新的签证政策可能阻碍美国技术人才的发展
New visa policy may hobble US tech workforce
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2020-01-08 14:02
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火星译客

H-1B visas' denial rate tripled to 15.2 percent in 2019 from 4.3 percent in 2015

H-1B签证2019年拒签率为15.2%,与2015年的4.3%相比,增加了三倍。

Despite the stated aim of putting America first, the Trump administration's visa policy limiting skilled immigration may endanger the country's tech workforce and innovation economy, said experts.

专家表示,尽管特朗普政府宣称将美国利益放在首位,但其限制技术移民的签证政策可能危及这个国家技术人才和创新型经济的发展。
 

The H-1B visa, a program for high-skilled workers that many Silicon Valley companies rely on, has become a target for reform by the administration.

H-1B签证是一项针对高技术人才的计划,许多硅谷公司都依赖于这个计划吸引人才,但现在H-1B签证已经成为美国政府改革的目标。

The latest move by the immigration authorities is a new electronic registration system starting in March, which requires applicants to go through a lottery process before they submit full applications.

移民当局自3月起上线了一个新的电子注册系统,这是移民局的最新政策,要求申请者在提交完整申请之前先进行抽签。

Under the new policy, only those with selected registrations will be eligible to file H-1B petitions subject to the 85,000 cap, including 65,000 regular visas and 20,000 for workers with advanced degrees from US universities.

根据新的政策规定,只有中签人员才有资格提交H-1B签证申请,而H-1B签证只有85000个名额,其中包括65000个普通签证名额和20000个给从美国大学获得高等学位的的签证名额。

The new system seems "inefficient" and "backwards", said Peter Leroe-Muñoz, general counsel and vice-president of tech and innovation policy at the Silicon Valley Leadership Group, which represents many tech companies.

代表着许多科技公司的硅谷领导力集团,其技术和创新政策总顾问兼副总裁彼得·勒罗·穆尼奥斯说,新系统显得既“低效”又“退步”。

"Now they (applicants) can either be not selected or, in effect, rejected in the lottery; and even if they are selected in the lottery, they could still have their application rejected at a later stage. So there are two points at which an applicant can miss out," Leroe-Muñoz told China Daily.

“如今他们(申请者)要么可能没有被选中,要么在抽签过程中实质上被拒签。即使他们抽中了,这些人仍然可能在后期阶段中被拒签。因此,对一个申请者来说,他们有2次失去得到签证的节点。”勒罗·穆尼奥斯这样跟《中国日报》说道。

"It would be more efficient if you were able to have a pool of qualified applications from which you're pulling for the lottery, instead of doing it the other way around, because if you do the lottery first and then the applications, there might be a number of challenges or questions that come up after somebody has already been selected," he explained.

“从一池子合格申请人中进行抽签比其它方式更为高效,因为,如果你先进行抽签再审核申请,那么当某人被选中后,很多挑战或问题会随之出现。”他解释道。

It makes more sense to "allow everybody a fair shot" and have a complete pool before running the lottery, Leroe-Muñoz said.

勒罗·穆尼奥斯说,让所有人拥有同等的机会以及在抽签之前拥有完备的合格申请人池子,才更有意义。

Over the past few years, the Trump administration has taken a series of measures to crack down on the H-1B program, including short-term H-1B approvals and an itinerary policy which requires employers to submit itineraries detailing H-1B visa holders' work.

在过去的几年中,特朗普政府已经采取了一系列的措施来缩紧H-1B签证,这些措施包括签发短期H-1B和一个行程政策,这个政策要求雇主提交详细说明其H-1B签证持有者工作的行程单。

The administration has increased the denial rate for H-1B visas to a record high: the denial rate more than tripled to 15.2 percent in 2019 from 4.3 percent in 2015; while the request rate for additional information almost doubled, according to the US Citizenship and Immigration Services.

政府对H-1B签证的拒签率已增至历史新高:2019年的拒签率为15.2%,与2015年的4.3%相比,增加了三倍;同时,美国公民及移民服务局称,要求补充信息的比例几乎翻了一倍。

Leroe-Muñoz cautioned against such policies' potential threat to the current and future needs of the US workforce in science, technology, engineering and mathematics, also known as STEM.

勒罗·穆尼奥斯警告说,这类政策可能对美国科技、技术、工程和数学领域(也称为STEM)现在和未来的人才需求造成威胁。

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Skilled needed

需要的技能

"One of the things we have to remember about the innovation economy is that there is a present need to fill tech jobs with skilled tech talent, and we just do not produce enough skilled tech workers here in the US to fill all of those roles," he said. "That's why we need skilled immigration to help us fill those roles today."

“关于创新型经济,必须记住一点,目前我们需要先进科技人才来填补技术工作岗位,但美国本身并没有拥有足够多的技术人才来填补这些岗位,”他说,“这是为什么我们现在需要技术移民来帮助我们补充岗位的原因。”

The 2019 annual STEM survey by Emerson, a Missouri-based technology and engineering company, shows that only 39 percent of Americans have felt encouraged to pursue STEM careers as industries continue to report they cannot find individuals with the skills required for today's advanced workplaces.

成立于密苏里州技术与工程领域的艾默生电气公司,其进行的2019年年度STEM调研显示,尽管STEM行业一直宣称他们无法找到达到当今高级工作岗位要求技能的人员,但仅有39%的美国人感觉受到从事这些行业工作的鼓励。

"What worries us is the fraction of the workforce devoted to science and engineering will decline… and that's the case that's going out to 2050," said Arthur Bienenstock, co-chair of American Academy of Arts and Sciences' Committee on International Scientific Partnerships, at a recent lecture at Stanford University.

“让我们担心的是,投身于科学和工程领域的劳动力比例将会下降...甚至这种情况会一直持续到2050年,”美国艺术与科学院国际科学合作委员会联合主席亚瑟·比嫩斯托克在斯坦福大学近期的一次演讲中说道。

In 2015, US citizens and permanent residents got only 45 percent of the doctorates in engineering, and 55 percent went to people who were temporary visa holders, and similarly, in mathematics and computer science, the majority of the doctorates were obtained by foreign students, said Bienenstock.

比嫩斯托克说,2015年美国的工程博士中仅有45%是美国公民和永久居民,另外55%是临时签证持有者;同样,数学和计算机科学领域也面临这个问题,绝大部分的博士学位是由留学生获得的。

Foreign students represent a critical part of the US science and technology workforce, and it's especially true for Chinese students in the STEM areas, he said.

他说,留学生是美国科技人才中关键组成部分,特别是STEM领域中的中国学生。

But due to so-called national security concerns, the Trump administration has imposed restrictions on Chinese students, including reducing the validity of visas for Chinese students and scholars in certain "sensitive" fields. The restrictions have caused widely reported visa delays and denials and prolonged visa checks for Chinese students.

但是出于所谓的对国家安全的担忧,特朗普政府对中国留学生进行了限制,包括缩短进修某些“敏感”专业的中国学生和学者的签证有效期。这些限制还造成了中国学生大范围的签证审批迟缓和拒签, 同时也延长了签证审查周期。

"When you start to fiddle with graduate education, you're starting to fiddle critically with the US science and technology workforce," said Bienenstock.

比嫩斯托克说:“当你开始操控高等教育时,其实你是在开始严重地玩弄美国科技人才。”

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