December 29 in History
历史上的12月29日
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2020-01-01 23:40
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2002年12月29日 中国电力11家新组建(改组)公司揭牌 

On December 29, 2002, China Power Unveiled 11 Newly Formed (Reorganized) Companies

1998年12月29日 收受贿赂 湖北省原副省长孟庆平被查处 

On December 29, 1998, Former Vice Governor of Hubei Province Meng Qingping Was Investigated for Taking Bribes

1996年12月29日 俄油船断裂 日沿海污染 

On December 29, 1996, the Russian Oil Tanker Broke off and Caused Japan Coastal Pollution

1996年12月29日 危地马拉结束36年的内战签署和平协定 

On December 29, 1996, Guatemala Signed a Peace Agreement Ending 36 Years of Civil War

1993年12月29日 《保护生物多样性公约》成为国际法 

On December 29, 1993, the Convention for the Protection of Biological Diversity Became International Law

1989年12月29日 哈维尔当选捷克共和国首任总统 

On December 29, 1989, Havel Was Elected the First President of the Czech Republic

1985年12月29日 象牙海岸改国名为“科特迪瓦” 

On December 29, 1985, Ivory Coast Changed Its Name to Côte d'Ivoire

1984年12月29日 瑞士建成世界地势最高的地铁 

On December 29, 1984, the World's Highest Metro Was Built in Switzerland

1972年12月29日 我国与贝宁复交 

On December 29, 1972, China and Benin Resumed Diplomatic Relations

1968年12月29日 南京长江大桥全面建成通车 

On December 29, 1968, Nanjing Yangtze River Bridge Was Fully Completed and Opened to Traffic 

1950年12月29日 毛泽东所著《实践论》发表 

On December 29, 1950,Theory of Practice by Mao Zedong Was Published

1932年12月29日 中国民权保障同盟成立 

On December 29, 1932, China League for Civil Rights Was Founded

1928年12月29日 东三省改旗易帜 

On December 29, 1928, the Three Northeast Provinces Changed Their Political Direction

1911年12月29日 孙中山当选为临时大总统 

On December 29, 1911, Sun Yat-sen Was Elected Interim President

1899年12月29日 聂荣臻元帅诞辰 

On December 29, 1899, Marshal Nie Rongzhen Was Born

1885年12月29日 英外相照会清政府欲合并缅甸

On December 29, 1885, the British Foreign Minister Sent a Diplomatic Note to the Qing Government to Merge Burma

2002年12月29日 中国电力11家新组建(改组)公司揭牌 

On December 29, 2002, China Power Unveiled 11 Newly Formed (Reorganized) Companies

中国电力新组建(改组)公司成立大会2002年12月29日上午在北京人民大会堂召开。中共中央政治局委员、国家计委主任曾培炎出席大会并作了讲话。

The founding conference of China Power's newly formed (reorganized) companies was held in the Great Hall of the People in Beijing on the morning of December 29, 2002. Zeng peiyan, member of the Political Bureau of the Central Committee of the CPC and director of the State Development Planning Commission, attended the conference and delivered a speech.

  曾培炎说,中国电力新组建(改组)的11家公司正式宣告成立,实现了厂网分开,引入了竞争机制,这是我国电力体制改革的重要成果,它标志着电力工业在建立社会主义市场经济体制,加快社会主义现代化建设的宏伟事业中,进入了一个新的发展时期。

Zeng said, 11 newly formed (reorganized) companies of  China Power formally proclaimed their founding, and they would implement the separation of  factories and the power grid and introduce competition mechanism, which is the important results of power system reform in our country, it marks the electric power industry in establishing a socialist market economic system, speed up the grand cause of socialist modernization, has entered a new period of development.

  新成立的电力公司包括:国家电网公司、中国南方电网有限公司、中国华能集团公司、中国大唐集团公司、中国华电集团公司、中国国电集团公司、中国电力投资集团公司、中国电力工程顾问集团公司、中国水电工程顾问集团公司、中国水利水电建设集团公司和中国葛洲坝集团公司。

 New power companies including: state grid corporation, China southern power grid co., LTD., China huaneng group, China datang corporation, China huadian corporation, China guodian corporation, China power investment corporation, China power engineering consulting group corporation, China hydropower engineering consulting group co., LTD., China water conservancy and hydropower construction group co., LTD. And China gezhouba group co., LTD.

  曾培炎说,在党中央、国务院的亲切关怀和正确领导下,今年3月以来,电力体制改革工作小组各成员单位,以高度负责的精神,积极贯彻国务院批准的改革方案,按照各自的分工和进度要求,开展了大量富有成效的工作。组建了国家电网公司和南方电网公司,组建和改组了5家发电公司和4家辅业集团公司,成立了国家电力监管委员会,初步研究制定了电价改革方案,并对发电排放环保折价标准、电力项目行政审批办法,以及对中电联职责的要求等方面进行了深入研究与探索。这不仅完成了今年的电力改革任务,也为以后的工作奠定了基础。在改革中,各部门、各地方通力协作、密切配合,国家电力公司系统广大干部职工顾全大局、恪尽职守,保证了电力运行安全和优质服务。

Zeng Peiyan said that under the cordial care and correct leadership of the CPC and the State Council, since March this year, each member unit of the Working Group on the Reform of the Electric Power System has actively implemented the reform plan approved by the State Council in a highly responsible spirit, in accordance with their respective divisions and progress required a lot of productive work. Formed the State Grid Corporation of China and China Southern Power Grid Corporation, set up and reorganized 5 power generation companies and 4 auxiliary industry group companies, set up the State Electricity Regulatory Commission, initially studied and formulated the electricity price reform plan, and reduced the environmental protection discount standards for power generation emissions, electricity the project's administrative examination and approval measures, as well as the requirements of the CEC's responsibilities, were thoroughly studied and explored. This not only completed the task of power reform this year, but also laid the foundation for future work. During the reform, all departments and localities cooperated and cooperated closely. The cadres and staff of the State Power Corporation system took care of the overall situation and performed their duties with due diligence, ensuring the safety of power operation and high-quality services.

