December 29 in History
2020-01-01 23:40



2002年12月29日 中国电力11家新组建(改组)公司揭牌 

On December 29, 2002, China Power Unveiled 11 Newly Formed (Reorganized) Companies

1998年12月29日 收受贿赂 湖北省原副省长孟庆平被查处 

On December 29, 1998, Former Vice Governor of Hubei Province Meng Qingping Was Investigated for Taking Bribes

1996年12月29日 俄油船断裂 日沿海污染 

On December 29, 1996, the Russian Oil Tanker Broke off and Caused Japan Coastal Pollution

1996年12月29日 危地马拉结束36年的内战签署和平协定 

On December 29, 1996, Guatemala Signed a Peace Agreement Ending 36 Years of Civil War

1993年12月29日 《保护生物多样性公约》成为国际法 

On December 29, 1993, the Convention for the Protection of Biological Diversity Became International Law

1989年12月29日 哈维尔当选捷克共和国首任总统 

On December 29, 1989, Havel Was Elected the First President of the Czech Republic

1985年12月29日 象牙海岸改国名为“科特迪瓦” 

On December 29, 1985, Ivory Coast Changed Its Name to Côte d'Ivoire

1984年12月29日 瑞士建成世界地势最高的地铁 

On December 29, 1984, the World's Highest Metro Was Built in Switzerland

1972年12月29日 我国与贝宁复交 

On December 29, 1972, China and Benin Resumed Diplomatic Relations

1968年12月29日 南京长江大桥全面建成通车 

On December 29, 1968, Nanjing Yangtze River Bridge Was Fully Completed and Opened to Traffic 

1950年12月29日 毛泽东所著《实践论》发表 

On December 29, 1950,Theory of Practice by Mao Zedong Was Published

1932年12月29日 中国民权保障同盟成立 

On December 29, 1932, China League for Civil Rights Was Founded

1928年12月29日 东三省改旗易帜 

On December 29, 1928, the Three Northeast Provinces Changed Their Political Direction

1911年12月29日 孙中山当选为临时大总统 

On December 29, 1911, Sun Yat-sen Was Elected Interim President

1899年12月29日 聂荣臻元帅诞辰 

On December 29, 1899, Marshal Nie Rongzhen Was Born

1885年12月29日 英外相照会清政府欲合并缅甸

On December 29, 1885, the British Foreign Minister Sent a Diplomatic Note to the Qing Government to Merge Burma

2002年12月29日 中国电力11家新组建(改组)公司揭牌 

On December 29, 2002, China Power Unveiled 11 Newly Formed (Reorganized) Companies


The founding conference of China Power's newly formed (reorganized) companies was held in the Great Hall of the People in Beijing on the morning of December 29, 2002. Zeng peiyan, member of the Political Bureau of the Central Committee of the CPC and director of the State Development Planning Commission, attended the conference and delivered a speech.


Zeng said, 11 newly formed (reorganized) companies of  China Power formally proclaimed their founding, and they would implement the separation of  factories and the power grid and introduce competition mechanism, which is the important results of power system reform in our country, it marks the electric power industry in establishing a socialist market economic system, speed up the grand cause of socialist modernization, has entered a new period of development.


 New power companies including: state grid corporation, China southern power grid co., LTD., China huaneng group, China datang corporation, China huadian corporation, China guodian corporation, China power investment corporation, China power engineering consulting group corporation, China hydropower engineering consulting group co., LTD., China water conservancy and hydropower construction group co., LTD. And China gezhouba group co., LTD.


Zeng Peiyan said that under the cordial care and correct leadership of the CPC and the State Council, since March this year, each member unit of the Working Group on the Reform of the Electric Power System has actively implemented the reform plan approved by the State Council in a highly responsible spirit, in accordance with their respective divisions and progress required a lot of productive work. Formed the State Grid Corporation of China and China Southern Power Grid Corporation, set up and reorganized 5 power generation companies and 4 auxiliary industry group companies, set up the State Electricity Regulatory Commission, initially studied and formulated the electricity price reform plan, and reduced the environmental protection discount standards for power generation emissions, electricity the project's administrative examination and approval measures, as well as the requirements of the CEC's responsibilities, were thoroughly studied and explored. This not only completed the task of power reform this year, but also laid the foundation for future work. During the reform, all departments and localities cooperated and cooperated closely. The cadres and staff of the State Power Corporation system took care of the overall situation and performed their duties with due diligence, ensuring the safety of power operation and high-quality services.


Zeng  pointed out that the reform of the power system involves all aspects  is a complex and arduous task. In accordance with the requirements of overall design, step-by-step implementation, active and stable, and supporting advancement, we must further unify our thinking, strengthen te  leadership, and complete the reform tasks in stages. He requested that after the establishment of the new company, it should follow the requirements for establishing a modern enterprise system, step up its corporate transformation, establish a scientific corporate governance structure, optimize its organizational structure, streamline management levels, and improve various management systems to achieve clear property rights, rights and responsibilities. Clarity, separation of government and enterprise, scientific management, conscientiously do a good job of connecting the old and new systems, strengthen team building, streamline working relationships, ensure that personnel are in place and responsibilities are in place, and achieve a smooth transition of production and business activities.


