美伊冲突的根源与当下:我们所知的时间线
The US-Iran conflict: A timeline of what we got here
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2020-01-13 16:03
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Tension over British influence in Iran

英国与伊朗之间的矛盾

Tension over British influence in Iran

Since the early 1900s, the British government has retained control over Iran's oil reserves through theAnglo-Iranian Oil Company. By the time Mohammad Mossadegh is appointed Prime Minister, Iranians are tired of foreign involvement in their affairs, and calls for Iranians to regain control of their natural resources are growing louder.

自20世纪初以来,英国政府一直通过昂格罗伊朗石油公司保留对伊朗石油储备的控制权。莫萨德被任命为总理时,伊朗人已经厌倦了外国介入他们的事务,要求伊朗人重新控制自然资源的呼声越来越高。

CIA overthrows Iran's democracy

中情局推翻伊朗民主

The UShelps stage a coup to overthrow Iran's democratically elected prime minister, Mossadegh. He had moved to nationalize the country's oil fields -- a move the US and Great Britain saw as a serious blow, given their dependence on oil from the Middle East. After toppling Mossadegh, theUS supports Iran's monarch Mohammad Reza Pahlavi to rule as Shah of Iran. Iraniansresent the foreign interference, fueling anti-American sentiment in the country for decades to come.

乌谢尔普斯发动政变推翻伊朗民选总理摩萨德。他已着手将该国的油田国有化,鉴于美英两国对中东石油的依赖,此举被视为一个严重打击。推翻摩萨德政权后,美国支持伊朗国王雷扎巴列维(Mohammad Reza Pahlavi)作为伊朗国王统治伊朗。伊朗人重新引入了外国干涉,在未来几十年里助长了该国的反美情绪。

Nuclear cooperation

核合作

The US signs acivil nuclear cooperation agreement with Iran. The agreement provides Iran with technology and resources that eventually become the foundation for its controversial nuclear program, which it begins developing in the 1970s with support from the US.

美国与伊朗签署了阿基维尔核合作协议。该协议为伊朗提供了技术和资源,这一协议最终成为伊朗备受争议的核项目的基础。该项目20世纪70年代开始在美国的支持下发展起来。

The Iranian Revolution

伊朗革命

Millions of Iranians take to the streetsin protest of the Shah's regime, which they view as corrupt and illegitimate. Secular protesters oppose his authoritarianism, while Islamist protesters oppose his modernization agenda. On January 16, the Shah flees the country. On February 1, Ayatollah Khomeini, an Islamic scholar who had been arrested and deported by the Shah in 1964, returns from exile and becomes the supreme leader of the Islamic Republic.

数百万伊朗人走上街头反对沙阿政权,他们认为这个政权是腐败和非法的。世俗者反对他的独裁主义,宗教者反对他的现代化议程。1月16日,沙阿逃离了这个国家。2月1日,在1964年,被沙阿下令抓捕和驱逐的学者Ayatollah Khomeini从流亡中返回,他成为了共和国的最高领袖。

Iran Hostage Crisis

伊朗人质危机

Iran Hostage Crisis

Iranian students storm the US embassy in Tehran and take dozens of Americans hostage. They demand the Shah, who had been admitted into the US for cancer treatment, be extradited to Iran to stand trial for “crimes against the Iranian people.” After 444 days, Iran releases the hostages in exchange for state assets being unfrozen --  minutes after President Ronald Reagan is sworn into office. During the crisis, the US cuts all diplomatic ties with Iran. Formal diplomatic relations have never been restored. The Shah dies in July 1980 in Cairo.

伊朗学生冲进美国驻德黑兰大使馆,劫持数十名美国人质。他们要求将因癌症治疗而进入美国的沙阿引渡至伊朗,以“危害伊朗人民的罪行”受审。444天后,伊朗释放人质,以换取解冻国家资产——里根总统宣誓就职几分钟后。在危机期间,美国切断了与伊朗的所有外交关系。正式外交关系从未恢复。沙阿于1980年7月在开罗去世。

Iran-Iraq War begins

两伊战争的开始

Iran-Iraq War begins

The bad blood between the two countries is only made worse when the US backs Iraq in its invasion of neighboring Iran, prompting an eight year regional war. Qasem Soleimani, who has joined the elite Iran Revolutionary Guard Corps by this time, fights on the frontlines of this war.

