森林火灾如何影响宠物和其他动物
How wildfire smoke affects pets and other animals
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2020-01-13 16:59
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火星译客

Catastrophic fires across the globe are increasing in both frequency and magnitude. The bushfires in Australia, fuelled by heatwaves and drought, have burned more than 10.7 million hectares, an area larger than Iceland.

森林火灾往往会带来灾难性后果。近年来,全球森林火灾发生频率和过火面积都呈现出增大的趋势。近几个月,由于热浪和干旱,导致澳大利亚灌木丛引发大火,过火面积达1070万公顷,比整个冰岛的面积还大。

Over one billion animals are estimated to have died in the Australian bushfires so far. This loss of life is devastating. Horses, dogs and other domestic animals are also being affected by the smoke generated by the wildfires.

据估计,目前已有超过10亿动物在大火中丧生,这为当地生态环境带来了毁灭性破坏。大火带来的烟雾还波及了马、狗和其他澳大利亚国内的动物。

As veterinarians who have cared for small animals following the California wildfires and researched the impacts of wildfires on horses in Canada, we have some perspective on how smoke can harm companion animals and what people can do to protect the animals in their care.

兽医在加利福尼亚山火之后照顾受灾小动物,并研究了加拿大山火对马造成的影响。烟雾如何伤害陪伴人类的动物?人们又该如何保护动物?人类对此可以采取哪些行动,我们已经有了一些看法。

What is smoke?

烟雾含有什么成分?

The composition of smoke depends on what is being burned. The smoke from a house fire or a barn fire will contain different compounds than the smoke from wildfires or bushfires.

烟雾的成分取决于燃烧物的成分。与森林火灾或灌木丛起火相比,家庭用火或者干草堆起火释放的烟雾成分大为不同。

When an animal inhales smoke, it brings a combination of toxic gases, such as carbon monoxide and hydrogen cyanide, and particulate matter, a mixture of small liquid and solid particles, into its throat, nose and lungs.

燃烧产生各种有毒气体,其中包括一氧化碳、氰化氢;还会带来可吸入颗粒物,其中有小颗粒液体和固体。动物一旦吸入烟雾,这些有毒物质便会进入其咽喉、鼻部和肺部。

Smoke inhalation can damage the respiratory tract in multiple ways; it can cause burns and lead to physical irritation, causing the airway to swell and become blocked.

一旦吸入烟雾,呼吸道便会受到各种损伤,引发灼伤并导致身体刺激,进而导致呼吸道肿胀并阻塞。

Toxic gases can impair oxygen delivery and lead to death. Animals with immediate and close exposure to fires, such as barn or house fires, face this risk.

有毒气体会破坏动物体内氧气运输,进而导致其死亡。动物一旦近距离接触某些火源,例如干草堆起火或家庭用火,一瞬间便可危及其生命。

Exposure to bushfires or wildfires results in a sustained, lower-dose exposure to smoke. The major concern here is particulate matter. Very small particulate matter (less than four microns in diametre) can bypass the body’s natural filters and reach the lower airways.

虽然吸入的烟雾剂量较低,但是一旦发生森林火灾会使动物长时间持续吸入烟雾。其中,很小的可吸入颗粒物(其直径不足4微米)会穿过机体的过滤体系,抵达下呼吸道,是烟雾众多有害物质中最令人担忧的一类。

Smoke inhalation in horses

马匹吸入烟雾

Our relationship with horses is unique in that they bridge the gap between livestock and companion animals. As athletic animals, air quality impacts horses’ capacity to perform. The financial ramifications of impaired performance is not insignificant, given the economic impact of the horse industry in multiple countries.

人与马的关系非常独特。马既可以当做牲畜饲养,也可以成为陪伴人类的伙伴。马是一种运动能力很强的动物,而空气质量影响着马的运动能力。鉴于养马行业在多个国家或地区对经济仍然存在一定影响,马匹运动能力受损带来财务影响并非微不足道。

Horses have a huge lung capacity. A horse moves more than 2,000 litres of air through its lungs every minute during strenuous exercise. With this air, horses also inhale a large number of pollutants, which is drastically increased during fires.

马的肺活量巨大,高强度运动时每分钟可吸入2000升空气。但是,由于森林火灾造成空气污染,火焰燃烧导致空气中污染物含量大幅升高,马也因此吸入大量污染物质。

During this period, we studied the impact of poor air quality on exercise performance in polo horses that were at a maintenance level of fitness at the end of the competition season. They continued the same training program throughout the trial, so all results are due to the improved conditions and not a conditioning effect.

2018年,卡尔加里空气质量低下,每天都会发布污染天气预警,这样的日子持续了六个多星期。在此期间,我们在空气质量较差的情况下研究了其对马球比赛用马运动能力的影响,这些马球比赛用马在比赛季节结束时仍然保持着健康水平。在整个试验过程中,它们继续按照相同的计划进行训练,因此所有结果都源于因于条件改善,而非调节效果。

Every horse involved in the study exhibited coughing at rest and during exercise, with owners complaining of decreased performance.