Zeng emphasized that next year we will continue to form regional power grid companies and provincial and municipal power grid companies to further do a good job of separating main and auxiliary companies and "three industries", reorganization of diversified operating companies, and divestiture from power grid companies. To further strengthen the management of state-owned assets, it is necessary to gradually carry out asset and financial audits for newly formed or reorganized companies and carry out asset verification and capital verification. Actively and steadily promote the construction of regional power markets, speed up the establishment of power market trading centers, formulate power market operating rules, construct a power supervision system, implement electricity price reform programs, gradually implement bidding on the grid, and study and formulate environmental protection discount standards for power generation emissions. Pilot projects such as direct power supply from power generation companies to large customers were carried out.


Zeng Peiyan said that in the face of the new economic situation, it is necessary to properly handle the relationship between reform, development, and stability. While advancing the reform of the electric power system, according to the actual needs of economic development, make appropriate adjustments to the "Tenth Five-Year Plan" for electric power and strengthen the construction of power grids. It is necessary to step up the preliminary work of power project construction, attach great importance to the construction of key projects such as power transmission from west to east, and ensure the progress and quality of construction. He hoped that the majority of cadres and workers in the power system will continue to carry forward the fine traditions, strengthen management, clarify responsibilities, adhere to their posts, ensure the smooth flow of dispatch orders and the safe and stable operation of the power grid, and prevent major power safety accidents.


The representative of the newly formed (reorganized) company also spoke at the conference. Relevant leaders of the Central Organization Department, the Central Enterprise Work Committee, the Central Establishment Office, the Ministry of Finance, the State Council Legislative Affairs Office, the State Council Economic Reform Office, the Ministry of Education, the State Administration for Industry and Commerce, the State Environmental Protection Administration, the State Electricity Regulatory Commission, and the Guangdong Provincial People's Government (Reorganization) the company's main leaders, as well as representatives of relevant domestic units and relevant foreign institutions attended the conference.

1998年12月29日 收受贿赂 湖北省原副省长孟庆平被查处 

On December 29, 1998, Meng Qingping, the former vice governor of Hubei Province, was accepted for bribery.


On December 29, 1998, Xinhua News Agency reported that the Central Commission for Discipline Inspection, in conjunction with the Supreme People's Procuratorate and other relevant departments, has seriously investigated and dealt with a serious violation of discipline and law by Hubei Province ’s former vice governor Meng Qingping. The Central Commission for Discipline Inspection decided and reported to the Central Committee for approval to expel Meng Qingping's membership. He has been arrested according to law.


Meng Qingping came from a poor family, and it was the party that trained him from a herd of cattle to a college student. After graduating from university, he voluntarily applied to work in Hainan Frontier, where he worked for many years in a more difficult iron mine. However, with the rise of his post, he relaxed his requirements and was addicated to  make friends with  “fat cat ” and pull with them. He was called a brother and a brother, and he "collaboration"with them. The fundamental reason for Meng Qingping to embark on the road of crime and crime is that he does not talk about learning, politics, or integrity, and is eager to enjoy and lose his initial  ideals and pursuits.


Meng Qingping's main violations of discipline and law include: In August 1989 and May 1992 , during his tenure as vice governor of Hainan Province, he gave two instructions to help individual industrial and commercial households make frauds, reverse the date, and complete the land requisition procedures in violation of regulations. This enabled Zhuang to purchase land in Pobo Village, Haikou City, and cooperate with others to obtain huge profits. To reward Meng Qingping, Zhuang gave Meng HK $ 100,000 and RMB 100,000 through Meng's wife Guo Xiuying. From 1990 to 1993, Zhuang Moumou went to Meng Qingping's house to celebrate the Lunar New Year every year and gave Guo Xiuying a total of 35,000 yuan four times. In April 1993, Meng Qingping went to Hubei to take office, and Fu Moumou, a real estate company manager in Hainan, gave Meng RMB 30,000. Around 1994 and at the end of 1996, Fu gave RMB 20,000 and RMB 30,000 to Meng. Around 1989, Zhuang Moumou also gave Guo Xiuying 10,000 yuan. In addition, Meng Qingping was corrupt and degenerate, his life was erosive, he had fucked with sexual relations, and played with women.

1996年12月29日 俄油船断裂 日沿海污染 

Coastal pollution on the day of Russian tanker break on December 29, 1996


On December 29, 1996, the Russian tanker "Nakhodka" (displacement of 13,157 tons), loaded with 19 thousand tons of heavy oil, anchored from the port of Shanghai, China, and sailed to the port of Russian Far East. At about 3 am on January 2, 1997, the eighth district of the Japan Maritime Security Agency in Maizuru City received an emergency call for help: the ship crashed on the sea about 130 kilometers northeast of the island of Hidden Qi in Japan. After dawn, six helicopters from the Maritime Security Agency approached the accident site. I saw that the Russian tanker, which was more than 180 meters long, had broken from 50 meters from the bow, and only the bow was still floating on the sea. The hull has sunk into the ocean floor for more than 2,000 meters. They rescued 31 crew members, only the captain's whereabouts were unknown.


