科学家警告说,当黑洞吞下流散的恒星时,疯狂的黑洞会变得更加“致命”
Frenzy-Feeding Black Holes Grow Even 'Deadlier' as They Swallow Stray Stars, Scientist Warns
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2020-01-02 20:14
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火星译客

When massive stars run out of fuel and are unable to support their own weight, their husks collapse inwards, compressing their mass into an infinitely small region of space, thus giving birth to what is called a “black hole”.

当大质量恒星耗尽燃料时,无法支撑自己的重量时,它们的外壳向内塌陷,将质量压缩成一个无限小的空间区域,从而产生了所谓的“黑洞”。

Black holes that suck in and swallow wandering celestial bodies grow increasingly hungrier in the process while becoming “more deadly”, a physicist is quoted as saying by the Express.

《快报》援引一位物理学家的话说,在这个过程中,吸入并吞噬游荡天体的黑洞变得越来越饥渴,同时变得“更加致命”。

Alvaro Diez, who is getting his master's degree in particle physics at Warsaw University, Poland, says black holes grow in mass and strength when they feed on stars and stray planets, explaining that when a celestial object falls into the black hole they become one, making the black hole heavier.

正在波兰华沙大学攻读粒子物理硕士学位的阿尔瓦罗-迪兹说,当黑洞以恒星和流浪行星为食时,它们的质量和强度都会增加,他解释说,当一个天体落入黑洞时,会成为黑洞的一部分,使黑洞变得更重。

“The final result is not exactly the sum all both masses before the collision because of losses due to radiation, friction and energy emissions, but it is still noticeable in most cases", says Diez.

迪兹说:“由于辐射、摩擦和能量排放所造成的损失,最终的结果并不一定是碰撞前两种质量的总和,但在大多数情况下,这一结果仍然是显而易见的。”

However, according to the expert, the “strength” of a black hole depends only on its mass, so each time it swallows another object it becomes “bigger, stronger, more deadly".

然而,根据专家的说法,黑洞的“强度”只取决于它的质量,因此每次吞下另一个物体,它就会变得“更大、更强、更致命。”

When a planet or a star is swooped up by the vortex of the black hole, the collision releases a tremendous amount of energy, some of which, between 3 to 42 percent, will be dispersed back into space as a bright flash of light known as tidal disruptions.

当一颗行星或一颗恒星被黑洞的漩涡吞噬时,碰撞会释放出巨大的能量,其中有一些能量,在3%到42%之间,将作为一种被称为潮汐干扰的明亮闪光散播回太空。

The force of these flashes of light depends on the size of the object consumed.

这些闪光的力量取决于所消耗物体的大小。

When a black hole feeds, its so-called event horizon or the Schwarzschild radius expands, defining the physical borders of its size.

当黑洞馈入时,其所谓的视界或 Schwarzschild半径会膨胀,从而定义其大小的物理边界。

Astronomers are able to calculate the size of a black hole – not visible to the naked eye - based on their mass. Describing this process, the black hole expert said:

天文学家能够根据黑洞质量算出黑洞的大小——肉眼看不到。黑洞专家在描述这一过程时说:

“To calculate the parameters after the collision I simply used the best approximations we have for how much of the object's mass is lost as energy during the process and simply added the remaining mass to the original black hole".

“为了计算碰撞后的参数,我简单都使用了我们对无图质量在过程中损失多少所谓能量的最佳近似,并简单地将剩余质量添加到原始黑洞中。”

Diaz, author of the Black Hole Collision Calculator, continued:

黑洞碰撞计算器的作者迪亚兹继续说:

“From that new mass, you use Schwarzschild's equations again to get the new radius – event horizon. To calculate the energy released is very simple since you know how much mass was lost and using Einstein's famous E=mc² you can convert that into energy".

”从新的质量,你再次使用Schwarzschild方程得到新的半径——视界。计算释放出的能量是非常简单的,因为你知道损失了多少质量,并且使用爱因斯坦著名的E=mc²你可以把它转换成能量。

Diez is the author of the Black Hole Collision Calculator for the Omni Calculator project - an online tool helping to calculate the amount of energy released by celestial bodies falling into black holes. The black hole expert also created the Exoplanet Discovery Calculator as a tribute to this year's winners of the Nobel Prize in physics.

Diez 是Omni Calculator项目黑洞计算器的作者,Omni Calculator项目是一个帮助计算天体落入黑洞所释放能量的在线工具。这位黑洞专家还发明了系外行星发现计算器,以此向今年的诺贝尔物理学奖获得者致敬。

The 2019 prize was awarded to Michel Mayor and Didier Queloz's exoplanet discovery.

2019年的奖项颁给了米歇尔-马约尔和迪迪埃-奎洛兹的系外行星发现奖。

The Exoplanet Discovery Calculator was presented as a tool that uses the same calculations - three different exoplanet detection methods – that researchers use to discover new exoplanets.

太阳系外行星发现计算器是一种工具,使用相同的计算方法——三种不同的太阳系外行星探测方法——研究人员用来发现新的太阳系外行星。

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