:

    • Use latex condoms correctly.
    • Do not inject drugs.
    • Limit alcohol consumption. People take more risks when intoxicated.
    • Do not share needles or any devices that can break the skin. That includes needles for tattoos, piercings, and acupuncture.
    • If you receive medical or dental care, make sure the equipment is disinfected or sanitized.
    • 正确使用乳胶避孕套。
    • 杜绝毒品。
    • 减少饮酒。喝醉酒的人更容易冒险。
    • 不要共用针头或任何会弄破皮肤的器具。其中包括用于纹身、穿孔和针灸的针具。
    • 如果你要接受医疗或牙科护理,确保设备经过消毒处理。

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    隐藏页

    Know how to get medical care while traveling

    了解在旅途中获得医疗护理的途径

    Plan for how you will get health care during your trip, should the need arise:

    为了解在旅途中获取医疗保障的手段做好打算,以防出现以下情况:

    • Carry a list of local doctors and hospitals at your destination.
    • Review your health insurance plan to determine what medical services it would cover during your trip. Consider purchasing travel health and medical evacuation insurance.
    • Carry a card that identifies, in the local language, your blood type, chronic conditions or serious allergies, and the generic names of any medications you take.
    • Some prescription drugs may be illegal in other countries. Call China's embassy to verify that all of your prescription(s) are legal to bring with you.
    • Bring all the medicines (including over-the-counter medicines) you think you might need during your trip, including extra in case of travel delays. Ask your doctor to help you get prescriptions filled early if you need to.
    • 携带目的地当地医生和医院的名单。
    • 回顾你的健康保险计划,以确定在你旅行期间它将包括哪些医疗服务。考虑购买旅行健康和医疗疏散保险。
    • 随身携带一张卡片,用当地语言标明你的血型、慢性疾病或严重过敏症状,以及你服用的所有药物的通用名称。
    • 有些处方药在其他国家可能是非法的。打电话给中国大使馆,确认你所带的所有处方都是合法的。
    • 带上旅途中可能需要的所有药品(包括非处方药),包括以防延误就医的额外药品。如果需要的话,让你的医生帮你尽早配药。

    Many foreign hospitals and clinics are accredited by the Joint Commission International. A list of accredited facilities is available at their website (www.jointcommissioninternational.org).

    大部分外国医院和诊所都受到国际联合委员会的认可。认证设施的名单可在他们的网站上找到 (www.jointcommissioninternational.org)。

    In some countries, medicine (prescription and over-the-counter) may be substandard or counterfeit. Bring the medicines you will need from the United States to avoid having to buy them at your destination.

    在一些国家,药品 ( 处方药和非处方药 ) 可能是不合格或假冒的。从美国当地购买所需药品,以避免在目的地购买。

    Malaria is a risk in some parts of China. If you are going to a risk area, fill your malaria prescription before you leave, and take enough with you for the entire length of your trip. Follow your doctor's instructions for taking the pills; some need to be started before you leave.

    在中国的一些地区,疟疾是一种风险性高的疾病。如果你要前往存在疟疾感染风险的地区,在出发之前,请带上个人疟疾处方,并确保整个旅途所携带的药物充足。遵照医生的指示服用药物;部分药品的服用时间可能在于出发时间。

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    隐藏页

    Select safe transportation

    选择安全的交通工具

    Motor vehicle crashes are the #1 killer of healthy US citizens in foreign countries.

    对于身处国外的美籍公民来说,车祸是威胁其健康的头号杀手。

    In many places cars, buses, large trucks, rickshaws, bikes, people on foot, and even animals share the same lanes of traffic, increasing the risk for crashes.

    在许多地方,汽车、公共汽车、大型卡车、人力车、自行车、步行者,甚至动物都共用一条车道,这增加了撞车的风险。

    Walking

    步行

    Be smart when you are traveling on foot.

    徒步旅行时要更灵活一些。

    • Use sidewalks and marked crosswalks.
    • Pay attention to the traffic around you, especially in crowded areas.
    • Remember, people on foot do not always have the right of way in other countries.
    • 在人行道和人行横道上步行。
    • 警惕周围的交通状况,尤其是拥挤的地方。
    • 记住,在国外,步行者不一定享有先行权。
    Riding/Driving

    骑行/开车

    Choose a safe vehicle.

    选择安全的交通工具。

    • Choose official taxis or public transportation, such as trains and buses.
    • Ride only in cars that have seatbelts.
    • Avoid overcrowded, overloaded, top-heavy buses and minivans.
    • Avoid riding on motorcycles or motorbikes, especially motorbike taxis. (Many crashes are caused by inexperienced motorbike drivers.)
    • Choose newer vehicles—they may have more safety features, such as airbags, and be more reliable.
    • Choose larger vehicles, which may provide more protection in crashes.
    • 选择正式的出租车或公共交通工具,如火车和公共汽车。
    • 只乘坐有安全带的汽车。
    • 避免乘坐拥挤、超载、头重脚轻的公共汽车和小型货车。
    • 尽量不骑摩托车,尤其是摩托出租车。(很多车祸都是由缺乏经验的摩托车司机造成的。)
    • 选择更新的汽车——其安全特性更高,比如安全气囊,而且更可靠。
    • 选择较大的车辆,以防遇到车辆碰撞以提供更多保护。

    Think about the driver.

    司机 

    • Do not drive after drinking alcohol or ride with someone who has been drinking.
    • Consider hiring a licensed, trained driver familiar with the area.
    • Arrange payment before departing.
    • 避免酒后驾车,也不要与酒后驾车的人一起骑车。
    • 考虑雇佣一个持有执照、受过培训且熟悉该地区的司机。
    • 出发前安排付款。

    Follow basic safety tips.