On the same day, a patrol plane found that a black "oil band" about 3 km wide and 60 km long that had leaked from the damaged tanker floated on the sea surface, and drifted along the northwest wind and "Tsuma Sea Tide" towards the Japanese coast. It is estimated that the oil slick is about 4,000 tons. Relevant Japanese authorities are trying to prevent the oil slick from landing. They have taken various measures. However, due to the bad weather, almost all methods are not effective. They sprayed a treatment agent on the oil slick in order to decompose the oil slick, and finally the marine oil turned the oil slick into a harmless substance. However, the wind speed of 22 meters per second on the Japanese sea continued to make the aircraft impossible to operate. Moreover, according to the opinions of experts, since the oil slick this time is not ordinary crude oil, but heavy oil with extremely high viscosity, it is difficult to achieve ideal results even if the treatment agent is sprayed. People tried to set up "oil barriers", but the 7-meter-high wave made the oil barriers floating on the sea surface useless. People can only watch as black slicks drift towards the coast, causing one of the worst marine pollution incidents in Japan.


The "Nakhodka" tanker is an old ship built 22 years ago. Experts estimate that the hull was broken due to the aging of the ship. There are 22 oil storage tanks on this ship. The stern part sank into the sea due to the rupture of the oil storage tank and the heavy oil leaked. However, the bow of the Nakhodka, which carried the rest of the heavy oil, was still drifting at sea. On the 7th, what people most worried about finally happened. The bow part drifted along the shore along with the waves, and hit the reef in the sea of Higashikenbo, Fukui Prefecture, a famous tourist attraction in Japan. The heavy oil flowed out from the damaged oil tank, making the pollution worse. By the 8th, 300 kilometers of coasts in 6 prefectures in Japan had been polluted by oil slicks. And the oil slick is likely to drift over the Noto Peninsula. After all the methods were exhausted, only the "man-sea tactics" remained. In order to mitigate the disaster, fishermen's associations along the coast of the polluted areas organized fishermen to come to the beach with buckets and ladles to remove heavy oil manually.


This area is a well-known tourist area along the coast of the Sea of Japan. It has a flyover that is one of the "Three Scenic Spots in Japan", a "Mingsha Beach" regarded as a natural wonder, and the legendary Maizuru Port ... attracting countless visitors all year round. This area is also an important source of seafood. Nori, shrimp, deep-water crab, abalone, conch, etc. are all famous here. Now standing on the coast in this area, I can smell a pungent oil smell, and I can see the black oil on the shore. Several white waterbirds emerged from the water and turned into black birds. Now is the season for laver and crab hunting here. The seaweed that a fisherman picked up from a rock in the shallow sea was stained with oil. Every year at this time, the fishery association here presents deepwater crabs to the emperor. In 1997, they have stated that it is difficult to give them. Not only seafood in the season is affected, but abalones harvested in summer will also be affected. Preliminary estimates indicate that the combined loss of income from fishing and tourism caused by pollution will exceed 10 billion yen.

1996年12月29日 危地马拉结束36年的内战签署和平协定 

December 29, 1996 Guatemala ends 36 years of civil war and signs peace agreement


On December 29, 1996, the Guatemalan government and the guerrilla organization National Revolutionary Alliance signed the "Perpetual Peace Agreement", announcing the end of the 36-year-old civil war in this Central American country.


At 5 pm on December 29, the signing ceremony took place in the Presidential Palace. After the Minister of Foreign Affairs Stein read the Permanent Peace Agreement, four representatives of the Government Peace Commission and four representatives of the National Revolutionary Alliance signed the text of the agreement. Subsequently, the Secretary-General of the United Nations Gali also signed the text of the agreement.


After the signing, representatives of the government ’s peace commission and guerrillas made short speeches, respectively, and were satisfied with the results of the peace negotiations.


In his speech, the Secretary-General of Gali believed that the signing of a permanent peace agreement by Guatemala was the result of long-term joint efforts by both parties to the conflict and the international community. In his speech, Gali also praised the efforts and contributions of the international community, especially the Group of Friendly Countries (Colombia, the United States, Mexico, Norway, Spain and Venezuela) to peace in Guatemala.


The main content of the Guatemalan Permanent Peace Agreement includes 11 peace-related agreements reached in the past few years on human rights, Indian rights and status, socioeconomic and land issues, guerrilla reintegration, amendments to the Constitution and election laws. At today's signing ceremony, the two sides also announced the schedule for the implementation of the permanent peace agreement that they finally reached today. According to this schedule, the above agreements will be fully implemented in 2000.


Civil war broke out in Guatemala in 1960. The Guatemalan government army and the anti-government guerrilla organization met for 36 years. The people were tarnished, more than 170,000 people died, more than 40,000 people disappeared, and more than 1 million people left their homes and became refugees. The state of the country's economy is deteriorating and people's lives are suffering. The two parties to the dangerous conflict started peace talks in 1987, and it took 10 years to finally reach an agreement to achieve a permanent peace across the country.

1993年12月29日 《保护生物多样性公约》成为国际法 

Convention on the Protection of Biological Diversity becomes international law on December 29, 1993


The Convention on the Protection of Biological Diversity, which was produced during the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in June 1992, officially became a legally binding international law on December 29, 1993. Animal and microbiological protection efforts and international cooperation provide legal basis and policy guidance.


