对国际空间站的研究表明,太空飞行目前还存在未知风险
Spaceflights Can Carry Yet Unknown Risk, Study on ISS Reveals
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2020-01-08 13:30
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火星译客

Although researchers have been preparing for future long missions to Mars or the Moon for years, there are still lacunes in aerospace medicine and psychology, namely the impact that journeys far away from Earth could have on a human. Dr Serena Auñón-Chancellor, who is also an astronaut, might have helped to shed some light on this terra incognito.

虽然研究人员多年来一直在为将来长期性的火星或月球飞行任务做准备,但在航空医学和心理学方面的研究还存在着空白。那就是,远离地球飞行对人的影响。Serena Auñón-Chancellor博士兼宇航员或许有助于阐明这一未知领域。

Member of NASA's Astronaut Corps and Clinical Associate Professor of Medicine Serena Auñón-Chancellor from the LSU Health New Orleans School of Medicine and a team of researchers have revealed previously unknown risks for participants of long-duration space travels, Phys.org reports. According to their study paper, published in the New England Journal of Medicine, an astronaut, working on the International Space Station (ISS) was discovered to have a clot in the internal jugular vein, or internal jugular venous thrombosis, which is said to be the result of stagnant blood flow.

据Phys.org 网站报道,美国国家航空航天局宇航员队成员、路易斯安那州立大学新奥尔良健康医学院临床医学副教授Serena Auñón-Chancellor 和一个研究团队揭示了之前所未知的、长期参与太空飞行者所面临的风险。他们发表在《新英格兰医学》杂志上的一篇论文称,发现一名在国际空间站工作的宇航员颈静脉有血栓,而颈静脉血栓据说是由于血流停滞造成的。

"These new findings demonstrate that the human body still surprises us in space. We still haven't learned everything about Aerospace Medicine or Space Physiology", the astronaut/doctor said.

这些新发现表明,人类的身体即便在太空中也仍然会发生令人意外的情况。这位博士宇航员说:“我们对航空医学或太空生理学还只是一知半解。”

As the report points out, nobody in the astronaut's family is known to have had such blood clots. This ISS crew member had also not complained about headaches or florid complexion, while these are common in zero-gravity.

该报告指出,并未发现这位宇航员有颈静脉血栓家族史。而且,这位国际空间站工作人员自述没有出现过头痛或面色发红的情况,而这些情况在零重力状态下是常见现象。

The astronaut was one of 11 crew members who took part in the study, which looked into the internal the state of their jugular veins, namely its structure and function, as all of them have to endure headward shifts of blood and other fluids.

空间站有11名工作人员参与了该项研究,这名宇航员就是其中之一。该研究检查颈静脉的内部状况,即颈静脉的结构和功能,因为这11个人都不得不忍受血液及其它体液向头部的流动。

During the mission, they underwent ultrasound examinations in different positions under a special schedule. At one of these, carried out two months after their trip started, the astronaut was suspected of having a blood clot in the left internal jugular vein thrombosis, which was later confirmed during a follow-up procedure.

执行飞行任务期间,这些人在不同位置、按照专门的日程接受超声检查。飞行开始两个月后的一次检查发现,疑似这名宇航员的左颈内静脉出现了血栓,而之后对其进行的一次手术证实了这一点。

International Space Station

As the report points out, it was the first time that NASA had registered such a condition, which prompted specialists to weigh the risks of anticoagulation therapy in space conditions or the clot blocking a vessel, which could kill a person. Additional difficulties were linked to challenges of using syringes in microgravity and the lack of anticoagulation-reversal agents, which should be paired with a blood thinner available on board.

该报告指出,由于这一疾病被美国国家航空航天局登记在案尚属首次,专家们不得不考虑在太空条件下做抗凝血治疗或血栓堵塞血管的致命风险。此外,在微重力环境下使用注射器,以及缺少要和可用于飞行器上的血液稀释剂配套使用的抗凝血逆转剂,也是需要解决的难题。

Nevertheless, the object of the study started the injections with the available blood-thinner enoxaparin, while anticoagulation-reversing drugs were later sent by a supply spacecraft along with an oral medication. Although the therapy resulted in the reduction of the clot, even 90 days of treatment could not restore the spontaneous blood flow. So, the astronaut took the medication until his return to Earth.

虽然困难重重,但还是办到了。该研究对象体内开始注入可用的血液稀释剂——依诺肝素,而抗凝血逆转药物则在此之后由一艘补给飞船送达,船上还附带了口服药物。虽然这次治疗减少了该宇航员颈静脉内的血栓,但长达90天的治疗却未能使其血液的自然流动恢复正常。因此,该宇航员也一直吃着药,直到返回地球。

The ultrasound following the return revealed that there was still a flattened clot, which was gone, however, 10 days after landing. Even six months after landing, the astronaut showed no symptoms. However, the newly-discovered risks still need further research, which could be critical for future travellers to Mars or other long missions.

这名宇航员返回地球后,随即又做了一次超声检查。检查结果表明,他的体内还存在着一块扁平的血栓。但是过了10天后,这块血栓却消失了。甚至半年以后,这名宇航员也仍未出现任何症状。虽然这名宇航员已恢复正常,但对这一新发现的疾病风险还需要做进一步研究,这对将来飞往火星或进行其它长时间太空飞行的宇航员至关重要。

"The biggest question that remains is how would we deal with this on an exploration class mission to Mars? How would we prepare ourselves medically? More research must be performed to further elucidate clot formation in this environment and possible countermeasures", she explained.

Serena Auñón-Chancellor博士解说道:“最大的问题依然没有解决。那就是:我们该如何在火星探测之行中应对这种状况?我们在医药方面该如何准备?还需要做更多的研究,以进一步阐明血栓在太空环境下的形成机制以及可能的应对措施。”

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