  曾培炎指出,电力体制改革涉及方方面面,是一项复杂艰巨的工作。要按照总体设计、分步实施、积极稳妥、配套推进的要求,进一步统一思想,加强领导,分阶段地完成改革任务。他要求,新公司组建后,要按照建立现代企业制度要求,抓紧公司化改制工作,建立科学的法人治理结构,优化组织机构,精简管理层次,健全各项管理制度,做到产权明晰、权责明确、政企分开、管理科学,认真做好新旧体制的衔接工作,加强班子建设,理顺工作关系,保证人员到位、责任到位,实现企业生产经营活动的平稳过渡。

Zeng  pointed out that the reform of the power system involves all aspects  is a complex and arduous task. In accordance with the requirements of overall design, step-by-step implementation, active and stable, and supporting advancement, we must further unify our thinking, strengthen te  leadership, and complete the reform tasks in stages. He requested that after the establishment of the new company, it should follow the requirements for establishing a modern enterprise system, step up its corporate transformation, establish a scientific corporate governance structure, optimize its organizational structure, streamline management levels, and improve various management systems to achieve clear property rights, rights and responsibilities. Clarity, separation of government and enterprise, scientific management, conscientiously do a good job of connecting the old and new systems, strengthen team building, streamline working relationships, ensure that personnel are in place and responsibilities are in place, and achieve a smooth transition of production and business activities.

  曾培炎强调,明年要继续组建区域电网公司及各省市电网公司,进一步做好主辅分离和“三产”、多种经营企业的重组,以及与电网企业的剥离工作。进一步加强国有资产管理,要对新组建或改组的公司逐步开展资产、财务审计工作,进行清产核资。积极稳妥地推进区域电力市场建设,加快建立电力市场交易中心,制定电力市场运行规则,构造电力监管体系,落实电价改革方案,逐步实现竞价上网,研究制定发电排放环保折价标准,在有条件的地区开展发电企业向大用户直接供电的试点等工作。

Zeng emphasized that next year we will continue to form regional power grid companies and provincial and municipal power grid companies to further do a good job of separating main and auxiliary companies and "three industries", reorganization of diversified operating companies, and divestiture from power grid companies. To further strengthen the management of state-owned assets, it is necessary to gradually carry out asset and financial audits for newly formed or reorganized companies and carry out asset verification and capital verification. Actively and steadily promote the construction of regional power markets, speed up the establishment of power market trading centers, formulate power market operating rules, construct a power supervision system, implement electricity price reform programs, gradually implement bidding on the grid, and study and formulate environmental protection discount standards for power generation emissions. Pilot projects such as direct power supply from power generation companies to large customers were carried out.

  曾培炎说,面对新的经济形势,要正确处理好改革与发展、稳定的关系。在推进电力体制改革的同时,根据经济发展的实际需要,对电力“十五”规划作出适当调整,加强电源电网建设。要抓紧电力项目建设的前期工作,高度重视西电东送等重点工程的建设,确保建设的进度和质量。他希望电力系统广大干部职工,继续发扬优良传统,加强管理,明确责任,坚守岗位,保证调度命令畅通和电网安全稳定地运行,防止发生重大电力安全事故。

Zeng Peiyan said that in the face of the new economic situation, it is necessary to properly handle the relationship between reform, development, and stability. While advancing the reform of the electric power system, according to the actual needs of economic development, make appropriate adjustments to the "Tenth Five-Year Plan" for electric power and strengthen the construction of power grids. It is necessary to step up the preliminary work of power project construction, attach great importance to the construction of key projects such as power transmission from west to east, and ensure the progress and quality of construction. He hoped that the majority of cadres and workers in the power system will continue to carry forward the fine traditions, strengthen management, clarify responsibilities, adhere to their posts, ensure the smooth flow of dispatch orders and the safe and stable operation of the power grid, and prevent major power safety accidents.

  新组建(改组)公司的代表也在大会上发了言。中央组织部、中央企业工委、中央编制办公室、财政部、国务院法制办、国务院体改办、教育部、国家工商总局、国家环保总局、国家电力监管委员会、广东省人民政府有关领导,新组建(改组)公司的主要领导,以及国内有关单位和国外有关机构代表参加了大会。

The representative of the newly formed (reorganized) company also spoke at the conference. Relevant leaders of the Central Organization Department, the Central Enterprise Work Committee, the Central Establishment Office, the Ministry of Finance, the State Council Legislative Affairs Office, the State Council Economic Reform Office, the Ministry of Education, the State Administration for Industry and Commerce, the State Environmental Protection Administration, the State Electricity Regulatory Commission, and the Guangdong Provincial People's Government (Reorganization) the company's main leaders, as well as representatives of relevant domestic units and relevant foreign institutions attended the conference.

1998年12月29日 收受贿赂 湖北省原副省长孟庆平被查处 

On December 29, 1998, Meng Qingping, the former vice governor of Hubei Province, was accepted for bribery.

 1998年12月29日,新华社报道:中央纪委最近会同最高人民检察院等有关部门,严肃查处了湖北省原副省长孟庆平严重违纪违法案件。中央纪委决定,并报经中央批准,开除孟庆平党籍。检察机关已依法将其逮捕。

On December 29, 1998, Xinhua News Agency reported that the Central Commission for Discipline Inspection, in conjunction with the Supreme People's Procuratorate and other relevant departments, has seriously investigated and dealt with a serious violation of discipline and law by Hubei Province ’s former vice governor Meng Qingping. The Central Commission for Discipline Inspection decided and reported to the Central Committee for approval to expel Meng Qingping's membership. He has been arrested according to law.

  孟庆平出身贫苦家庭,是党把他从一个放牛娃培养成一名大学生。大学毕业后,他自愿申请到海南边陲工作,在条件比较艰苦的铁矿工作多年。然而,随着职务的升高,他思想上放松了要求,热衷于结交“大款”,与他们拉拉扯扯,称兄道弟,同流合污,由一名高级领导干部蜕变为一个地地道道的腐败分子。孟庆平走上违法犯罪道路,根本原因是他不讲学习,不讲政治,不讲正气,贪图享受,丧失理想和追求。

Meng Qingping came from a poor family, and it was the party that trained him from a herd of cattle to a college student. After graduating from university, he voluntarily applied to work in Hainan Frontier, where he worked for many years in a more difficult iron mine. However, with the rise of his post, he relaxed his requirements and was addicated to  make friends with  “fat cat ” and pull with them. He was called a brother and a brother, and he "collaboration"with them. The fundamental reason for Meng Qingping to embark on the road of crime and crime is that he does not talk about learning, politics, or integrity, and is eager to enjoy and lose his initial  ideals and pursuits.