Biodiversity refers to the richness, diversity, and variability between all living things (including various animals, plants, microorganisms) on the earth's land, waters and oceans, as well as the genetic genes they possess and the ecosystems they form. And complexity in general. Biological species diversity actually includes three levels of species diversity, ecosystem diversity and genetic diversity. Biological species diversity provides basic conditions for human survival and development, and is considered to be the most important factor closely related to the sustainable development of human society.


Most of the food, fuel, drugs, industrial and agricultural raw materials in people's daily life are derived from biological resources, especially domestic animals, poultry, fruits, and other economic plants that were domesticated and cultivated from their wild species. Environmentalists believe that there are at least 75,000 plant species on earth for human consumption, compared with only 35,000 species currently in use. The further use of plants by humans can help solve the world's food problems. Humans also need biodiversity to fight disease.


The incubation and emergence of the Convention on the Protection of Biological Diversity is a positive response to the warnings given by scientists about the state of the global species crisis more than a decade ago. Scientists point out that mainly under the influence of population growth and related factors, the rate of global species decline has accelerated to 25,000 times the rate of survival of the fittest in nature. It is estimated that by 2050, half of the existing species on the planet will cease to exist.


The core part of the Convention on the Protection of Biological Diversity is three political principles: 1. While implementing environmental protection policies, countries enjoy sovereignty / sovereignty in the development and use of resources; 2. Relatively rich countries are helping relatively poor neighbors Countries are obliged to comply with the Convention and should provide economic and technical assistance; 3. Countries with rich species resources but poor economic conditions can share profits generated from manufactured products using their biological resources as raw materials.


A total of 167 countries have signed the Convention on the Protection of Biological Diversity around the world, but after governments sign this international treaty, they must be approved by the legislative bodies of more than 30 countries before it can enter into force. In 1993, 36 countries had ratified this convention, which has made it international law.


As an obligation to the Convention, each signatory country will formulate strategies to protect plants, animals and microorganisms and their habitats within national borders, formulate and implement laws to protect endangered species, and expand natural reserves of biological species. Restore damaged animal and plant populations and increase public awareness of the need to protect and preserve biological resources.

1989年12月29日 哈维尔当选捷克共和国首任总统 

Javier was elected first president of the Czech Republic on December 29, 1989


Vaclav Havel, the first president of the Czech Republic and the last president of the former Czechoslovakia. Born in Prague to a business owner's family. Worked as a chemical experimenter. From 1955 to 1957, he studied at the Department of Economics of the Czech University of Technology in Prague, and later worked as a stage technician, screenwriter, assistant director, and playwright in a theater. In 1968, he was a member of the Non-Party Club, independently chaired the club, and participated in the Czech PEN. In 1969 he was banned from performing art activities and changed to a worker. He was jailed three times from 1970 to 1989 and was detained for five years. In 1977, he was the founder and first spokesman of the "Charter and Charter". In November 1989, he was the main representative of the Civic Forum. On December 29, 1989, he was elected President of Czechoslovakia and commander-in-chief of the armed forces. In July 1990, he was re-elected, and Czechoslovakia disintegrated on December 31, 1992. Elected President of the Czech Republic on January 26, 1993.

1985年12月29日 象牙海岸改国名为“科特迪瓦” 

December 29, 1985 Ivory Coast changed its name to "Côte d'Ivoire"


On December 29, 1985, the Republic of Ivory Coast decided to change the name of the country from January 1, 1986 to the Republic of Côte d'Ivoire. "Côte d'Ivoire" is a Chinese transliteration of French "Ivory Coast".


The reason why "Ivory Coast" was renamed "Côte d'Ivoire" is that its country name has always been paraphrased in various languages, which caused the initial letters of the word "Ivory Coast" to be different in various languages. Due to the international organization of the alphabetical order of the first letters of the names of the countries, the Ivory Coast's ranking of the country names in many cases varies. With the consent of the United Nations, the name of the country was changed to transliteration in all languages from 1 January 1986.

1984年12月29日 瑞士建成世界地势最高的地铁 

Switzerland's tallest subway in the world built on December 29, 1984


On December 29, 1984, the world's tallest subway was built in the Swiss Alps and opened to Sass-Fee. The cable subway is 1.5 kilometers long and the train runs at 36 kilometers per hour. It can carry 115 passengers at a time. It only takes three minutes for passengers to travel by train, and it reaches the altitude of 3,500 meters in the Alps. This subway is mainly for skiers.

