斯里兰卡之旅:旅游业
Travels in Sri Lanka: The Tourist Trade
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2020-01-05 21:58
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This post is also available in: Chinese (Simplified), Dutch, German, Italian, Polish

这篇文章也有中文(简体)、荷兰文、德文、意大利文、波兰文版

Sri Lanka has a fascinating history with one of the first written references to the island made in the ancient Indian epic Ramayana, which mentions how Lanka was created by the divine sculptor for the Lord of Wealth. The first recorded kingdom, the Anuradhapura Kingdom, was established in 380 BC. Buddhism arrived in the country around 250 BC and continues to be the dominant religion, affecting many areas of life in Sri Lanka today. I recently visited the country again and, as always, was impressed with its beauty, its dedication to the environment and its friendly people. I encourage travelers to check out Sri Lanka, which has much to offer tourists including warm weather, expansive beaches, and an interesting heritage with many cultural attractions. My team and I weren't there to simply soak up the sun and sights—we toured the country with an eye on potential investment opportunities. In this first part of a two-part blog, I explore the country, examine the infrastructure and talk to people on the ground—and in the air.

斯里兰卡历史悠久,令人神往,古印度史诗《罗摩传》是最早描述该岛的文献之一,书中提到神圣的雕塑家如何以财神的名义创造兰卡。阿奴拉达普勒王国是最早有记录的王国,始建于公元前380 年。大约在公元前250年,佛教传入该国并一直作为主流宗教,如今影响着斯里兰卡生活的方方面面。近期我重游此国,并一如既往地被其美丽的风景、优雅的环境及友好的居民打动。我鼓励游客到斯里兰卡游玩,游客可在此尽情享受,包括温和的天气、广阔的海滩以及有趣且极具吸引力的文化遗产。我和我的团队并非只为享受阳光浴及美景,而是在该国旅行的过程中寻找潜在投资机会。这篇博客分两部分,第一部分介绍我如何通过陆路及飞机方式探索该国,并考察基础设施以及与人进行交流。

To Colombo and Back

往返科伦坡

We first arrived in Colombo, the seaside capital of Sri Lanka, but stayed only one night, as we had to depart the next morning for Trincomalee by way of a Cessna single-engine plane. Finding the exact location of the small airport adjacent to the new international airport was a problem—our takeoff point was a military airfield down the road—but after a few frantic phone calls to find the airport we were on our way. I expected a bumpy ride on the small plane, but the pilots avoided the clouds and the plane was low enough for us to get a wonderful view of the countryside. The plane stopped at Sigiriya to drop off four Spanish tourists before proceeding on to Trincomalee.

我们首先抵达斯里兰卡位于海边的首都科伦坡,但由于次日早上必须乘塞斯纳单引擎飞机飞往亭可马里,所以我们只在那里停留了一个晚上。我们在一个毗邻新国际机场的小型军用机场起飞,刚开始寻找它的具体/位置时遇到了一点问题,不过后来打了几通求助电话后终于找到了。我以为小型飞机会颠簸,但飞行员避开云层并且飞机开得够低,让我们可以领略到乡村美景。飞机在锡吉里耶放下四位西班牙旅客,随后继续飞往亭可马里。

At Trincomalee, we noticed a number of beach resorts catering to budget travelers and local tourists on company-sponsored tours. We thought the tourist potential for that part of the country was excellent because of its long beaches. While Sri Lanka's population is 21 million, in 2014 a record 1.5 million tourists arrived in the country,1  so tourism is a major source of income. After overseas workers' remittances and garment exports, tourism is Sri Lanka's third-largest earner of foreign exchange.2

我们发现亭可马里有很多海滩度假地,非常适合节约型游客和公司资助的当地游客。由于海岸线足够长,该国这部分地区的潜在游客应该非常多。虽然斯里兰卡人口只有2,100万,但二零一四年的游客入境记录为150万,[1]因此旅游业成为该国主要收入来源。继海外劳工汇款及服装出口后,旅游业成为斯里兰卡第三大外汇收入行业。[2]