  孟庆平的主要违纪违法事实有:1989年8月、1992年5月,在任海南省副省长期间,先后两次批示,帮助个体工商户庄某某弄虚作假,倒签日期,违反规定补办征地手续,使庄得以购买海口市坡博村的土地,与他人合作经营,获得巨额利润。为感谢孟庆平,庄通过孟的妻子郭秀英先后送给孟港币10万元、人民币10万元。1990年至1993年,庄某某每年春节去孟庆平家拜年,先后四次又送给郭秀英人民币共3.5万元。1993年4月,孟庆平到湖北赴任,海南某房地产公司经理符某某送给孟人民币3万元。1994年前后和1996年底,符又先后送给孟人民币2万元和3万元。1989年前后,庄某某还送给郭秀英人民币1万元。另外,孟庆平腐化堕落,生活糜烂,乱搞两性关系,玩弄女性。

Meng Qingping's main violations of discipline and law include: In August 1989 and May 1992 , during his tenure as vice governor of Hainan Province, he gave two instructions to help individual industrial and commercial households make frauds, reverse the date, and complete the land requisition procedures in violation of regulations. This enabled Zhuang to purchase land in Pobo Village, Haikou City, and cooperate with others to obtain huge profits. To reward Meng Qingping, Zhuang gave Meng HK $ 100,000 and RMB 100,000 through Meng's wife Guo Xiuying. From 1990 to 1993, Zhuang Moumou went to Meng Qingping's house to celebrate the Lunar New Year every year and gave Guo Xiuying a total of 35,000 yuan four times. In April 1993, Meng Qingping went to Hubei to take office, and Fu Moumou, a real estate company manager in Hainan, gave Meng RMB 30,000. Around 1994 and at the end of 1996, Fu gave RMB 20,000 and RMB 30,000 to Meng. Around 1989, Zhuang Moumou also gave Guo Xiuying 10,000 yuan. In addition, Meng Qingping was corrupt and degenerate, his life was erosive, he had fucked with sexual relations, and played with women.

1996年12月29日 俄油船断裂 日沿海污染 

Coastal pollution on the day of Russian tanker break on December 29, 1996

 1996年12月29日,俄罗斯油轮“纳霍德卡”号(排水量13157吨),满载着1.9万吨重油从中国上海港起锚,开往俄罗斯远东港口。1997年1月2日凌晨3时许,设在舞鹤市的日本海上保安厅第八管区接收到紧急呼救信号:该船在日本海隐岐岛东北约130公里的海面上失事。天亮后,海上保安厅的6架直升机飞临出事地点。只见180多米长的俄油轮已从距船头50米处断裂,只有船头还漂浮在海面上。船身已沉入2000多米的海底。他们救起了31名船员,只有船长下落不明。

On December 29, 1996, the Russian tanker "Nakhodka" (displacement of 13,157 tons), loaded with 19 thousand tons of heavy oil, anchored from the port of Shanghai, China, and sailed to the port of Russian Far East. At about 3 am on January 2, 1997, the eighth district of the Japan Maritime Security Agency in Maizuru City received an emergency call for help: the ship crashed on the sea about 130 kilometers northeast of the island of Hidden Qi in Japan. After dawn, six helicopters from the Maritime Security Agency approached the accident site. I saw that the Russian tanker, which was more than 180 meters long, had broken from 50 meters from the bow, and only the bow was still floating on the sea. The hull has sunk into the ocean floor for more than 2,000 meters. They rescued 31 crew members, only the captain's whereabouts were unknown.

  当天,巡逻飞机发现从破损油轮中泄出的一条宽约3公里、长约60公里的黑色“油带”漂浮在海面上,并顺着西北风和“对马海潮”向日本沿岸漂去。据估计浮油大约有4000吨左右。日本有关方面力图阻止浮油登陆。他们采取了各种措施。但是由于气候恶劣,几乎所有的办法都难奏效。他们向浮油撒放处理剂,目的是分解浮油,最后由海洋微生物将浮油变成无害物质。但是日本海上连日22米/秒的风速,飞机根本无法作业。而且据专家的意见,由于这次的浮油不是普通原油,而是粘稠度极高的重油,因此,即使撒放处理剂也难取得理想的效果。人们又试图设立“拦油堤”,但是7米高的浪头,使漂浮在海面的拦油堤显得毫无用处。人们只能眼睁睁地看着黑色浮油向海岸漂去,从而造成了日本最严重的一次海洋污染事件。

On the same day, a patrol plane found that a black "oil band" about 3 km wide and 60 km long that had leaked from the damaged tanker floated on the sea surface, and drifted along the northwest wind and "Tsuma Sea Tide" towards the Japanese coast. It is estimated that the oil slick is about 4,000 tons. Relevant Japanese authorities are trying to prevent the oil slick from landing. They have taken various measures. However, due to the bad weather, almost all methods are not effective. They sprayed a treatment agent on the oil slick in order to decompose the oil slick, and finally the marine oil turned the oil slick into a harmless substance. However, the wind speed of 22 meters per second on the Japanese sea continued to make the aircraft impossible to operate. Moreover, according to the opinions of experts, since the oil slick this time is not ordinary crude oil, but heavy oil with extremely high viscosity, it is difficult to achieve ideal results even if the treatment agent is sprayed. People tried to set up "oil barriers", but the 7-meter-high wave made the oil barriers floating on the sea surface useless. People can only watch as black slicks drift towards the coast, causing one of the worst marine pollution incidents in Japan.

  “纳霍德卡”号油轮是22年前建造的一条旧船。专家估计是由于船只老化而造成船体断裂。这条船上共有22个储油舱。船尾部分由于储油舱破裂,重油泄出而沉入海底。但是,载着其余部分重油的“纳霍德卡”号船头部分却仍在海上漂流。7日,人们最担心的事情终于发生了。船头部分随着海浪漂到了沿岸,并在日本著名的观光胜地福井县东寻坊海面触礁,重油从撞坏的油舱中流出,使污染更加严重。到8日,日本已有6个府县的300公里海岸遭到浮油的污染。而且浮油大有漂越过能登半岛之势。一切方法用尽之后,只剩下“人海战术”。为了减轻灾害,8日起,污染地区沿岸的渔业协会组织起渔民,手持水桶、水舀子,来到海滩,人工清除重油。

The "Nakhodka" tanker is an old ship built 22 years ago. Experts estimate that the hull was broken due to the aging of the ship. There are 22 oil storage tanks on this ship. The stern part sank into the sea due to the rupture of the oil storage tank and the heavy oil leaked. However, the bow of the Nakhodka, which carried the rest of the heavy oil, was still drifting at sea. On the 7th, what people most worried about finally happened. The bow part drifted along the shore along with the waves, and hit the reef in the sea of Higashikenbo, Fukui Prefecture, a famous tourist attraction in Japan. The heavy oil flowed out from the damaged oil tank, making the pollution worse. By the 8th, 300 kilometers of coasts in 6 prefectures in Japan had been polluted by oil slicks. And the oil slick is likely to drift over the Noto Peninsula. After all the methods were exhausted, only the "man-sea tactics" remained. In order to mitigate the disaster, fishermen's associations along the coast of the polluted areas organized fishermen to come to the beach with buckets and ladles to remove heavy oil manually.