1972年12月29日 我国与贝宁复交 

China resumes diplomatic relations with Benin on December 29, 1972

贝宁,全称贝宁共和国。曾名达荷美。位于西非中南部。面积112622平方公里。人口489万人(1991)。有46个部族,主要是芳族、约鲁巴族等。居民中65%信奉拜物教,余为信奉伊斯/兰教、天主教、基督教新教等。官方语言为法语,流行芳语、约鲁巴语。首都波多诺伏。主要矿藏有石油、铁矿石、磷酸盐、大理石、黄金等,但多储量小,开采价值不大。经济落后,工业基础薄弱,是联合国公布的最不发达国家之一。农业和服务业是国民经济的两大支柱。农业人口占全国人口的80%。主要农作物有玉米、高梁、 小米、木薯、山药、棉花等。工业主要是油脂、纺织、食品等农产品加工业和建材业。1992年人均国内生产总值432.5美元。主要出口棉花、棕榈油、咖啡等农副产品,进口食品、烟 酒、纺织品等日用工业品。16世纪前后出现许多小王国和酋长国。1580年葡萄牙人侵入,在沿海一带进行奴隶贸易。17世纪初南部形成以阿波美为中心的达荷美王国。1913年沦为法国殖民地。1960年8月1日独立(独立日为国庆日),成立达荷美共和国。1975年11月改国名为贝宁人民共和国,1990年2月改为现国名。1964年11月12日与中国建交。1966年1月贝曾单方面宣布与中国断交,1972年12月29日复交。

Benin, the full name of the Republic of Benin. Formerly known as Dahomey. Located in south-western Africa. An area of 112,622 square kilometers. Population of 4.89 million people (1991). There are 46 tribes, mainly aromatic, Yoruba, etc. 65% of the residents believe in fetishism, and the rest are Islamic / Islamic, Catholic, Protestant, etc. The official language is French, with popular aromatic and Yoruba languages. The capital is Porto Novo. The main mineral deposits are petroleum, iron ore, phosphate, marble, gold, etc., but many reserves are small and the mining value is not great. The economy is backward and the industrial base is weak. It is one of the least developed countries announced by the United Nations. Agriculture and services are the two pillars of the national economy. The agricultural population accounts for 80% of the national population. The main crops are corn, sorghum, millet, cassava, yam, and cotton. Industry is mainly agricultural products processing industry such as oil, textile, food and building material industry. In 1992, the per capita GDP was US $ 432.5. It mainly exports agricultural and sideline products such as cotton, palm oil, and coffee, and imports daily-use industrial products such as food, tobacco, wine, and textiles. Many small kingdoms and emirates emerged around the 16th century. The Portuguese invaded in 1580 and engaged in slave trade along the coast. In the early 17th century, the Dahomey kingdom centered on Abomey was formed in the south. In 1913 it became a French colony. Independence on August 1, 1960 (Independence Day is National Day), the Republic of Dahomey was established. In November 1975, the name was changed to the People's Republic of Benin, and in February 1990 it was changed to the current name. Established diplomatic relations with China on November 12, 1964. In January 1966, Bei Zeng unilaterally announced that he had broken diplomatic relations with China, and resumed diplomatic relations on December 29, 1972.

1968年12月29日 南京长江大桥全面建成通车 

The Nanjing Yangtze River Bridge was fully opened to traffic on December 29, 1968


On December 29, 1968, the Nanjing Yangtze River Bridge was fully opened to traffic. It was originally scheduled to be completed on July 1, 1969. On October 1, 1968, the bridge railway bridge was completed and opened to traffic.


This modern bridge was designed and built by China. The Nanjing Yangtze River Bridge has been fully opened to traffic, connecting Jinpu Road and Shanghai-Nanjing Road, the main artery of north-south traffic in China, and connecting road traffic between the north and south of the river.


Construction of the bridge began in January 1960 with a construction period of 9 years and a total investment of 287 million yuan. The completion of the bridge is of great significance politically, economically and strategically. The structure of the bridge is a dual-line, double-layer railway and highway bridge. The railway bridge is 6772 meters long and the highway bridge is 4589 meters long.


Double-tracks are laid on the lower level of the Jiangzhongzheng Bridge, and trains from south to north can run at the same time; the wide highway bridge on the upper level can drive four large trucks side by side. At both ends of the main bridge, there are four giant statues. The approach to the urban area of the cross-strait highway approach bridge is composed of a 22-hole double-curved arch bridge with national characteristics.

1950年12月29日 毛泽东所著《实践论》发表 

On December 29, 1950, Mao Zedong's "On Practice" was published


On December 29, 1950, Mao Zedong's "On Practice" was published. This article was written in July 1937. The article summarizes the party ’s historical experience and lessons in epistemology, exposes the “left” and right-turning errors, and focuses on the idealism and transcendental theory of “left” -adventurists such as Wang Ming. It is pointed out that all opportunism is characterized by the separation of subjective and objective, and the separation of cognition and practice. Mao Zedong pointed out that Marxist philosophical dialectical materialism has two remarkable characteristics: one is its class nature, which serves the proletariat; the other is its practicality, emphasizing the theory for practice and turning it into practice service. It comprehensively clarifies the relationship between knowledge and practice, that is, knowledge and action, analyzes two leaps in the process of understanding in detail, and points out that the struggle of the proletariat and revolutionary people to transform the world includes the tasks of transforming the objective world and the subjective world. The "On Practice" inherited, defended, and developed Marxist epistemology, and was an important contribution of Mao Zedong to the treasure trove of Marxist-Leninist philosophy.

