长江保护已初见成效
Yangtze protection efforts bear fruit
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2020-01-15 22:19
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By HOU LIQIANG in Xianning, Hubei and LIU KUN in Wuhan | China Daily | Updated: 2020-01-06 03:43 

湖北咸宁侯立强;武汉刘坤/中国日报 更新时间: 2020-01-06 03:43 

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Removal of fish farms, other measures show marked success in Xiliang Lake

移除养鱼场等措施已经在西凉湖取得了显著成效。

As the weather turned cold, most plants near Xiliang Lake withered. Little green remained around the fog-shrouded body of water in Xianning, Hubei province, in the Yangtze River Basin.

西凉湖位于长江流域的湖北省咸宁市。随着天气变冷,西凉湖附近的大部分植物都枯萎了,浓雾笼罩的西凉湖周围几乎看不到什么绿色植物。

But if you gaze into the water, you might see a different scenario. Aquatic plants cover almost every inch of the lake's bottom at depths averaging about 2 meters. Their vivid green color can be seen easily despite the poor visibility brought by the clouds.

但如果你往湖水里看,你可能会看到不一样的场景。湖底几乎长满了水生植物,这些植物的平均生长高度约为2米。受云层影响,能见度很低,但仍然可以很容易地看到湖中植物鲜艳的绿色。

About two years ago, however, what could be seen stood in stark contrast to the current view.

然而,两年前所看到的景象与今天所看到的截然不同。

"Two-thirds of the lake was covered with net cages for fish farming," said Zuo Zhiguo, head of the lake's management and law enforcement bureau. The water was so dirty it looked like tung oil, which is yellowish. And the water stank, he recalled.

西凉湖管理执法局局长左志国说:“以前,湖区的三分之二用于网箱养鱼”。他回忆道,那时候的湖水又脏又臭,看起来黄黄的,就像是桐油。

The turning point for the lake's environment came in January 2016, when President Xi Jinping presided over a national conference in Chongqing about the Yangtze River Economic Belt. Xi said concerted efforts should be undertaken to protect the Yangtze, the country's longest waterway, and excessive development of the river should be banned.

2016年1月湖泊的环境开始改善,当时习近平主席在重庆主持召开了关于长江经济带的全国会议。主席说,我们应该共同努力,保护长江-中国最长的河流,禁止河流的过度开发。

Zuo said an action plan was developed to remove all the net cages in the 80-square-kilometer Xiliang Lake by the end of 2016, and work was completed by April the following year.

左局长说,一项保护行动计划已经制定出来,2016年底开始着手清除西凉湖80平方公里湖区内的所有养育网箱,这项工作在2017年4月完成。

To restore the lake after removing the net cages, Zuo said local authorities followed the principle of letting nature restore itself, which was included in an address delivered by Xi at the 19th National Congress of the Communist Party of China in October 2017.

养鱼网箱拆除后,左局长说当地政府遵循了自然恢复的原则。2017年10月,习近平主席在中国共产党第十九次全国代表大会上的讲话中提到该原则。

Fishing was banned in April 2018, and the bureau has strengthened law enforcement to crack down on illegal exploitation of lake resources, Zuo added.

左局长补充说,2018年4月,西凉湖禁渔,执法管理局加强执法力度,打击非法利用湖泊资源的行为。

Since 2018, the bureau has discovered 168 violations involving electrofishing, gathering freshwater snails and picking aquatic plants. Twenty-one people received criminal punishments of up to half a year in prison, he said.

自2018年以来,湖区管理局已经发现了168起涉及电捕鱼、采捕淡水蜗牛和采摘水生植物的违法行为。左局长说,涉案的21人受到刑事处罚,监禁半年以上。

In addition to intensifying patrols, employees of the bureau advertise the regulations designed to protect the lake, he added.

左局长补充说,除了加强巡逻外,该局的工作人员还宣传了湖区保护的相关规定。

Zuo said the work has yielded good results. Before the net cages were removed, the quality of water in the lake had remained below Grade IV, the second-lowest in the country's five-tier water quality system. Currently, 65 percent of the lake has water above Grade III.

左说,这项工作取得了良好的成果。在网箱被拆除之前,湖水水质一直低于四级(四级水质中国五级水质系统中排名倒数第二)。目前,65%的湖水水质达到三级以上。

Instead of the net cages, visitors can now observe birds by the hundreds over the lake.

现在,湖面上已看不见养鱼网箱,游客们可以看到湖面上成百上千的鸟儿。

Honghu Lake in Jingzhou, Hubei, has also improved significantly, as local authorities have returned reclaimed land to the 414-square-kilometer lake and have forbidden fish farming.

湖北荆州市的洪湖也有了显著的改善,当地政府已将填湖造地的土地退还给414平方公里的洪湖,并禁止养鱼。

At the turn of the new millennium, 90 percent of the lakes natural wetlands had been degraded by faming activities. While some areas were being used as farmland, others were occupied by net cages for fish farming, recalled Zhu Junhua, administrative head of the Honghu Wetland Nature Reserve.

在新千年之交,90%的湖泊与天然湿地因垦荒而退化。洪湖湿地自然保护区行政主管朱俊华(音)回忆说,有些地方被开垦为农田,有些地方用来进行网箱养鱼。

As of the end of 2018, more than 15,800 hectares of farmland and fish farms had been returned to the lake. With a significant decrease of human activity, the lake has seen rapid growth of aquatic plants and a marked increase in birds, he said.

截至2018年底,已有超过1.58万公顷的农田和养鱼场还湖。他说,随着人类活动的显著减少,洪湖的水生植物快速生长,鸟类显著增加。

"Areas with lotus increased by more than 5,000 hectares, and 20 percent of the lake bottom is now covered by plants," he said, adding that water quality in key areas of the lake had improved to Grade III. Previously, some areas of the lake had water even worse than the lowest category, Grade V.

他说:“荷花种植面积增加了5000多公顷,20%的湖底被植物覆盖。”他还补充说,湖泊关键区域的水质已经提高到三级。此前,一些地区的湖水水质甚至低于五级。

The lake was once visited by merely several thousands of migrant birds annually. So far this winter, it has received more than 100,000, he said.

他说:“以前的时候,每年只有几千只候鸟光顾该湖,今年冬天,目前为止已经有十万多只鸟儿来到该湖。

"The lake was so beautiful when I was a little boy. There were lotuses everywhere. ... You could even drink lake water directly," local resident Zhang Shengyuan, 61, said.

61岁的当地居民张生元说:“我还是个小男孩的时候,这个湖非常美丽,湖面满是荷花。你甚至可以直接喝湖里的水。”

"Though it will take time to see the lake return to what it was in my memory, it is beginning to come back," Zhang said.

张说:“虽然湖水恢复到我记忆中的样子还需要一段时间,但它已经开始恢复了。”

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