  这一带是日本海沿岸有名的游览区,有“日本三景”之一的天桥立、被视为自然奇观的“鸣沙海滩”、充满传奇色彩的舞鹤港……终年吸引着无数游人。这一带又是海产品的重要产地。紫菜、虾、深水蟹、鲍鱼、海螺等都是这里的名产。如今站在这一带的海岸上,闻到的是一股刺鼻的油味,看到的是黑油拍岸。几只雪白的水鸟钻出水面竟成了黑鸟。如今正是这里收获紫菜和捕蟹的季节。一位渔民从浅海岩石上捞起的紫菜上沾满了油污。每年此时,这里的渔业协会都要向天皇赠送深水蟹,1997年他们已表示很难赠送了。不仅当季的海产品受到影响,而且夏季收获的鲍鱼等也将受到影响。初步估算,污染造成渔业和旅游业收入损失合计将逾百亿日元。

This area is a well-known tourist area along the coast of the Sea of Japan. It has a flyover that is one of the "Three Scenic Spots in Japan", a "Mingsha Beach" regarded as a natural wonder, and the legendary Maizuru Port ... attracting countless visitors all year round. This area is also an important source of seafood. Nori, shrimp, deep-water crab, abalone, conch, etc. are all famous here. Now standing on the coast in this area, I can smell a pungent oil smell, and I can see the black oil on the shore. Several white waterbirds emerged from the water and turned into black birds. Now is the season for laver and crab hunting here. The seaweed that a fisherman picked up from a rock in the shallow sea was stained with oil. Every year at this time, the fishery association here presents deepwater crabs to the emperor. In 1997, they have stated that it is difficult to give them. Not only seafood in the season is affected, but abalones harvested in summer will also be affected. Preliminary estimates indicate that the combined loss of income from fishing and tourism caused by pollution will exceed 10 billion yen.

1996年12月29日 危地马拉结束36年的内战签署和平协定 

December 29, 1996 Guatemala ends 36 years of civil war and signs peace agreement

 1996年12月29日,危地马拉政府与游击队组织全国革命联盟签署《永久和平协定》,宣告最终结束在这个中美洲国家长达36年之久的内战。

On December 29, 1996, the Guatemalan government and the guerrilla organization National Revolutionary Alliance signed the "Perpetual Peace Agreement", announcing the end of the 36-year-old civil war in this Central American country.

  12月29日下午5时,签字仪式在总统府院内进行。外交部长斯特因宣读《永久和平协定》后,政府和平委员会四位代表和全国革命联盟四位代表分别在协定文本上签字。随后,联合国加利秘书长也在协定文本上签字。

At 5 pm on December 29, the signing ceremony took place in the Presidential Palace. After the Minister of Foreign Affairs Stein read the Permanent Peace Agreement, four representatives of the Government Peace Commission and four representatives of the National Revolutionary Alliance signed the text of the agreement. Subsequently, the Secretary-General of the United Nations Gali also signed the text of the agreement.

  签字后政府和平委员会代表和游击队代表分别发表简短讲话,对和平谈判取得的成果感到满意,同时表示要严格履行这一“具有历史意义的协定”,为重建危地马拉而努力。

After the signing, representatives of the government ’s peace commission and guerrillas made short speeches, respectively, and were satisfied with the results of the peace negotiations.

  加利秘书长在讲话中认为,危地马拉签署永久和平协定是冲突双方以及国际社会长期共同努力的成果。加利在讲话中还赞扬了国际社会、特别是危和平进程友好国家集团(哥伦比亚、美国、墨西哥、挪威、西班牙和委内瑞拉)为危地马拉和平作出的努力和贡献。

In his speech, the Secretary-General of Gali believed that the signing of a permanent peace agreement by Guatemala was the result of long-term joint efforts by both parties to the conflict and the international community. In his speech, Gali also praised the efforts and contributions of the international community, especially the Group of Friendly Countries (Colombia, the United States, Mexico, Norway, Spain and Venezuela) to peace in Guatemala.

  危地马拉永久和平协定主要内容包括双方几年来在人权、印第安人权利和地位、社会经济与土地问题、游击队员重返社会、修改宪法和选举法等方面达成的11个与实现和平有关的协议。在今天的签字仪式上,双方还公布了他们今天最后达成的落实永久和平协定日程表。根据这一日程表,2000年全部落实上述协议。

The main content of the Guatemalan Permanent Peace Agreement includes 11 peace-related agreements reached in the past few years on human rights, Indian rights and status, socioeconomic and land issues, guerrilla reintegration, amendments to the Constitution and election laws. At today's signing ceremony, the two sides also announced the schedule for the implementation of the permanent peace agreement that they finally reached today. According to this schedule, the above agreements will be fully implemented in 2000.

  危地马拉1960年爆发内战。危地马拉政府军与反政府游击队组织兵戎相见36年,百姓涂炭,17万多人死亡,4万多人失踪,100多万人背井离乡沦为难民,国家经济每况愈下,人民生活困苦不堪。危冲突双方从1987年开始和平谈判,历时10年才最后达成在全国实现永久和平协定。

Civil war broke out in Guatemala in 1960. The Guatemalan government army and the anti-government guerrilla organization met for 36 years. The people were tarnished, more than 170,000 people died, more than 40,000 people disappeared, and more than 1 million people left their homes and became refugees. The state of the country's economy is deteriorating and people's lives are suffering. The two parties to the dangerous conflict started peace talks in 1987, and it took 10 years to finally reach an agreement to achieve a permanent peace across the country.

1993年12月29日 《保护生物多样性公约》成为国际法 

Convention on the Protection of Biological Diversity becomes international law on December 29, 1993

1992年6月在巴西里约热内卢联合国环境与发展大会召开期间产生的《保护生物多样性公约》,于1993年12月29日正式成为具有法律约束效力的国际法,从而为世界环境保护领域中的植物、动物和微生物保护工作以及国际合作提供了法律依据和政策指南。

The Convention on the Protection of Biological Diversity, which was produced during the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in June 1992, officially became a legally binding international law on December 29, 1993. Animal and microbiological protection efforts and international cooperation provide legal basis and policy guidance.