1932年12月29日 中国民权保障同盟成立 

On December 29, 1932, the China Civil Rights Protection Alliance was established


The China Civil Rights Protection Alliance is a progressive political group established by Song Qingling, Cai Yuanpei, Yang Xingfo and others to oppose Chiang Kai-shek's fascist rule and fight for the right of people's democracy and freedom.


After the "September 18th Incident", Chiang Kai-shek promoted the reactionary policy of "you must be safe outside the country". While stepping up the "encirclement and suppression" of the Soviet Red Army, it brutally suppressed the anti-Japanese democratic movement. Many people struggled to save the Chinese nation from perishing. Arrested and even tragically killed. Faced with the dark rule of Chiang Kai-shek, many people of insight were extremely angry and expressed their desire to fight the Kuomintang / Party reactionaries. The Civil Rights Protection Alliance was established to develop separate and scattered struggles into collective, organized struggles.


In the summer and autumn of 1932, the Civil Rights Protection Alliance started preparations by Song Qingling, Cai Yuanpei, Yang Xingfo, Li Zhaohuan, and Lin Yutang. On December 17, the Preparatory Committee issued a declaration announcing the purpose and task of organizing the alliance: to fight for the release of domestic political prisoners and the abolition of illegal detention, torture and killing; to publish facts about the oppression of civil rights in order to evoke the will of society , To assist in all struggles for freedom of speech, publication, assembly / assembly, association, etc. On December 29, Cai Yuanpei and Yang Xingfo held a Chinese and foreign press conference in Shanghai on behalf of the alliance. The alliance was formally announced. Song Qingling was appointed as the chairman, Cai Yuanpei as the vice chairman, and Yang Xingfo as the director-general.


After the establishment of the alliance, under the leadership of Song Qingling, Cai Yuanpei and Yang Xingfo, a number of activities were carried out to protect the people's democratic and free rights, rescue political prisoners, and oppose the illegal detention and killing of the KMT.


Due to the relentless struggle of the Civil Rights Protection Alliance against the dark rule of the Kuomintang / Party, the Kuomintang / Party's reactionaries were extremely resentful and issued a declaration defaming the Union as an “illegal organization” and demanded its dissolution. In June 1933, Yang Xingfo was assassinated by National / Party agents. When Song Qingling was killed when Yang Xingfo was killed, he solemnly stated that: instead of being intimidated, the price Yang Yang paid for sympathy made us fight more resolutely ... However, due to the extremely serious white terror at that time, and the fact that Yang Xingfo was killed and lost an organizer and doer, the activities could not be carried out, so the Civil Rights Protection Alliance was virtually disbanded.


Although the China Civil Rights Protection Alliance existed for only half a year, it effectively exposed the darkness of the Kuomintang / Party reactionary rule and was a public declaration of war against the Kuomintang / Party fascist dictatorship. Its struggle was consistent with the anti-Chiang resistance against Japan led by the Communist Party of China at that time.

1928年12月29日 东三省改旗易帜 

On December 29, 1928, the three eastern provinces changed their flags.


On December 29, 1928, Zhang Xueliang, commander-in-chief of Northeast Security, formally announced that he would abide by the Three People's Principles, obey the National Government, and change the banner.


At 7 a.m on December 29, the three eastern provinces simultaneously hoisted the blue sky and white flag. On July 1st of that year, despite the military, economic, and political pressures of Japan, Zhang Xueliang announced that he would cease military operations with Nanjing and would not hinder reunification. On August 3, Chiang Kai-shek sent staff to attend the funeral of Zhang Zuolin and negotiated with Zhang Xueliang about the change of flag. Zhang stated that he obeyed the Three People's Principles and hoped for reunification. The Japanese government is forcing Zhang Xueliang to continue to separate the three eastern provinces in an attempt to prevent China's north-south reunification and interfere with the change of northeast China. However, Chiang Kai-shek's unification of the three eastern provinces was supported by the United Kingdom and the United States, and Japan was isolated internationally. Japanese Prime Minister Tanaka Yoshiyuki reluctantly stated that changing the three eastern provinces was a matter of China's internal affairs. In this way, the opportunity for the Northeast to change flags appeared. Zhang Xueliang said at the ceremony of changing the flag: "We changed the flag, that is, we no longer want to divide the power of the central government, and return the political power to the central government, in order to seek true national unification." Commander.

1911年12月29日 孙中山当选为临时大总统 

Sun Yat-sen was elected interim president on December 29, 1911


On December 12, 1911, a total of 39 representatives from 14 provinces gathered in Nanjing from Wuhan and Shanghai. It was decided to elect the interim president on December 16. Huang Xing was named Grand Marshal, and Li Wuhong was deputy. Huang Xingjian did not resign, and then renamed Li Yuanhong as Grand Marshal and Huang Xing as Deputy Marshal. Less than half a month, the head and deputy were suddenly turned upside down, and people were playing tricks. Neither Huang Xing nor Li Yuanhong could come to Nanjing for office. On the 21st, Li Wuhong accepted the name of Marshal and appointed Huang Xing to act as Marshal. Huang Xing resigned.