SriLanka_Yogurt_small

The next day we departed by car, heading across the country back to Colombo, giving us the opportunity to check out the road conditions. The road turned out to be very good—a smooth, two-lane highway. We stopped along the route to indulge in some ox milk yogurt with treacle, a form of honey made from coconut juice (a local specialty). It was a good example of how low-income people supplement their farming income on the tourist trade. As we drove on, our driver said that during the long war with the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) that finally ended in 2009, the LTTE remotely set and detonated many bombs along the road in order to kill government troops. We noticed roofless houses where the military found the LTTE and bombed them. Along the way we also saw large reservoirs created under kings of past eras to irrigate large tracts of land for sugar cane and rice. In the town of Matale, we noticed large and opulent homes. In the middle of the town stood a very elaborate Hindu temple done in a riot of colors with hundreds of statutes. The town had become rich from the spice trade, particularly in cinnamon. Although the majority of the country's citizens subscribe to the Buddhist faith, there are a significant number of Hindus and Muslims in addition to small clusters of Christians.

第二天我们乘车离开,横跨该国返回科伦坡,从而有机会考察道路情况。结果发现路况非常好,是平整的双车道。途中我们停下来品尝一些用椰子汁制成的当地特产蜜糖酸奶。这是低收入居民利用旅游业补充农业收入的一个很好的例子。汽车继续前行,司机告诉我们,在与泰米尔伊拉姆猛虎解放组织(猛虎组织)的漫长战争中,猛虎组织沿路放置并且引爆很多炸弹杀死政府军队,战争直至二零零九年才结束。我们发现一些没有屋顶的房子,那是军队发现猛虎组织后将其炸毁造成的。沿途我们还看到历代国王建造的大型水库,用来灌溉大片甘蔗和水稻田。在马特莱镇,我们看到富丽堂皇的民宅。城镇中央有一座异常精致的印度寺庙,色彩绚丽,存有数百卷经书。这座城镇因香料贸易(尤其是肉桂)而富裕起来。虽然这个国家大部分人信仰佛教,但仍有大量印度教徒、穆斯/林及少数基督教徒。

The drive from Trincomalee to Sigiriya took two hours. Sigiriya (Lion Rock) is an amazing ancient palace on a massive rock column about 200 meters high located in the center of the country. The gardens are particularly important and are among the oldest landscaped gardens in the world.

从亭可马里驱车到锡吉里耶需要两小时。锡吉里耶(狮子岩)是一座神奇的古殿,坐落在国家的中心位置,由大量约200米高的岩柱支撑。这里的园林尤为重要,属于世界上最古老的园林。

According to legend, in 477 AD, King Kasyapa selected the site for his new capital and built his palace on the top of the rock, decorating its sides with colorful frescos of dancing ladies and carving out pools on the top to gather and store water. Halfway up the side of the rock he built a gateway in the form of a giant lion. It is reputed to be one of the best preserved examples of ancient urban planning and is the most visited historic site in Sri Lanka. It is said that Kasyapa murdered his father and usurped the throne from the rightful heir, his brother Mugalan. Preparing for the inevitable return of his brother, Kasyapa built the palace on the summit, which seemed impregnable. But when the final battle took place on the plains below, Kasyapa's elephant took a turn that looked to his army like he was retreating, and this led to his army abandoning him. Too proud to surrender, he committed sui/cide by falling on his sword, according to legend.

传说在公元477年,卡西雅伯国王将此作为新首都,随后在巨石顶部建造宫殿,宫殿周边刻上翩翩起舞的女人壁画,并在顶部凿建水池用来集水和蓄水。卡西雅伯在巨石半山腰建立一座巨狮形的大门。这里被誉为斯里兰卡保存最好的古代规划城镇,也是接纳旅客最多的历史遗址。据说卡西雅伯杀害自己的父亲,并从合法继承人即他的兄弟木伽蓝手上夺取王位。为应对兄弟的报复,他在巨石顶建造看似固若金汤的宫殿。但最后一役转至平地时,卡西雅伯的大象转了一圈,军队认为国王要撤退从而遗弃他。传说他心高气傲,不愿投降,最后举剑自刎。

1115_SriLankaTemple_small

It was an hour's drive from Sigiriya to the Dambulla Buddha caves (and the Golden Temple of Dambulla). This was an important stop since it underlined the significance of Buddhism in the country, certainly as evidenced by the numerous pilgrims, dressed in white and holding flowers, who climbed 160 meters of stairs with us to reach the caves and pay their respects to the 153 Buddha statues and exquisite paintings related to Gautama Buddha's life.

