快速消费品(FMCG)
Fast-Moving Consumer Goods (FMCG)
797字
2020-01-06 14:45
53阅读
火星译客

What Are Fast-Moving Consumer Goods (FMCG)? 

什么是快速消费品(FMCG)?

Fast-moving consumer goods are products that sell quickly at relatively low cost. These goods are also called consumer packaged goods.

快速消费品是指成本相对较低、销售速度较快的产品,也被称为包装消费品。

FMCGs have a short shelf life because of high consumer demand (e.g., soft drinks and confections) or because they are perishable (e.g., meat, dairy products, and baked goods). These goods are purchased frequently, are consumed rapidly, are priced low, and are sold in large quantities. They also have a high turnover when they're on the shelf at the store.

由于消费者需求高(例如软饮和糖果)或者产品易腐烂(例如肉类、奶制品和烘焙食品),FMCGs的保质期较短。 这些商品被频繁购买,快速消费,价格较低,同时销量巨大。 而且,它们在商店的货架上也有很高的周转率。

Important:Slow-moving consumer goods, which have a longer shelf life and are purchased over time, include items like furniture and appliances.

重要提示:长期消费品具有较长保质期和更长购买时间间隔,包括家具和家用电器等商品。

Understanding Fast-Moving Consumer Goods (FMCG) 

了解快速消费品(FMCG)

Consumer goods are products purchased for consumption by the average consumer. They are divided into three different categories: durable, nondurable goods, and services. Durable goods have a shelf life of three years or more while nondurable goods have a shelf life of less than one year. Fast-moving consumer goods are the largest segment of consumer goods. They fall into the nondurable category, as they are consumed immediately and have a short shelf life.

消费品是指大众消费者购买的用于消费的产品。它们分为三类:耐用品、非耐用品和服务。耐用品的保质期为三年或以上,而非耐用品的保质期小于一年。快速消费品是消费品中最大的部分,因为其消费速度快、使用寿命短,归属于非耐用类别。

Nearly everyone in the world uses fast-moving consumer goods (FMCG) every day. They are the small-scale consumer purchases we make at the produce stand, grocery store, supermarket, and warehouse outlet. Examples include milk, gum, fruit and vegetables, toilet paper, soda, beer, and over-the-counter drugs like aspirin.

全世界几乎每个人每天都在使用快速消费品(FMCG)。它们就是我们在农产品摊位、杂货店、超级市场和仓储式经销店进行小规模采购的商品,比如牛奶、口香糖、果蔬、厕纸、苏打水、啤酒以及阿司匹林等非处方药。

FMCGs account for more than half of all consumer spending, but they tend to be low-involvement purchases. Consumers are more likely to show off a durable good such as a new car or beautifully designed smartphone than a new energy drink they picked up for $2.50 at the convenience store.

FMCGs占消费者所有支出的一半以上,但它们往往属于低度参与购买。与在便利店以$ 2.50的价格购买的新能量饮料相比,消费者更倾向于炫耀他们购买的像新车或设计精美的智能手机这样的耐用商品。

Types of Fast-Moving Consumer Goods 

快速消费品的类型

As mentioned above, fast-moving consumer goods are nondurable goods, or goods that have a short lifespan, and are consumed at a rapid or fast pace.

如上所述,快速消费品是非耐用或者保质期很短的商品,同时消费速度迅速。

FMCGs can be divided into several different categories including:

FMCGs可分为以下几个不同的类别,包括:

  • Processed foods: Cheese products, cereals, and boxed pasta
  • Prepared meals:Ready-to-eat meals
  • Beverages:Bottled water, energy drinks, and juices
  • Baked goods: Cookies, croissants, and bagels
  • Fresh, frozen foods, and dry goods: Fruits, vegetables, frozen peas and carrots, and raisins and nuts
  • Medicines: Aspirin, pain relievers, and other medication that can be purchased without a prescription
  • Cleaning products:Baking soda, oven cleaner, and window and glass cleaner
  • Cosmetics and toiletries: Hair care products, concealers, toothpaste, and soap
  • Office supplies:Pens, pencils, and markers
  • 加工食品:奶酪产品、谷物和盒装面食
  • 即食产品:可食用产品 
  • 饮料:瓶装水、能量饮料和果汁 
  • 烘焙食品:饼干、羊角面包和面包圈 
  • 新鲜食品、冷冻食品和干货:水果、蔬菜、冷冻豌豆和胡萝卜、以及葡萄干和坚果 
  • 药品:阿司匹林,止痛药和其他非处方药品 
  • 清洁产品:小苏打、烤箱清洁剂、窗户和玻璃清洁剂 
  • 化妆品和盥洗用品:护发水、遮瑕膏、牙膏和肥皂
  • 办公用品:笔、铅笔和记号笔

The Fast-Moving Consumer Goods Industry

快速消费品行业

Because fast-moving consumer goods have such a high turnover rate, the market is not only very large, it is also very competitive. Some of the world's largest companies compete for market share in this industry including Dole, Coca-Cola, Unilever, Procter & Gamble, Nestlé, Kellogg's, and General Mills. Companies like these need to focus their efforts on marketing fast-moving consumer goods to entice and attract consumers to buy their products.