  生物多样性是指地球上陆地、水域、海洋中所有的生物(包括各种动物、植物、微生物)以及它们拥有的遗传基因和它们所构成的生态系统之间的丰富性、多样化、变异性和复杂性的总称。生物物种多样性实际包括了物种多样性、生态系统多样性和遗传基因多样性3个层次。生物物种多样性为人类生存与发展提供了基本的条件,被认为是与人类社会持续发展息息相关的最重要因素。

Biodiversity refers to the richness, diversity, and variability between all living things (including various animals, plants, microorganisms) on the earth's land, waters and oceans, as well as the genetic genes they possess and the ecosystems they form. And complexity in general. Biological species diversity actually includes three levels of species diversity, ecosystem diversity and genetic diversity. Biological species diversity provides basic conditions for human survival and development, and is considered to be the most important factor closely related to the sustainable development of human society.

  人们日常生活中的食品、燃料、药物、工农业原材料等大部分都来源于生物资源,特别是由其野生种驯化培育而生的家畜家禽、水果以及其它经济植物。环境学家认为,地球上至少有7.5万种植物可供人类食用,而现在利用的仅3.5万种。人类进一步利用植物,有助于解决世界粮食问题。人类与疾病作斗争,也需要生物物种多样性。

Most of the food, fuel, drugs, industrial and agricultural raw materials in people's daily life are derived from biological resources, especially domestic animals, poultry, fruits, and other economic plants that were domesticated and cultivated from their wild species. Environmentalists believe that there are at least 75,000 plant species on earth for human consumption, compared with only 35,000 species currently in use. The further use of plants by humans can help solve the world's food problems. Humans also need biodiversity to fight disease.

  《保护生物多样性公约》的酝酿和产生是对科学家在十多年前对全球物种危机状况发出警告的积极反应。科学家指出,主要是在人口增长及其相关因素的影响下,全球物种减少的速度已加速至自然界优胜劣汰速度的2.5万倍。据估计,到2050年,地球上现有物种的一半将不复存在。

The incubation and emergence of the Convention on the Protection of Biological Diversity is a positive response to the warnings given by scientists about the state of the global species crisis more than a decade ago. Scientists point out that mainly under the influence of population growth and related factors, the rate of global species decline has accelerated to 25,000 times the rate of survival of the fittest in nature. It is estimated that by 2050, half of the existing species on the planet will cease to exist.

  《保护生物多样性公约》的核心部分是3项政治原则:1.在实施环境保护政策的同时,各国在开发并利用资源方面享有主/权;2.相对富裕的国家在帮助相对贫穷的邻国遵循公约方面负有义务,应该提供经济和技术援助;3.物种资源丰富但经济状况不佳的国家可以分享以其生物资源为原料的制成品产生的利润。

The core part of the Convention on the Protection of Biological Diversity is three political principles: 1. While implementing environmental protection policies, countries enjoy sovereignty / sovereignty in the development and use of resources; 2. Relatively rich countries are helping relatively poor neighbors Countries are obliged to comply with the Convention and should provide economic and technical assistance; 3. Countries with rich species resources but poor economic conditions can share profits generated from manufactured products using their biological resources as raw materials.

  全世界签署《保护生物多样性公约》的国家总共已达167个,但在各国政府签署这项国际条约之后,还必须经过30个以上国家的立法机构批准,才能生效。1993年,批准这一公约的国家已达36个,从而已使其成为国际法。

A total of 167 countries have signed the Convention on the Protection of Biological Diversity around the world, but after governments sign this international treaty, they must be approved by the legislative bodies of more than 30 countries before it can enter into force. In 1993, 36 countries had ratified this convention, which has made it international law.

  作为对公约承担的义务,各签约国将制定在国界范围内保护植物、动物和微生物及其生长栖息环境的战略,制定并实施对濒危物种施行保护的法律,扩大生物物种的自然保护区,努力恢复已遭到损害的动植物种群,提高公众对自然保护和维护生物资源必要性的认识。

As an obligation to the Convention, each signatory country will formulate strategies to protect plants, animals and microorganisms and their habitats within national borders, formulate and implement laws to protect endangered species, and expand natural reserves of biological species. Restore damaged animal and plant populations and increase public awareness of the need to protect and preserve biological resources.

1989年12月29日 哈维尔当选捷克共和国首任总统 

Javier was elected first president of the Czech Republic on December 29, 1989

瓦茨拉夫·哈维尔,捷克共和国首任总统,原捷克斯洛伐克最后一任总统。生于布拉格一企业主家庭。当过化学实验员。1955~1957年在布拉格的捷克理工大学经济系学习,后在一剧院担任舞台技术员、编剧、助理导演、剧作家。1968年为无党派人士俱乐部成员,行独立作家俱乐部主席,并参加捷克笔会。1969年被禁止从事艺术活动,改当工人。1970~1989年3次入狱,被关押5年。1977年为“七七宪/章”组织发起人和第一发言人。1989年11月为公民论坛组织主要代表。1989年12月29日当选捷克斯洛伐克总统兼任武装力量总司令,1990年7月连任,任内捷克斯洛伐克于1992年12月31日解体。1993年1月26日当选捷克共和国总统。

Vaclav Havel, the first president of the Czech Republic and the last president of the former Czechoslovakia. Born in Prague to a business owner's family. Worked as a chemical experimenter. From 1955 to 1957, he studied at the Department of Economics of the Czech University of Technology in Prague, and later worked as a stage technician, screenwriter, assistant director, and playwright in a theater. In 1968, he was a member of the Non-Party Club, independently chaired the club, and participated in the Czech PEN. In 1969 he was banned from performing art activities and changed to a worker. He was jailed three times from 1970 to 1989 and was detained for five years. In 1977, he was the founder and first spokesman of the "Charter and Charter". In November 1989, he was the main representative of the Civic Forum. On December 29, 1989, he was elected President of Czechoslovakia and commander-in-chief of the armed forces. In July 1990, he was re-elected, and Czechoslovakia disintegrated on December 31, 1992. Elected President of the Czech Republic on January 26, 1993.

1985年12月29日 象牙海岸改国名为“科特迪瓦” 

December 29, 1985 Ivory Coast changed its name to "Côte d'Ivoire"

1985年12月29日,象牙海岸共和国决定从1986年年1月1日起,将国名改为科特迪瓦共和国。“科特迪瓦”是法文“象牙海岸”的中文音译。

On December 29, 1985, the Republic of Ivory Coast decided to change the name of the country from January 1, 1986 to the Republic of Côte d'Ivoire. "Côte d'Ivoire" is a Chinese transliteration of French "Ivory Coast".