从锡吉里耶到丹布勒佛窟(以及丹布勒金寺)需要一个小时车程。这里是意义非凡的地方,因为它彰显佛教在该国的重要性,当然这并非毫无根据,从众多身着白衣,手持鲜花的朝圣者就可见一斑,他们与我们一起攀登160米高阶梯抵达佛窟,向153座佛像及与乔达摩佛陀生平相关的精美画作表达他们的敬意。

Our trip onward from Dambulla to Kandy, the former capital and second-largest city after Colombo, took about two hours. High up in the middle of the country, Kandy is known by film buffs as the location where parts of the 1984 film Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom were filmed, but it also has an interesting ancient history. A major tourist stop, its main attraction is the Temple of the Tooth Relic, one of the most sacred places of worship in the Buddhist world. Between 1815 and 1948, Kandy was a British colonial city and traces of British influence can clearly be seen all over, most particularly in a large church right next to the palace holding the Tooth Relic. Also there was a beautiful building in the town housing the Salvation Army. The city was the last stronghold of the final Sri Lankan king and repelled invasions by the Portuguese and Dutch up until the 1800s until the British finally succeeded in 1815. After buying a ticket and taking off our shoes, we visited the Royal Palace and the impressive gold- and marble-encrusted temple inside the fortress wall. Inside the temple, many people were sitting on the floor listening to Buddhist priests chanting and praying. Interestingly, inside the temple were lithographs on the walls depicting various British colonial governors visiting the temple and paying respects to Buddhist monks. After visiting the temple, as we walked away toward the city's center, I noticed a statue depicting a Sinhalese nationalist holding high a Sri Lanka flag and dragging a British flag on the ground, a monument to those who fought against the British colonial masters.

我们离开丹布勒后约两个小时到达康堤,康堤是斯里兰卡的前首都以及继科伦坡后的第二大城市。俯瞰之下,康堤位于斯里兰卡的中心,由于一九八四年的电影《夺宝奇兵2之魔域奇兵》部分拍摄于此地,康堤被电影爱好者所熟知,而且康堤还拥有有趣的古老历史。作为一个重要的旅游胜地,康堤主要景点是佛牙寺,为佛教徒最神圣的朝圣地之一。一八一五年至一九四八年间,康堤是英国的殖民城市,因此,英国对康堤留下的印记仍随处清晰可见,尤其是紧挨着装有佛牙舍利佛殿的一个大教堂。同时,在康堤市区有曾住过救世军的精美建筑。直至19世纪成功击退葡萄牙和荷兰入侵及一八一五年英国成功占领康堤前,康堤是斯里兰卡最后一任国王的最后根据地。买过票脱下鞋后开始参观皇家宫殿,围墙内金碧辉煌的大理石寺庙让我们印象深刻。寺庙里很多人席地而坐听僧人念经及祷告。有趣的是,寺庙的墙上有很多石版画,描绘了多个英国殖民统治者参观寺庙并朝拜佛教僧侣的场景。参观完寺庙后我们前往市中心,沿途我发现一个雕塑,描绘一个僧伽罗人民族主义者一手高举斯里兰卡国旗,一手将英国国旗拽到地上,其意义是为了纪念那些与英国殖民统治者斗争的人民。

Many years ago on a prior visit to the country, I witnessed the impressive processions during the “Festival of the Sacred Tooth,” where the tooth relic of the Buddha is carried on a richly decorated elephant and taken on a grand procession through the city streets, led by traditional dancers and drummers. On this visit, we toured the shopping district, including a rather new mall where—in contrast to my prior visit to the area—a rock band was playing for the entertainment of shoppers.

多年前我曾到过康堤,亲眼见证“佛牙节”期间令人难忘的游/行,佛牙放在一头装扮华丽的大象的背上,庞大的游/行队伍由身着传统服饰的舞蹈者和鼓手带领着巡游全城。此次参观我们参观了购物区,其中包括一个相对较新的商场,但与上次参观有所不同的是,一支摇滚乐队正在为购物者进行娱乐表演。

Our team proceeded from Kandy to Negombo on the west coast. The roads were good, but quite crowded. Negombo is called “Little Rome” because the majority of the population is Roman Catholic, as evidenced by the many Roman Catholic churches. Many of the churches are in the highly ornate Portuguese style, reflecting past Portuguese use of the port for the cinnamon trade. Today, it is a beach resort town of about 120,000 people conveniently only 35 kilometers north of Colombo and near the international airport. There are some nice beach hotels along the long sandy beaches and the usual array of tourist shops on the crowded main street. We had dinner at one of the beach hotels and proceeded on to Colombo. We were encouraged to see lively conversations and commerce taking place in Negombo—and even the congestion—which to us is a sign of growth and opportunity taking place in the country at large.