On the 20th, Sun Yat-sen returned to Hong Kong via Hong Kong, and Hu Hanmin and Liao Zhongkai arrived in port to meet them. Hu Hanmin advised Sun Yat-sen to stay in Guangdong, train the army, and go north. Then "clearing the strength and defeating the enemy is really the unification of the North and the South." Sun Yat-sen insisted on going to Shanghai and Ningxia to preside over the internal and external plans, saying, "If I don't go to Shanghai-Nanjing, I will preside over all these external plans, which is by no means what others can do." He also said, "The great problem today is anarchy."


On the 25th, Sun Yat-sen arrived in Shanghai and was warmly welcomed. Newspapers circulated that Sun returned home with huge sums of money, and the reporter asked him, "How much money do you bring this time?" Sun Yat-sen said, "If you do n’t name any money, you will bring back the spirit of revolution! The purpose of the revolution is not up to date. No peace talk at all! "


Sun Zhongshan immediately discussed the organization of the interim government with the head of the League. Sun advocated a presidential system without a prime minister; Song Jiaoren advocated a cabinet system with a prime minister. Sun Yat-sen believes: "The cabinet system is usually not to make the head of state a political impulse, so it is not appropriate for this time to take the Prime Minister's responsibility to Congress." Huang Xing supports Sun Zhongshan's opinion. At the same time, it was decided to indicate to the representatives of the provinces separately that Sun was elected interim president.


On December 29, the representatives of the 17 provinces in Nanjing formally elected the interim president. There are 3 candidates; Sun Yat-sen, Li Yuanhong, Huang Xing. Delegates from 17 provinces voted in turn. Sun Wen got 16 votes and Huang Xing got 1 vote. When the election results were announced, "The three voices of the Chinese Republic were long lived. It was a musical masterpiece. Congratulations from all walks of life in the military academy were present. pole". Upon hearing the news, Sun Yat-sen in Shanghai immediately reinstated Nanjing and expressed his acceptance. He said: "The restoration of China is the power of our military and civilians. Wen Hui returned to the country without any success, but he was elected. Why should he be? Wei Jing, the foundation of the Republic of China, Hongji is difficult, and all our citizens have responsibilities. Regardless of their functions, Gavin's major service, Wen dare not reluctantly resign from the nationals, and then go to Nanjing to work in the country. "


After the news of Sun Yat-sen's election came out, the military and civilians in Anhui met and celebrated in the Governor's Office, and the people in Fuzhou held a lantern tour / line. Nanjing ’s “even-color dance dances and celebrates each other. All residents of all shops have prepared scented lanterns to greet them. In the presidential palace, five-color electric lights are arranged in a pattern, and their radiance is renewed. Called the Long Live Cloud of the Republic of China. " People from all walks of life in Nanjing cut their braids in celebration. And "Nanyang, Australia, Europe and the United States congratulatory telegrams, is a daily surplus."

1899年12月29日 聂荣臻元帅诞辰 

Birthday of Marshal Nie Rongzhen on December 29, 1899


Chinese strategist and politician. One of the founders and leaders of the Chinese People's Liberation Army, the Marshal of the People's Republic of China. Born in Jiangjin, Sichuan on December 29, 1899. At the end of 1919, he went to work and study in France. In August 1922, he participated in the Chinese Youth Communist Party in Europe (later renamed the Chinese Socialist Youth League's European Branch) and transferred to the Chinese Communist Party the following spring. Studying in the Soviet Union in October 1924. After returning to China in August 1925, he successively served as Secretary and Political Instructor of the Political Department of Huangpu Military Academy, member of the Military Commission of the Guangdong District Committee of the Communist Party of China, special commissioner of the Military Commission, and secretary of the Military Commission of the Hubei Provincial Committee of the Communist Party of China. Later, he participated in the dispatch of Communist Party members to the Northern Expeditionary Army in the Central Military Commission of the Communist Party of China.


In mid-July 1927, he served as the former Communist Party Secretary of the Communist Party of China. After joining the Nanchang Uprising, he served as the representative of the Eleventh Army Party of the Rebel Army. In December of the same year, he participated in leading the Guangzhou Uprising. In 1928, he served as Secretary of the Military Commission of the Guangdong Provincial Committee of the Communist Party of China. In early 1930, he served as the Minister of the Organization Department of the CPC Shunzhi Provincial Committee. He entered the Central Soviet Area in December 1931, and successively served as Deputy Director of the General Political Department of the Chinese Workers and Peasants Red Army and Political Member of the First Army. He was elected as the Central Executive Member of the Chinese Soviet Republic. In April of the same year, he participated in the command of the Battle of Zhangzhou as a political member of the Red Army East Road Army. After the winter of 1932, Lin Biao and the commander of the army participated in the fourth and fifth anti-encirclement campaigns. In 1935, Mao Zedong was supported at the Zunyi Conference. After crossing the Jinsha River, he served as a political member of the Central Red Army advance team. He once led a ministry to participate in the battle of Zhiluo Town and the Eastern Expedition and Western Expedition. In November 1936, he participated in commanding the Battle of Mountain Castle.