“象牙海岸”改名为“科特迪瓦”的原因是,它的国名在各种语文中向来都是意译,因而造成“象牙海岸”一词的开头字母在各种语文中都不同。由于国际机构实行以各个国家名字的第一个字母在字母表中的顺序排列,致使象牙海岸在许多情况下国名排列的位子变动不定。在征得联合国同意后,从1986年1月1日起,这个国家的名字在各种语文中一律改为音译。

The reason why "Ivory Coast" was renamed "Côte d'Ivoire" is that its country name has always been paraphrased in various languages, which caused the initial letters of the word "Ivory Coast" to be different in various languages. Due to the international organization of the alphabetical order of the first letters of the names of the countries, the Ivory Coast's ranking of the country names in many cases varies. With the consent of the United Nations, the name of the country was changed to transliteration in all languages from 1 January 1986.

1984年12月29日 瑞士建成世界地势最高的地铁 

Switzerland's tallest subway in the world built on December 29, 1984

1984年12月29日,世界地势最高的地铁在瑞士境内的阿尔卑斯山建成,并在萨斯·费通车。这条缆索地铁长一点五公里,列车行驶速度为每小时三十六公里,每次可运送一百一十五名乘客。旅客乘坐列车只要用三分钟的时间就可走完全程,并抵达阿尔卑斯山的海拔三千五百米的高处。这条地铁主要是为滑雪者服务的。

On December 29, 1984, the world's tallest subway was built in the Swiss Alps and opened to Sass-Fee. The cable subway is 1.5 kilometers long and the train runs at 36 kilometers per hour. It can carry 115 passengers at a time. It only takes three minutes for passengers to travel by train, and it reaches the altitude of 3,500 meters in the Alps. This subway is mainly for skiers.

1972年12月29日 我国与贝宁复交 

China resumes diplomatic relations with Benin on December 29, 1972

贝宁,全称贝宁共和国。曾名达荷美。位于西非中南部。面积112622平方公里。人口489万人(1991)。有46个部族,主要是芳族、约鲁巴族等。居民中65%信奉拜物教,余为信奉伊斯/兰教、天主教、基督教新教等。官方语言为法语,流行芳语、约鲁巴语。首都波多诺伏。主要矿藏有石油、铁矿石、磷酸盐、大理石、黄金等,但多储量小,开采价值不大。经济落后,工业基础薄弱,是联合国公布的最不发达国家之一。农业和服务业是国民经济的两大支柱。农业人口占全国人口的80%。主要农作物有玉米、高梁、 小米、木薯、山药、棉花等。工业主要是油脂、纺织、食品等农产品加工业和建材业。1992年人均国内生产总值432.5美元。主要出口棉花、棕榈油、咖啡等农副产品,进口食品、烟 酒、纺织品等日用工业品。16世纪前后出现许多小王国和酋长国。1580年葡萄牙人侵入,在沿海一带进行奴隶贸易。17世纪初南部形成以阿波美为中心的达荷美王国。1913年沦为法国殖民地。1960年8月1日独立(独立日为国庆日),成立达荷美共和国。1975年11月改国名为贝宁人民共和国,1990年2月改为现国名。1964年11月12日与中国建交。1966年1月贝曾单方面宣布与中国断交,1972年12月29日复交。

Benin, the full name of the Republic of Benin. Formerly known as Dahomey. Located in south-western Africa. An area of 112,622 square kilometers. Population of 4.89 million people (1991). There are 46 tribes, mainly aromatic, Yoruba, etc. 65% of the residents believe in fetishism, and the rest are Islamic / Islamic, Catholic, Protestant, etc. The official language is French, with popular aromatic and Yoruba languages. The capital is Porto Novo. The main mineral deposits are petroleum, iron ore, phosphate, marble, gold, etc., but many reserves are small and the mining value is not great. The economy is backward and the industrial base is weak. It is one of the least developed countries announced by the United Nations. Agriculture and services are the two pillars of the national economy. The agricultural population accounts for 80% of the national population. The main crops are corn, sorghum, millet, cassava, yam, and cotton. Industry is mainly agricultural products processing industry such as oil, textile, food and building material industry. In 1992, the per capita GDP was US $ 432.5. It mainly exports agricultural and sideline products such as cotton, palm oil, and coffee, and imports daily-use industrial products such as food, tobacco, wine, and textiles. Many small kingdoms and emirates emerged around the 16th century. The Portuguese invaded in 1580 and engaged in slave trade along the coast. In the early 17th century, the Dahomey kingdom centered on Abomey was formed in the south. In 1913 it became a French colony. Independence on August 1, 1960 (Independence Day is National Day), the Republic of Dahomey was established. In November 1975, the name was changed to the People's Republic of Benin, and in February 1990 it was changed to the current name. Established diplomatic relations with China on November 12, 1964. In January 1966, Bei Zeng unilaterally announced that he had broken diplomatic relations with China, and resumed diplomatic relations on December 29, 1972.

1968年12月29日 南京长江大桥全面建成通车 

The Nanjing Yangtze River Bridge was fully opened to traffic on December 29, 1968

1968年12月29日,南京长江大桥全面建成通车。原定1969年7月1日才能建成。1968年10月1日,大桥铁路桥建成通车。

On December 29, 1968, the Nanjing Yangtze River Bridge was fully opened to traffic. It was originally scheduled to be completed on July 1, 1969. On October 1, 1968, the bridge railway bridge was completed and opened to traffic.

  这座现代化的桥梁是中国自行设计、自行施工建造的。南京长江大桥的全面建成通车,把中国南北交通大动脉津浦路和沪宁路连接了起来,把大江南北的公路交通连接了起来。

This modern bridge was designed and built by China. The Nanjing Yangtze River Bridge has been fully opened to traffic, connecting Jinpu Road and Shanghai-Nanjing Road, the main artery of north-south traffic in China, and connecting road traffic between the north and south of the river.

  大桥从1960年1月开始施工,建设工期为9年,全桥总投资2.87亿元。大桥的建成,在政治上、经济上和战略上都有着重大的意义。大桥的结构为双线、双层铁路和公路两用桥,铁路桥长6772米,公路桥长4589米。

Construction of the bridge began in January 1960 with a construction period of 9 years and a total investment of 287 million yuan. The completion of the bridge is of great significance politically, economically and strategically. The structure of the bridge is a dual-line, double-layer railway and highway bridge. The railway bridge is 6772 meters long and the highway bridge is 4589 meters long.