我们团队离开康堤前往西海岸的尼干布。道路设施完善,但却相当拥挤。尼干布有“小罗马”之称,因为其大部分人口是罗马天主教徒,这从众多罗马天主教堂可以看出。大多数教堂是装饰华丽的葡萄牙风格,可见过去葡萄牙人利用港口进行肉桂贸易。如今,尼布干成为拥有12万人口的海滨度假胜地,而且交通便利,距离科伦坡以北仅35公里而且毗邻国际机场。漫长的沙滩海岸沿途有一些漂亮的海滩酒店,一排排旅游商店坐落于拥挤的主街道上。我们在一家海滨酒店吃晚餐后继续前往科伦坡。我们很高兴看到尼布干充满活力并开展商业活动,甚至是交通拥堵,这对我们来说是整个国家增长和出现机会的信号。

Environmentally minded tourists in particular will find much to like about Sri Lanka, as Maithripala Sirisena, the country's president, was formerly an environment minister and has taken a personal interest in the subject. Killing wildlife is banned in Sri Lanka, and the country has a number of nature reserves. As we traveled through the center of the country, we saw not only a number of bird species, but also elephants along the road. In their search for food, elephants can often be quite destructive, plowing down fields and even homes. However, the people respect these majestic creatures, so they are not killed. Companies, however, have been the target of environmental violation crackdowns. We learned that operations at one multinational beverage company's facility were temporarily halted over suspected waste disposal violations. Some businesses looking to operate in the country may find some of the regulations to be a bit cumbersome, and they may need to adjust. For example, environmental impact assessments may delay certain developers' projects.

具环保意识的旅游者会特别钟情于斯里兰卡,因为国家主席迈特里帕拉·西里塞纳(Maithripala Sirisena)曾任环境部长,并且特别关注环境。斯里兰卡禁止猎杀野生动物,而且该国建有多处自然保护区。我们穿过该国的中心时,不仅看到各种鸟类,还看到大象在路上行走。大象在觅食时常常带有破坏性,它们会踩踏田地甚至是房屋,但当地人却尊重这些威严的动物,从而令其免遭杀害。然而,企业一直是环境违规的惩罚目标。我们了解到,一家跨国饮料公司的工厂因涉嫌违反废物处理规定而暂时停止营运。想要在斯里兰卡经营的部分企业可能会发现该国的监管条例较为繁琐,或许这些企业需要因地制宜。例如,环境影响评估有可能会拖延部分开发者的项目。

In our view, Sri Lanka should continue to focus on luring international tourists, along with big global brands in hotels, leisure and entertainment. More entertainment and integrated resorts could draw not only eco-minded tourists and budget travelers, but also higher-spending tourists in larger numbers, particularly from China and India.

我们认为,斯里兰卡应该继续重点吸引国际游客,以及创建酒店、休闲及娱乐行业的国际大品牌。更多的娱乐设施以及综合旅游胜地不仅可以吸引环境型游客和节俭型游客,还将吸引消费较高的大型旅游团,尤其是来自中国和印度的旅游团。

In part two of my tour of Sri Lanka, I'll explore the political climate—and the climate for potential investors.

在斯里兰卡之旅第二部分,我将为潜在投资者探察政治氛围以及投资氛围。

Comments, opinions and analyses are for informational purposes only and should not be considered individual investment advice or recommendations to invest in any security or to adopt any investment strategy. Because market and economic conditions are subject to rapid change, comments, opinions and analyses are rendered as of the date of the posting and may change without notice. The material is not intended as a complete analysis of every material fact regarding any country, region, market, industry, investment or strategy.

评论、意见及分析仅供参考之用,不应被视为个人的投资建议或推荐投资于任何证券或采取任何投资策略的建议。由于市场和经济状况可能出现急剧变化,评论、意见和分析都以公布日期当日为准,若有更改恕不另行通知。本文材料不是针对任何国家、地区、市场、行业、投资或策略的所有重大事实的全面分析。

Important Legal Information

重要的法律信息

This material is intended to be of general interest only and should not be construed as individual investment advice or a recommendation or solicitation to buy, sell or hold any security or to adopt any investment strategy. It does not constitute legal or tax advice. The companies and case studies shown herein are used solely for illustrative purposes; any investment may or may not be currently held by any portfolio advised by Franklin Templeton Investments.