After the outbreak of the Anti-Japanese War, he served as deputy division commander and political member of the 115th Division of the Eighth Route Army, participated in the command of the Pingxingguan battle, and achieved the first great victory after the start of the National Anti-Japanese War. In November 1937, he served as commander and political commissar of the Jinchaji Military Region, and established the first anti-Japanese base area behind the enemy in the border areas of the three provinces of Jinchaji. In the winter of 1939, he directed the battle of Yansu Cliff and Huangtuling, killing the commander of the brigade of Lieutenant General Abe Xiu, who was known by the Japanese as the flower of a famous general. In August 1940, during the Battle of the Hundred Regiments, the command and control unit was organized to conduct groundbreaking battles on the railway lines of Zhengtai, Jinpu, Pinghan, and Beining. In the autumn of 1943, he returned to Yanan to participate in the rectification movement. In 1945, the troops of the Jinchaji Military Region were deployed for counterattack operations against Japan.


During the liberation war, he served as commander of the North China Military Region, second secretary of the North China Bureau of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China, deputy chief of staff of the People's Liberation Army / Military Commission, commander of the Pingjin Weijing District, and mayor of Peiping (now Beijing). He has participated in commanding the battles of Zhengtai, Qingfengdian, Shijiazhuang, and Pingjin.


At the beginning of 1950, he served as the acting chief of staff of the People's Liberation Army / Army, assisting the leaders of the Central Military Commission to deploy the People's Liberation Army / Army to continue to liberate the southwestern region and southeast coastal islands, and eliminate the remnants of the National / Party and bandits. During the War to Resist US Aggression and Aid Korea, participated in the organization, deployment, training, transportation, supply, rotation, etc. of the Chinese People's Volunteer Army. He has participated in the formation of leading agencies and military academies, and organized the formulation of military regulations and regulations. In 1954 he served as Vice Chairman of the People's Revolutionary Military Committee of the Central People's Government. In 1955, he was awarded the rank of Marshal of the People's Republic of China, the first grade of Bayi Medal, the first grade of Independent Freedom Medal, and the first grade Liberation Medal. In November 1956, he was appointed Vice Premier of the State Council. In 1958, he also served as the director of the State Council Science and Technology Committee. In 1959, he also served as the director of the National Defense Science and Technology Committee of the Ministry of National Defense, leading scientific and technological research, and organizing a large-scale national collaboration. In just 5 years, he successfully developed a variety of missiles and atomic bombs, and later successfully developed a hydrogen bomb.


During the Cultural Revolution, they fought with Lin Biao and the Jiang Qing counter-revolutionary group. From 1983 to 1988, he served as Vice Chairman of the Central Military Commission. In July 1988, he was awarded the Medal of Honor for the First Star of the Chinese People's Liberation Army.


At 22:43 on May 14, 1992, due to heart failure, the rescue was invalid. He died in Beijing at the age of 93. Author of "Memoirs of Nie Rongzhen". Vice Chairman of the First, Second and Third National Defense Committees, Vice Chairman of the Standing Committee of the Fourth and Fifth National People's Congress, Member of the 7th to 12th Central Committee of the Chinese Communist Party, Member of the 8th Central Political Bureau, 9th and 10th Member of the Central Committee, member of the Eleventh and Twelfth Central Political Bureau.

1885年12月29日 英外相照会清政府欲合并缅甸

On December 29, 1885, the British Foreign Minister noticed that the Qing government wanted to merge Myanmar


On December 29, 1885, the British Foreign Minister ordered the British Council to send a note to the Prime Minister of the Qing government, and from January 1 next year, the United Kingdom merged with Myanmar. Myanmar borders Yunnan, China. China and Myanmar have a long history of economic and cultural exchanges. During Qianlong, Burmese King Meng Yun accepted the seal of the Qing Dynasty. After the occupation of India, Britain tried to invade Myanmar. Two wars of aggression were launched in 1824 and 1852 and occupied Lower Myanmar (Southern Myanmar). Since then, attempts have been made to find a way from Myanmar to China in order to invade China from the southwest. The "Sino-British Treaty of Yantai" of 1876 enabled Britain to achieve convenient conditions for this purpose. The aggression benefits obtained by France in the Sino-French war completely superficially contradicted the conflict between Britain and France in fighting for southwest China. The annexation of Myanmar became the most realistic way for Britain to compete with France. On August 29, 1885, the King of Burma fined 2.3 million rupees for a British wood merchant company who smuggled timber and cancelled its lease of the mountain. The British and Indian governors used the wood merchant case to send troops to Myanmar and occupy Mandalay. The British Foreign Minister first noted that the Qing Minister in the UK, Zeng Jize, falsely claimed that the British army entered Myanmar and fully respected China's rights, with the aim of punishing King Xuemyan for his abuse of the British. As soon as the goal is achieved, it is ready to negotiate with China on the future disposal of Myanmar. However, on November 29, after the British army captured the king of Burma, on December 29, the British Foreign Minister ordered the British Commissioner to send a note to the General Administration of Qing Dynasty, announcing the integration of Upper Myanmar into British India, thereby realizing the entire occupation of Myanmar. Naturally, the Qing government that had just signed the "China-France New Testament" did not dare to oppose it. On July 24 of the following year, China and Britain also signed the "Myanmar Terms", and the Qing government was forced to acknowledge the fact that Britain occupied Myanmar. Britain thus obtained a chance of aggression comparable to France in southwest China.

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