  江中正桥下层铺设双轨,南来北往的列车可以同时对开;上层宽阔的公路桥面,可以并列行驶四辆大型卡车。正桥两端,矗立着四座巨大的人物塑像。两岸公路引桥接近市区的部分由22孔富有民族特色的双曲拱桥组成。

Double-tracks are laid on the lower level of the Jiangzhongzheng Bridge, and trains from south to north can run at the same time; the wide highway bridge on the upper level can drive four large trucks side by side. At both ends of the main bridge, there are four giant statues. The approach to the urban area of the cross-strait highway approach bridge is composed of a 22-hole double-curved arch bridge with national characteristics.

1950年12月29日 毛泽东所著《实践论》发表 

On December 29, 1950, Mao Zedong's "On Practice" was published

1950年12月29日,毛泽东所著《实践论》发表,此文写于1937年7月。文章从认识论上总结了党的历史经验和教训,揭露了“左”右倾错误,着重批判了王明等“左”倾冒险主义分子的唯心论和先验论。指出一切机会主义都是以主观和客观相分离、以认识和实践相脱离为特征的。毛泽东指出,马克思主义的哲学辩证唯物论有两个显著的特点:一个是它的阶级性,它是为无产阶级服务的;另一个是它的实践性,强调了理论对于实践,又转过来为实践服务。全面阐明了认识和实践即知和行的关系,详细地分析了认识过程的两个飞跃,指出无产阶级和革命人民改造世界的斗争包括改造客观世界和改造主观世界两方面的任务。《实践论》继承、捍卫和发展了马克思主义的认识论,是毛泽东对于马克思列宁主义哲学宝库的重要贡献。

On December 29, 1950, Mao Zedong's "On Practice" was published. This article was written in July 1937. The article summarizes the party ’s historical experience and lessons in epistemology, exposes the “left” and right-turning errors, and focuses on the idealism and transcendental theory of “left” -adventurists such as Wang Ming. It is pointed out that all opportunism is characterized by the separation of subjective and objective, and the separation of cognition and practice. Mao Zedong pointed out that Marxist philosophical dialectical materialism has two remarkable characteristics: one is its class nature, which serves the proletariat; the other is its practicality, emphasizing the theory for practice and turning it into practice service. It comprehensively clarifies the relationship between knowledge and practice, that is, knowledge and action, analyzes two leaps in the process of understanding in detail, and points out that the struggle of the proletariat and revolutionary people to transform the world includes the tasks of transforming the objective world and the subjective world. The "On Practice" inherited, defended, and developed Marxist epistemology, and was an important contribution of Mao Zedong to the treasure trove of Marxist-Leninist philosophy.

1932年12月29日 中国民权保障同盟成立 

On December 29, 1932, the China Civil Rights Protection Alliance was established

中国民权保障同盟是宋庆龄、蔡元培、杨杏佛等为反对蒋介石的法西斯统治、争取人民民主自由权利而建立的一个进步政治团体,成立于1932年12月29日。

The China Civil Rights Protection Alliance is a progressive political group established by Song Qingling, Cai Yuanpei, Yang Xingfo and others to oppose Chiang Kai-shek's fascist rule and fight for the right of people's democracy and freedom.

  “九·一八”事变后,蒋介石推行“攘外必先安内”的反动政策,在加紧对苏区红军“围剿”的同时,残酷镇压抗日民主运动,许多为挽救中华民族危亡而斗争的人被逮捕甚至惨遭杀害。面对蒋介石的黑暗统治,不少有识之士感到无比愤怒,纷纷表示要与国民/党反动派作斗争。民权保障同盟的成立正是为了把单独分散的斗争发展成为集体的有组织的斗争。

After the "September 18th Incident", Chiang Kai-shek promoted the reactionary policy of "you must be safe outside the country". While stepping up the "encirclement and suppression" of the Soviet Red Army, it brutally suppressed the anti-Japanese democratic movement. Many people struggled to save the Chinese nation from perishing. Arrested and even tragically killed. Faced with the dark rule of Chiang Kai-shek, many people of insight were extremely angry and expressed their desire to fight the Kuomintang / Party reactionaries. The Civil Rights Protection Alliance was established to develop separate and scattered struggles into collective, organized struggles.

  民权保障同盟于1932年夏秋间由宋庆龄、蔡元培、杨杏佛、黎照寰、林语堂等人开始筹备。12月17日筹委会发表宣言,宣布组织该同盟的目的与任务是:为释放国内政治犯与废除非法的拘禁、酷刑及杀戮而斗争;刊布关于压迫民权之事实,以唤起社会之公意,援助为争取言论、出版、集/会、结社等自由权利的一切斗争。12月29日,蔡元培、杨杏佛代表同盟在上海举行中外记者招待会,正式宣告同盟成立,宋庆龄任主席,蔡元培任副主席,杨杏佛任总干事。

In the summer and autumn of 1932, the Civil Rights Protection Alliance started preparations by Song Qingling, Cai Yuanpei, Yang Xingfo, Li Zhaohuan, and Lin Yutang. On December 17, the Preparatory Committee issued a declaration announcing the purpose and task of organizing the alliance: to fight for the release of domestic political prisoners and the abolition of illegal detention, torture and killing; to publish facts about the oppression of civil rights in order to evoke the will of society , To assist in all struggles for freedom of speech, publication, assembly / assembly, association, etc. On December 29, Cai Yuanpei and Yang Xingfo held a Chinese and foreign press conference in Shanghai on behalf of the alliance. The alliance was formally announced. Song Qingling was appointed as the chairman, Cai Yuanpei as the vice chairman, and Yang Xingfo as the director-general.

  同盟成立后,在宋庆龄、蔡元培、杨杏佛的领导下,为保障人民的民主自由权利,营救政治犯,反对国民/党的非法拘禁和杀戮,开展了多项活动。

After the establishment of the alliance, under the leadership of Song Qingling, Cai Yuanpei and Yang Xingfo, a number of activities were carried out to protect the people's democratic and free rights, rescue political prisoners, and oppose the illegal detention and killing of the KMT.

  由于民权保障同盟坚持不懈地同国民/党黑暗统治作斗争,国民/党的反动派极为恼恨,发表宣言,诬蔑同盟为“非法组织”,要求予以解散。1933年6月,杨杏佛被国民/党特务暗杀。宋庆龄在杨杏佛被害时发表声明,庄严表示:我们非但没有被吓倒,杨铨为同情自由所付出的代价反而使我们更坚决地斗争下去……。但是,由于当时白色恐怖极端严重,加上杨杏佛被害后失去了一位组织家、实干家,活动无法进行,因此民权保障同盟无形中解散了。

Due to the relentless struggle of the Civil Rights Protection Alliance against the dark rule of the Kuomintang / Party, the Kuomintang / Party's reactionaries were extremely resentful and issued a declaration defaming the Union as an “illegal organization” and demanded its dissolution. In June 1933, Yang Xingfo was assassinated by National / Party agents. When Song Qingling was killed when Yang Xingfo was killed, he solemnly stated that: instead of being intimidated, the price Yang Yang paid for sympathy made us fight more resolutely ... However, due to the extremely serious white terror at that time, and the fact that Yang Xingfo was killed and lost an organizer and doer, the activities could not be carried out, so the Civil Rights Protection Alliance was virtually disbanded.