    遵循基本的安全提示。

    • Wear a seatbelt at all times.
    • Sit in the back seat of cars and taxis.
    • When on motorbikes or bicycles, always wear a helmet. (Bring a helmet from home, if needed.)
    • Avoid driving at night; street lighting in certain parts of China may be poor.
    • Do not use a cell phone or text while driving (illegal in many countries).
    • Travel during daylight hours only, especially in rural areas.
    • If you choose to drive a vehicle in China, learn the local traffic laws and have the proper paperwork.
    • Get any driving permits and insurance you may need. Get an International Driving Permit (IDP). Carry the IDP and a US-issued driver's license at all times.
    • Check with your auto insurance policy's international coverage, and get more coverage if needed. Make sure you have liability insurance.
    • 任何时候都要系好安全带。
    • 坐在汽车或出租车的后座。
    • 骑摩托车或自行车时,一定要戴头盔。(必要时,从家里带一个头盔。)
    • 避免夜间驾驶;中国某些地区的街道照明状况可能很糟糕。
    • 开车时不要使用手机或发短信 ( 这在许多国家是非法的 ) 。
    • 只在白天出行,尤其在农村地区。
    • 如果你要在中国国内驾车,就得学习当地的交通法规,并准备好相应的文件。
    • 考取驾驶执照并办理保险以备不时之需。拿到国际驾驶执照(IDP)。随身携带IDP和美国颁发的驾照。
    • 检查您的汽车保险政策所适用的国际范围,并根据需要办理额外的保险。核实是否已办理责任保险。
    Flying

    乘坐飞机

    • Avoid using local, unscheduled aircraft.
    • If possible, fly on larger planes (more than 30 seats); larger airplanes are more likely to have regular safety inspections.
    • Try to schedule flights during daylight hours and in good weather.
    • 避免乘坐当地的、不定期的飞机。
    • 如有可能,可乘坐30座以上的大型飞机;大型飞机定期进行安全检查的可能性更大。
    • 尽量预订白天或天气状况良好的航班。
    Medical Evacuation Insurance

    医疗疏散保险

    If you are seriously injured, emergency care may not be available or may not meet US standards. Trauma care centers are uncommon outside urban areas. Having medical evacuation insurance can be helpful for these reasons.

    在伤势比较严重,又得不到紧急护理或紧急护理不符合美国标准的情况下,且创伤护理中心一般设在城区,医疗疏散保险可能会有所帮助。

    Helpful Resources

    有效的资源

    Road Safety Overseas (Information from the US Department of State): Includes tips on driving in other countries, International Driving Permits, auto insurance, and other resources.

    海外道路安全 ( 美国国务院发布的信息 ) :包括国外驾驶贴士、国际驾驶许可证、汽车保险和其他资源。

    The Association for International Road Travel has country-specific Road Travel Reports available for most countries for a minimal fee.

    国际公路旅行协会 ( Association for International Road Travel ) 发布了适用于大多数国家的公路旅行报告,其收费门槛是最低的。

    For information traffic safety and road conditions in China, see Travel and Transportation on US Department of State's country-specific information for China.

    有关中国交通安全和道路状况的信息,请参阅美国国务院发布的《中国特定国家信息:旅行与交通》。

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    Maintain personal security

    维护个人安全

    Use the same common sense traveling overseas that you would at home, and always stay alert and aware of your surroundings.

    和在国内旅行一样,在国外旅行也要遵循同样的常识,时刻保持警惕,注意周围的环境。

    Before you leave

    出发前

    • Research your destination(s), including local laws, customs, and culture.
    • Monitor travel warnings and alerts and read travel tips from the US Department of State.
    • Enroll in the Smart Traveler Enrollment Program (STEP).
    • Leave a copy of your itinerary, contact information, credit cards, and passport with someone at home.
    • Pack as light as possible, and leave at home any item you could not replace.
    • 研究下旅行目的地,包括当地的法律、习俗和文化。
    • 监测旅行警告和警报,阅读美国国务院所发布的旅行贴士。
    • 参加智能旅行者登记计划 ( STEP ) 。
    • 把你的行程、联系方式、信用卡和护照的复印件留在家里。
    • 尽量轻装上阵,不要携带不可替换的物品。
    While at your destination(s)

    在旅游地

    • Carry contact information for the nearest US embassy or consulate.
    • Carry a photocopy of your passport and entry stamp; leave the actual passport securely in your hotel.
    • Follow all local laws and social customs.
    • Do not wear expensive clothing or jewelry.
    • Always keep hotel doors locked, and store valuables in secure areas.
    • If possible, choose hotel rooms between the 2nd and 6th floors.
    • 携带近期美国大使馆或领事馆的联系信息。
    • 携带护照影印本及入境章;把护照留在酒店里。
    • 遵守当地法律和社会习俗。
    • 不要穿昂贵的衣服或珠宝。
    • 酒店大门需时常上锁,贵重物品要放在安全的地方。
    • 尽量选择酒店2楼和6楼之间的房间。

    To call for emergency services while in China, dial 999 (Beijing) or 120 (Shanghai) for an ambulance, 119 for the fire department, and 110 for the police. Write these numbers down to carry with you during your trip.

    在中国,拨打999 ( 北京 ) 或 120 (上海) 叫救护车,119(消防),110(警察)叫紧急服务。把这些数字写下来,以便在旅行时随身携带。

    Learn as much as you can about China before you travel there. A good place to start is the country-specific information on China from the US Department of State.

    在去中国旅行之前,尽可能多地了解中国。我们可以从美国国务院提供的有关中国的国别信息入手。 

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