当美国支持伊拉克入侵邻国伊朗,引发了长达8年的地区战争时,两国间的恶劣关系只会变得更糟。此时已加入伊朗革命卫队精锐部队的卡西姆·索莱马尼,在这场战争的前线作战。

US declares Iran a sponsor of terrorism

美国宣称伊朗支持恐怖主义

US declares Iran a sponsor of terrorism

Under Reagan's administration, the US declares the Islamic Republic a “state sponsor of terrorism.” Decades later, this designation by the US still stands.

在里根政府的领导下,美国宣布伊朗共和国为“恐怖主义的支持者”。几十年后,美国的这一指定仍然有效。

Iran-Contra Affair

伊朗反政府事件

Iran-Contra Affair

While the US is backing Iraq in its war with Iran, President Reagan's administration covertly begins looking into ways to improve its relationship with Iran. The press reveals that despite an embargo on selling weapons to Iran, Reagan approved a high-profit sale in hopes that it will yield the return of Americans held hostage in Lebanon by Hezbollah, a militia with close ties to Iran.

当美国支持伊拉克与伊朗的战争时,里根政府开始秘密寻找改善与伊朗关系的方法。新闻界透露,尽管明面上禁止向伊朗出售武器,里根还是批准了一项高利润的军售计划,希望这项计划能让在黎巴嫩被什叶派党挟持的美国人回国。这一政党与伊朗关系密切。

US shoots down an Iranian plane

美国击落了一架伊朗客机

US shoots down an Iranian plane

AP Photo

AP供图

While American and Iranian ships are exchanging fire in the Persian Gulf, the US mistakes a civilian airliner for a fighter jet and shoots downIran Air Flight 655. All 290 passengers and crew members on board are killed. Though the US says theattack is an accident, Iranians see it as intentional.

当美国和伊朗军舰在波斯湾交火时,美国误以为一架民用客机是战斗机,并击落了它。该客机为伊朗655航班,机上290名乘客和机组人员全部遇难。尽管美国称这次袭击是一次意外,但伊朗人认为这是故意的。

Soleimani appointed head of the Quds Force

索莱曼尼被任命为圣城部队的首领

Soleimani appointed head of the Quds Force

Qasem Soleimani, who has been rising through the ranks of the Iran Revolutionary Guard Corps, is appointed chief commander of the Quds Force, an elite special forces unit that handles Iran's overseas operations. He is instrumental in spreading Iran's influence in the Middle East, and soon becomes one of the country's most powerful leaders.

卡塞姆·索莱马尼在伊朗革命卫队中崭露头角后,被任命为圣城部队(Quds Force)的总司令,这是一支精英特种部队,负责处理伊朗的海外行动。他在传播伊朗在中东的影响力方面发挥了重要作用,并很快成为该国最强大的领导人之一。

George Bush declares Iran part of an ‘Axis of Evil'

乔治·布什宣布伊朗为“邪恶轴心”的一部分

George Bush declares Iran part of an ‘Axis of Evil'

After the 9/11 attacks, Iranquietly helps the US in its war against the Taliban, a mutual enemy of both countries. But in aState of the Union address, President George Bush refers to Iran, along with Iraq and North Korea, as part of an “Axis of Evil.” The speech incites anger in Iran.

911袭击后,伊拉克人帮助美国打击恐怖武装Taliban,这是两国的共同敌人。但在工会演讲的最后阶段,乔治·布什总统将伊朗、伊拉克和朝鲜称作“邪恶轴心”的一部分,这一讲话激起了伊朗的愤怒。

Iran nuclear threat

伊朗核威胁

Iran nuclear threat

As the US voices concerns that Iran is attempting to develop nuclear weapons, inspectors from the International Atomic Energy Agency announce they've found traces of highly-enriched uranium at a nuclear plant in Iran. Tehran agrees to suspend production of enriched uranium and allow stricter inspections of its nuclear sites, but this is short-lived. President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad would come into power a few years later and restart Iran's production of enriched uranium, prompting years of international sanctions against the country.