结果发现,试验中每匹马在休息和训练期间都出现了咳嗽症状,马匹主人也抱怨这些马的运动能力不如从前了。

We performed a procedure called a lung wash on these horses to retrieve cells and particulate matter from their lungs. Every horse in the study showed inflammation of the respiratory tract. We also found large amounts of microscopic pollens and other debris trapped in the cells. These findings are diagnostic of asthma in horses, and were also commonly seen by veterinarians working in the affected area.

我们对这些马进行了洗肺处理,从肺部回收细胞,取出可吸入颗粒物。研究过程中,每匹马都出现了呼吸道炎症。另外,我们发现,其细胞中有大量细微花粉和碎屑。由此,可以发现,这些马匹换上了哮喘,受灾地区的兽医也常常诊断出马匹换上哮喘的病例。

We also wanted to know how much the performance of these horses improved after prolonged smoke exposure. The gold standard technique to evaluate athletic performance is the measurement of maximum oxygen consumption, also known as VO2max.

我们也想要弄明白,马匹长时间接触这些烟雾,运动能力会有怎样的变化。评估运动能力的黄金标准就是测量最大氧气消耗量,即最大摄氧量。

After 2.5 weeks of improved air quality, horses had a 15 per cent increase in speed, as well as a 13.2 per cent increase in VO2max, compared to those measures on the first day of improved air quality. To put this into context, training two-year-old racehorses for eight weeks has been reported to result in a 6.7 per cent improvement in VO2max.

空气质量改善后第一天起,经过2.5周以后,马匹运动速度增加了15%,最大摄氧量增加了13.2%。为了说明这一点,据报道,训练两年的赛马八周就可将最大摄氧量提高6.7%。

How to keep animals safe

如何保证动物的安全

There are many guidelines available for people when air quality is poor, but very little information for pet owners.

空气质量较差时,人们应该如何应对,方法手段早已比比皆是,但是对于宠物主如何在此情况下保证动物的安全,可采取的措施寥寥无几。

The air quality index (AQI) is used in Australia and the United States. The AQI is a single number presented on a scale of 0-500, ranging from excellent air quality to the most hazardous air pollution. Canada uses the Air Quality Health Index (AQHI), using a scale from 1 to 10.

空气质量指数(AQI)是一个单独的数字,数值范围在0-500之间,表示空气质量由高到低,澳大利亚和美国便是采用AQI来衡量空气质量。空气质量健康指数(AQHI)是一个1到10的数字,是加拿大采用衡量空气质量的方式。

The Australian Broadcasting Corporation reported several regions where AQIs had surpassed 500 in December 2019. Wildfires in northern Alberta in 2018 sent AQHI index past 11 in Calgary in May 2019.

据澳大利亚广播公司报道,部分区域2019年12月空气质量指数已经超过500。而2018年艾伯塔省北部的野火使卡尔加里在2019年5月的空气质量健康指数超过了11。

Stay indoors

把动物关在室内

Where possible, animals should be kept indoors when the AQI is greater than 150 or AQHI is 10+ for multiple days in a row to reduce exposure to small particulate matter. The environment matters, however. For example, a dog in a tightly sealed home will have less exposure to airborne irritants than a horse in a stable.

一旦空气质量指数连续数天高于150,或者空气质量健康指数连续数天高于10,就得尽可能让动物保持在室内,以减少其接触微小颗粒物。但是,环境也是很重要的。例如,与关在马厩里的马相比,把小狗关在家里,其接触空气中刺激物的剂量比马要低。

Like human asthmatics, staying indoors might not prevent symptoms in animals with pre-existing respiratory conditions, especially when smoke persists for greater than five days. In addition, brachycephalic breeds such as pugs and bulldogs are likely to have a reduced tolerance to smoke.

像人类患哮喘一样,若动物之前已经患有呼吸道疾病并出现了症状,呆在室内可能无法预防,尤其是当烟雾持续超过五天时。另外,哈巴狗和斗牛犬等近脑性品种对烟的耐受性可能会降低。

Reduce outdoor physical activity

减少户外体育锻炼

When animals exercise, they increase the amount of air they inhale, which increases the deposition of particles deep in the lungs.

当动物们进行锻炼时,吸入的空气量会增加,会导致更多颗粒物沉积在肺部深处。

Based on guidelines from multiple regulatory bodies and associations, we recommend limiting outdoor exercise in animals when smoke is visible. Moderate to intense exercise should be reduced when there is a high or very high risk rating (AQI exceeding 100; AQHI greater than 7). We recommend cancelling events (such as a Thoroughbred race) when there is a very high risk rating (AQI greater than 150 or an AQHI of 10+).

根据多个监管机构和协会的意见,我们建议,在烟雾可见时,要限制动物的户外运动。当空气质量指数或空气质量健康指数较高时(空气质量指数高于100,空气质量健康指数高于7),应减少中等强度或高强度体育锻炼。我们建议,当空气质量指数高于150或空气质量健康指数高于10时,应取消户外体育赛事。

There’s every indication that fire seasons are going to become longer and more frequent. When smoke starts to blanket the land, remember there are simple things you can do to protect the respiratory health of both you and your pets.

森林火灾季节会持续更长时间,森林火灾会更加频繁,这已经越来越明显。当烟雾弥漫,记住几件简单的事情,就可以保护好自身呼吸道的健康,这将惠及自身和你的宠物。

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