由于快速消费品的周转率很高,因此市场不仅很大,竞争还非常激烈。在这个行业中一些争夺市场份额的最大的公司包括有都乐(Dole)、可口可乐(Coca-Cola)、联合利华(Unilever)、宝洁(Procter & Gamble)、雀巢(Nestlé)、家乐氏(Kellogg's)和通用磨坊(General Mills)。像这样的公司需要把精力集中在快消产品的营销推广上,以吸引消费者购买他们的产品。

That's why packaging is a very important factor in the production process. The logistics and distribution systems often require secondary and tertiary packaging to maximize efficiency. The unit pack or primary package is critical for product protection and shelf life, and also provides information and sales incentives to consumers.

因此,包装是生产过程中非常重要的因素。物流和配送体系通常需要二次和三次包装,以使其效率最大化。单元包装或者初级包装对产品保护和保质期至关重要,同时还向消费者提供了相关信息和销售激励措施。

FCMGs are sold in large quantities, so they are considered a reliable source of revenue. This high volume of sales also offsets the low profit margins on individual sales as well.

FCMG的销售量很大,因此被认为是可靠的收入来源,同时如此高的销量也弥补了销售单个商品的低利润率。 
 

As investments, FMCG stocks generally promise low-growth but are safe bets with predictable margins, stable returns, and regular dividends.

作为投资,快速消费品的股票通常是低增长预期,但因其利润率可预测、收入回报稳定以及定期股利,是一种安全的投资项目。

Special Considerations 

特殊注意事项

Fast-Moving Consumer Goods and E-Commerce

快速消费品和电子商务

Shoppers across the globe increasingly purchase things they need online because it offers certain conveniences—from delivering orders right to the door to broad selection and low prices—that brick-and-mortar stores can't.

全球的购物者越来越多地在网上购买他们需要的东西,因为网络购物为他们提供了一些实体店无法提供的便利性(从送货上门到选择广泛和价格低廉)。

The most popular e-commerce categories, not surprisingly, are non-consumable goods—durables and entertainment-related products. The online market for buying groceries and other consumable products is growing, as companies redefine the efficiency of delivery logistics which shorten delivery times. While non-consumable categories may continue to lead consumable products in sheer volume, gains in logistics efficiency have increased the use of e-commerce channels for acquiring FMCGs.

不必惊讶,最受欢迎的电子商务类别是非消耗性商品,即耐用性和娱乐相关产品。 随着企业重新规定了物流配送的效率进而缩短了交付时间,在线购买生活用品和其他消耗品的市场正在扩大。 尽管非消耗品类别可能继续在销量上领先于消耗品,但物流效率的提高已经增加了利用电子商务渠道获得FMCGs的情况。

Key Takeaways

关键要点

  • Fast-moving consumers goods are nondurable products that sell quickly at relatively low cost.
  • FMCGs have low profit margins, but they account for more than half of all consumer spending.
  • Examples of FMDBs include milk, gum, fruit and vegetables, toilet paper, soda, beer, and over-the-counter drugs like aspirin.
  • 快速消费品是非耐用品,它们以相对较低的成本较快地销售出去。 
  • FMCGs的利润率很低,但它们占消费者所有支出的一半以上。 
  • FMDBs包括牛奶、口香糖、果蔬、厕纸、苏打水、啤酒和非处方药(如阿司匹林)等。

When shopping for non-consumable goods where consumers typically have something in mind, there is mostly a one-to-one correlation between online searching and shopping. Consumable products have lower online browse/buy intention than non-consumable ones, but they do boast just as strong browse-to-buy correlations, which may be a factor in their increasing online sales.

当消费者在购买非消耗商品时,他们通常是有想法的,这种购物和在线搜索通常存在一对一的关系。 消耗性产品的在线浏览量/购买意愿低于非消耗品,但它们的浏览与购买确实存在很大的相关性,这可能是其在线销售增长的一个原因。

0 条评论
评论不能为空