在美国对伊朗试图发展核武器的行动表示担忧后,国际原子能机构(iaea)的核查人员宣布,他们在伊朗一座核电站发现了高浓缩铀的踪迹。德黑兰同意暂停浓缩铀生产,并允许该机构对其核设施进行更严格的检查,但这是短暂的。伊朗总统艾哈迈迪内贾德(Mahmoud Ahmadinejad)在几年后上台,并重启了伊朗浓缩铀生产,这引发了国际社会多年来对伊朗实施制裁。

Iran nuclear deal is signed

伊朗核协议的签署

Iran nuclear deal is signed

After years of negotiations with President Barack Obama's administration, six nations and Tehranreach a landmark agreement that slows Iran's nuclear development program in exchange for lifting some sanctions that caused the country's economy to stagnate. It's a huge breakthrough for the US and Iran, which have long been at odds.

经过与奥巴马政府多年的谈判,六国和德黑兰达成了一项里程碑式的协议,减缓了伊朗的核发展计划,以换取解除一些导致该国经济停滞不前的制裁。这对长期不和的美国和伊朗来说是一个巨大的突破。

Trump takes office

特朗普上台

Trump takes office

Spencer Platt/Getty Images

Spencer Platt/Getty供图

A week after his inauguration, President Donald Trumpsigns an executive order banning nationals from seven Muslim-majority nations, including Iran, from entering the US for 90 days. Iran calls the ban “an obvious insult to the Islamic world” and responds by conducting a ballistic missile test. The back-and-forth marks a sudden escalation in tensions between the two countries, raising concerns about the future of the Iran nuclear deal.

就职一周后,美国总统特朗普签署行政命令,禁止包括伊朗在内的7个Muslim占多数的国家的国民在90天内进入美国。伊朗称这项禁令是“对Islamic世界明显的侮辱”,并以进行弹道导弹试验作为回应。此次事件标志着两国紧张局势的骤然升级,引发了人们对伊朗核协议前景的担忧。

May: Trump quits the Iran nuclear deal

五月:特朗普退出伊朗核协议

May: Trump quits the Iran nuclear deal

ATTA KENARE/BRENDAN SMIALOWSKI/AFP/Getty Images

ATTA KENARE/BRENDAN SMIALOWSKI/AFP/Getty 供图

Trump fulfills a campaign promise and announces he iswithdrawing the US from the Iran nuclear deal, which he viewed as “one-sided.” He also says he will place new sanctions on the regime. Critics warn the move could lead Iran to restart its atomic program andset the stage for more conflict in the Middle East.

特朗普履行了竞选承诺,宣布美国从他认为“片面”的伊朗核协议中撤出。他还说,他将对伊朗政权实施新的制裁。批评人士警告说,此举可能导致伊朗重启其核计划,并为中东地区的更多冲突埋下伏笔。

April: US labels IRGC a terrorist organization

四月:美国称伊朗革命卫队为恐怖组织

April: US labels IRGC a terrorist organization

Underwood Archives/Getty Images

Underwood Archives/Getty 供图

President Trump announces that the US will formally designate the Iran Revolutionary Guard Corps, Tehran's most powerful military institution, as aforeign terrorist organization. The move is unprecedented, marking the first time that the US designated a part of another government as a terror group. Iran responds by declaring the US a “state sponsor of terrorism.”

