研究显示,政府主导的互联网关闭在2019年给全球经济造成了80亿美元的损失
Government-led internet shutdowns cost the global economy $8 billion in 2019, research says
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2020-01-09 01:15
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火星译客

Deliberate internet shutdowns cost the global economy more than $8 billion last year, according to a new report.

一份新的报告显示,去年,蓄意关闭互联网给全球经济造成了80多亿美元的损失。

Research published Tuesday by internet research firm Top10VPN analyzed the economic impact of internet shutdowns around the world throughout 2019. The cost of internet blackouts were calculated on Netblocks' and the Internet Society's cost of shutdown tool, which uses indicators from the World Bank, International Telecommunication Union, Eurostat and U.S. Census Bureau.

互联网研究公司Top10VPN周二发布的研究分析了2019年全球互联网关闭的经济影响。互联网监管的成本是根据Netblocks和互联网协会的关机成本工具计算出来的,该工具使用了世界银行、国际电信联盟、欧盟统计局和美国人口普查局的指标。

An internet shutdown is an intentional disruption of the internet or digital communications, which makes those services inaccessible by a specific population. Campaign group Access Now says shutdowns are often carried out by governments or authorities "to exert control over the flow of information."

互联网关闭是指故意中断网络或数字通信,从而使特定人群无法访问这些服务。Access Now运动团体说,政府或当局经常关闭网站,以便对信息流动施加控制。

Top10VPN traced 18,225 hours of internet shutdowns around the world in 2019, which carried a total economic cost of $8.05 billion.

Top10VPN在2019年追踪了全球18225个小时的互联网关闭,总经济成本为80.5亿美元。

Researchers noted that there were more shutdowns in 2019 than ever before, with the total cost surging 235% from 2016.

研究人员指出,2019年关闭比以往任何时候都多,总成本比2016年飙升了235%。

Last year saw 122 major incidents — meaning there were 122 national or region-wide blackouts — as well as more than 90 smaller blackouts in India and partial restrictions elsewhere.

去年发生了122起重大事故,这意味着国家或地区范围内有122起关闭,印度有90多起较小规模的关闭,其他地区也有部分限制。

The analysis found that shutdowns most often occurred in response to protests or civil unrest as "authoritarian regimes looked to restrict the flow of information and maintain their grip on power."

分析发现,由于试图限制信息流动并保持对权力的控制,在应对反对行动或社会动荡时,政府往往会关闭互联网。

In terms of individual regions, the Middle East and North Africa took the biggest economic hit from internet shutdowns in 2019, with costs exceeding $3 billion.

就单个地区而言,中东和北非在2019年因互联网关闭而遭受的经济损失最大,超过30亿美元。

Sub-Saharan Africa followed suit, with costs of almost $2.2 billion, while Asia — the region with the most documented shutdown hours at 9,677 — had a blackout cost of $1.7 billion.

撒哈拉以南的非洲地区紧随其后,花费了近22亿美元,而亚洲地区有记录的关闭最多,为9677小时,中断花费了17亿美元。

Iraq was the country with the highest total shutdown cost, with the country's economy reportedly losing $2.3 billion through internet blackouts in 2019. According to the research, Iraq suffered 263 hours of deliberate connectivity disruptions last year, impacting almost 19 million internet users.

伊拉克是政府关闭互联网总成本最高的国家,据报道,该国经济在2019年因互联网中断损失了23亿美元。根据这项研究,伊拉克去年遭受了263个小时的蓄意干扰,影响了近1900万互联网用户。

Network data from Netblocks in November showed that the Iraqi government severely restricted web access amid protests in the country.

去年11月来自Netblocks的网络数据显示,伊拉克政府在国内的反对活动期间严格限制网络访问。

Sudan had the second highest costs at $1.8 billion.

苏丹的花费第二高,为18亿美元。

India was the third worst-hit economy, with Top10VPN tracking more than 100 "highly targeted" shutdowns in the country last year.

印度是受影响第三严重的经济体。去年,Top10VPN追踪了100多次高度定向的互联网关闭。

Those blackouts included a shutdown in the Kashmir region, which has been ongoing since August when the Indian government revoked a special status granting the state of Jammu and Kashmir autonomy over its own laws. The report noted there was "no end to restrictions in sight" for the region.

这些中断包括一次克什米尔地区的关闭,自从8月以来,印度政府取消了给予查谟和克什米尔州自治权的特殊地位。报告指出,该地区还没有结束限制措施的迹象。

Researchers estimated a total loss of $1.3 billion for India as a result of internet shutdowns, but said they expected the actual figure to be even higher.

研究人员估计,互联网关闭给印度造成的损失总计达13亿美元,但他们预计实际数字会更高。

Iran suffered an internet blackout spanning several days in November, with the government restricting citizens' access to the web amid widespread protests over fuel price hikes.

去年11月,伊朗经历了持续数天的互联网中断,在油价上涨引发的广泛反对活动中,政府限制公民上网。

Speaking to CNBC via email, Samuel Woodhams, one of the report's authors, explained that there were several ways in which internet shutdowns led to economic losses.

该报告的作者之一Samuel Woodhams通过电子邮件接受美国全国广播公司财经频道(CNBC)采访时解释说,互联网关闭导致经济损失的方式有多种。

"From communicating with suppliers to engaging with new and existing customers, internet shutdowns negatively impact almost every aspect of a business's operations," he said.

他说,从与供应商沟通到与新老客户沟通,互联网关闭几乎对企业运营的每个方面都产生了负面影响。

Woodhams added that the "informal economy" was also hampered by blackouts, as digital transactions and the flow of capital enabled by social media platforms was brought to a halt, noting that frequent shutdowns also undermined investor confidence.

Woodhams补充道,由于数字交易和社交媒体平台带来的资本流动陷入停顿,非正式经济也受到了关闭的阻碍,频繁的关闭也削弱了投资者的信心。

"Internet shutdowns (also) negatively impact businesses located outside of the affected country by preventing international companies from interacting with their business partners and potential customers," he told CNBC.

他告诉CNBC,互联网的关闭也会对在受影响国家之外的企业产生负面影响,因为这会阻止国际公司与其商业伙伴和潜在客户进行交流。

Despite the negative economic impact, Woodhams did not expect to see a decline in the number of deliberate blackouts this year.

尽管有负面的经济影响,Woodhams并不认为今年互联网蓄意中断的数量会减少。

"Authoritarian-leaning regimes appear intent on flouting human rights and disregarding economic costs in the vain attempt of controlling the flow of information during periods of unrest and protest," he said. "With that in mind, it is likely that internet shutdowns will continue to rise in frequency in 2020."

他说,有威权倾向的政权似乎有意蔑视人权,无视经济代价,妄图在动荡和反对活动期间控制信息流动。考虑到这一点,互联网关闭的频率很可能在2020年继续上升。

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