本文只供一般性参考,不应被视为个人投资建议,或推荐投资者购买、出售、持有任何证券及采纳任何投资策略的建议或招揽,不构成法律或税务咨询。本文所列的公司和案例研究仅供说明;富兰克林邓普顿(Franklin Templeton)所建议的任何投资组合目前尚未确认是否存在投入。

The opinions are intended solely to provide insight into how securities are analyzed. The information provided is not a recommendation or individual investment advice for any particular security, strategy, or investment product and is not an indication of the trading intent of any Franklin Templeton managed portfolio. This is not a complete analysis of every material fact regarding any industry, security or investment and should not be viewed as an investment recommendation. This is intended to provide insight into the portfolio selection and research process. Factual statements are taken from sources considered reliable but have not been independently verified for completeness or accuracy. These opinions may not be relied upon as investment advice or as an offer for any particular security. Past performance does not guarantee future results.

这些意见仅仅是为人们提供有关证券的分析方法参考。本文所提供的信息并非针对任何特定证券、策略或投资产品的推荐或个人投资建议,富兰克林邓普顿管理团队不对任何有关投资组合的交易意图做出指示本博文不是针对任何行业、证券或投资的所有重大事实的全面分析,不作投资建议参考。于此提供的某些评论旨在提供对投资组合选择和研究过程的的见解。本文所载之资料属可靠的公开来源,但未经独立验证且并不保证其完整性和准确性。这些意见不得作为投资建议或任何特定证券的要约。过往表现不能预示或保证其未来表现。

The views expressed are those of the investment manager and the comments, opinions and analyses are rendered as at publication date and may change without notice. The information provided in this material is not intended as a complete analysis of every material fact regarding any country, region or market.

评论、意见及分析均为投资经理的个人观点,并以公布日期当日为准,若有更改恕不另行通知。本文提供的信息不是针对任何国家、地区或市场的所有重大事实的全面分析。

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What Are the Risks?

有何风险?

All investments involve risks, including the possible loss of principal. Investments in foreign securities involve special risks including currency fluctuations, economic instability and political developments. Investments in emerging markets, of which frontier markets are a subset, involve heightened risks related to the same factors, in addition to those associated with these markets' smaller size, lesser liquidity and lack of established legal, political, business and social frameworks to support securities markets. Because these frameworks are typically even less developed in frontier markets, as well as various factors including the increased potential for extreme price volatility, illiquidity, trade barriers and exchange controls, the risks associated with emerging markets are magnified in frontier markets. Stock prices fluctuate, sometimes rapidly and dramatically, due to factors affecting individual companies, particular industries or sectors, or general market conditions.

所有投资均涉及风险,包括可能损失本金。外国证券投资涉及特别风险,包括汇率波动、经济不稳定和政治发展。在新兴市场(包括前沿市场)国家的投资涉及相同因素的较高风险,以及与这些市场的规模较小、流动性较低、并缺乏既定的法律、政治、商业和社会的框架以支持证券市场的相关风险。因为前沿市场的这些框架往往更欠发达,以及各种因素,包括极端价格波动、流动性不足、贸易壁垒和外汇管制,潜在的与新兴市场相关的风险在前沿市场尤为突出。在影响个别公司、特定行业或部门或一般市场状况的因素作用下,股票价格会表现出极大的不稳定性。

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有意从富兰克林邓普顿 (Franklin Templeton) 的邮件中了解更多信息,请订阅 “新兴市场的投资冒险” (Investment Adventures in Emerging Markets) 博客。

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有意及时投资的话,请在推特上关注 @FTI_emerging和LinkedIn。

The technology industry can be significantly affected by obsolescence of existing technology, short product cycles, falling prices and profits, competition from new market entrants as well as general economic conditions. The technology sector has historically been volatile due to the rapid pace of product change and development within the sector.

现有技术过时、产品周期短、价格和利润下降、市场新进入者带来的竞争以及一般的经济条件都可能对技术产业产生重大影响。由于科技产品更新换代周期较短,该行业一直以来面临着巨大/波动。

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1. Source: Sri Lanka Tourism Development Authority, 2014 data.

[1] 资料来源:斯里兰卡旅游发展局,二零一四年数据。

2. Source: Ibid.

[2] 同上。

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