特朗普总统宣布,美国将正式认定德黑兰最强大的军事机构伊朗革命卫队为一个恐怖组织。此举史无前例,标志着美国首次将另一个政府的一部分指定为恐怖组织。伊朗的回应是宣布美国为“恐怖主义的国家级赞助者”

June: Iran blamed for attacks in the Gulf

6月:伊朗被指责应对海湾地区的袭击负责

June: Iran blamed for attacks in the Gulf

AFP via Getty Images

Getty 供图

Tensions further escalate afterattacks on oil tankers in the Persian Gulf and oil facilities in Saudi Arabia, as well as the downing of a US drone, which Washington and its allies blame on Iran. American officials repeatedly stress that threats to the freedom of navigation in the Gulf and the oil trade are unacceptable, but the Trump administration takes no action.

在波斯湾的油轮和沙特阿拉伯的石油设施遭到袭击后,以及美国无人机被击落后,紧张局势进一步升级,华盛顿及其盟友将此归咎于伊朗。美国官员一再强调,对海湾航行自由和石油贸易的威胁是不可接受的,但特朗普政府没有采取行动。

June: Iran reduces commitments to nuclear deal

6月:伊朗减少对核协议的承诺

June: Iran reduces commitments to nuclear deal

Iranian Presidency/Anadolu Agency/Getty Images

Iranian Presidency/Anadolu Agency/Getty 供图

After the US imposes several rounds of sanctions on Iran that were originally lifted under the Iran nuclear deal, Iran announces it willramp up enrichment of low-grade uranium. This breaks the stockpile limit it agreed to in 2015, and brings the country one step closer to being able to build a nuclear bomb.

在美国对伊朗实施了几轮制裁(最初是由于伊朗核协议解除)之后,伊朗宣布将加大对低品位铀的浓缩。这打破了它在2015年达成的库存限制,使该国离制造核弹又近了一步。

December: US strikes facilities in Iraq and Syria

12月:美国袭击伊拉克和叙利亚的设施

December: US strikes facilities in Iraq and Syria

Universal History Archive/UIG/Getty Images

Universal History Archive/UIG/Getty 供图

US forcesconduct airstrikes on facilities in Iraq and Syria, which the Pentagon claims are linked to pro-Iranian militias responsible for attacking US service personnel in Iraq. At least 25 people are killed, an Iran-backed militia says. Days later, hundreds of pro-Iranian demonstratorsattempt to storm the US embassy in Baghdad, scaling the walls and forcing the gates open, in protest of the US airstrikes.

美国部队对伊拉克和叙利亚的设施进行了空袭,五角大楼声称,空袭与负责攻击驻伊美军人员的亲伊朗民兵有关。一名亲伊朗民兵说,至少有25人丧生。几天后,数百名亲伊朗的反对者试图冲击美国驻巴格达大使馆,翻墙并强行打开大门,以反对美国的空袭。

January: US kills Soleimani, and Iran responds

1月:美国杀死了索莱曼尼,伊朗做出回应

January: US kills Soleimani, and Iran responds

Sabah Arar/Getty Images

Getty供图

Trump says he ordered an airstrike in Iraq to kill Iran's top general, Qasem Soleimani -- a move that previous US presidents had considered far too provocative. Thousands of people flood the streets of Iran to mourn him. Iran is furious and vows retaliation, ultimately firing missiles at Iraqi bases that house American troops a few days later. No lives are lost, and Trump responds by promising more sanctions.

特朗普说,他下令对伊拉克进行空袭,以杀死伊朗最高将领卡西姆·索莱马尼——美国前总统认为这一举动过于挑衅。成千上万的人涌向伊朗街头悼念他。伊朗怒不可遏,发誓要报复,在几天后伊朗向驻扎美军的伊拉克基地发射导弹。没有人丧生,特朗普做出回应,承诺实施更多制裁。

As tensions rise, Iran mistakenly shoots down a Ukrainian passenger jet, attributing it to a fear of US aggression. All 176 people on board are killed.

随着紧张局势的加剧,伊朗错误地击落了一架乌克兰客机,并将其归咎于对美国侵略的恐惧。机上176人全部遇难。

Trump's decision to respond diplomatically to Iran's missile attack and not militarily signals that tensions may cool off -- at least for now.

特朗普决定以外交手段回应伊朗的导弹袭击,而非军事手段,这表明紧张局势可能降温——至少目前是这样。

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