  中国民权保障同盟存在的时间虽然仅仅半年,但它有力地揭露了国民/党反动统治的黑暗,是对国民/党法西斯专制的一次公开宣战。它所进行的斗争,是同当时中国共产党领导的反蒋抗日斗争相一致的。

Although the China Civil Rights Protection Alliance existed for only half a year, it effectively exposed the darkness of the Kuomintang / Party reactionary rule and was a public declaration of war against the Kuomintang / Party fascist dictatorship. Its struggle was consistent with the anti-Chiang resistance against Japan led by the Communist Party of China at that time.

1928年12月29日 东三省改旗易帜 

On December 29, 1928, the three eastern provinces changed their flags.

1928年12月29日,东北保安总司令张学良正式通电宣布:从即日起遵守三民主义,服从国民政府,改变旗帜。

On December 29, 1928, Zhang Xueliang, commander-in-chief of Northeast Security, formally announced that he would abide by the Three People's Principles, obey the National Government, and change the banner.

  12月29日上午7时,东三省同时悬起青天白旗。是年7月1日,张学良不顾日本的军事、经济、政治压力,通电宣布与南京方面停止军事行动,决不妨碍统一。8月3日,蒋介石派员参加张作霖丧礼,并同张学良谈判易帜问题,张表示服从三民主义,希望统一。而日本政府正逼迫张学良继续分离东三省,力图阻止中国南北统一,干涉东北易帜。但是,蒋介石统一东三省的行动受到英美支持,日本在国际上孤立,日本首相田中义一无可奈何地表示,东三省易帜是中国内政问题。这样,东北易帜的良机出现。张学良在易帜的典礼上讲话表示:“我们易帜,也就是不再想分中央的权力,把政权还给中央,以谋全国真正的统一。”东北易帜后,国民政府特任张学良为东北边防军司令长官。

At 7 a.m on December 29, the three eastern provinces simultaneously hoisted the blue sky and white flag. On July 1st of that year, despite the military, economic, and political pressures of Japan, Zhang Xueliang announced that he would cease military operations with Nanjing and would not hinder reunification. On August 3, Chiang Kai-shek sent staff to attend the funeral of Zhang Zuolin and negotiated with Zhang Xueliang about the change of flag. Zhang stated that he obeyed the Three People's Principles and hoped for reunification. The Japanese government is forcing Zhang Xueliang to continue to separate the three eastern provinces in an attempt to prevent China's north-south reunification and interfere with the change of northeast China. However, Chiang Kai-shek's unification of the three eastern provinces was supported by the United Kingdom and the United States, and Japan was isolated internationally. Japanese Prime Minister Tanaka Yoshiyuki reluctantly stated that changing the three eastern provinces was a matter of China's internal affairs. In this way, the opportunity for the Northeast to change flags appeared. Zhang Xueliang said at the ceremony of changing the flag: "We changed the flag, that is, we no longer want to divide the power of the central government, and return the political power to the central government, in order to seek true national unification." Commander.

1911年12月29日 孙中山当选为临时大总统 

Sun Yat-sen was elected interim president on December 29, 1911

1911年12月12日,14省代表共39人,由武汉、上海齐集南京,决议于12月16日选举临时大总统。公举黄兴为大元帅,黎无洪副之。黄兴坚辞不就,遂又改举黎元洪为大元帅,黄兴为副元帅。不及半月,正副帅位忽又倒置,时人讥为儿戏。而黄兴、黎元洪皆不能来南京赴任。21日,黎无洪接受大元帅名义,并委黄兴代行大元帅职权,黄兴再辞。

On December 12, 1911, a total of 39 representatives from 14 provinces gathered in Nanjing from Wuhan and Shanghai. It was decided to elect the interim president on December 16. Huang Xing was named Grand Marshal, and Li Wuhong was deputy. Huang Xingjian did not resign, and then renamed Li Yuanhong as Grand Marshal and Huang Xing as Deputy Marshal. Less than half a month, the head and deputy were suddenly turned upside down, and people were playing tricks. Neither Huang Xing nor Li Yuanhong could come to Nanjing for office. On the 21st, Li Wuhong accepted the name of Marshal and appointed Huang Xing to act as Marshal. Huang Xing resigned.

20日,孙中山经香港归国,胡汉民、廖仲恺等乘兵舰到港迎接。胡汉民劝孙中山留广东,整训军队,举兵北伐。然后“实力廓清强敌,乃真成南北统一之局”。孙中山坚持前往沪、宁,主持内外大计,说:“我若不至沪宁,则此一切对外大计主持,决非他人所能任”。又说:“今之大患即在无政府”。

On the 20th, Sun Yat-sen returned to Hong Kong via Hong Kong, and Hu Hanmin and Liao Zhongkai arrived in port to meet them. Hu Hanmin advised Sun Yat-sen to stay in Guangdong, train the army, and go north. Then "clearing the strength and defeating the enemy is really the unification of the North and the South." Sun Yat-sen insisted on going to Shanghai and Ningxia to preside over the internal and external plans, saying, "If I don't go to Shanghai-Nanjing, I will preside over all these external plans, which is by no means what others can do." He also said, "The great problem today is anarchy."

25日,孙中山到上海,受到热烈欢迎。报纸纷传孙携有巨款回国,记者问他:“你这次带多少钱来?”孙中山说:“予不名一钱也,所带回者革命之精神耳!革命之目的不达,无和议之可言也!”

On the 25th, Sun Yat-sen arrived in Shanghai and was warmly welcomed. Newspapers circulated that Sun returned home with huge sums of money, and the reporter asked him, "How much money do you bring this time?" Sun Yat-sen said, "If you do n’t name any money, you will bring back the spirit of revolution! The purpose of the revolution is not up to date. No peace talk at all! "

孙中山立即和同盟会负责人讨论组织临时政府问题。孙主张采取总统制,不设总理;宋教仁主张采取内阁制,设总理。孙中山认为:“内阁制乃平时不使元首当政治之冲,故以总理对国会负责,断非此非常时代所宜。”黄兴支持孙中山意见。同时决定分别向各省代表示意,选举孙为临时大总统。

Sun Zhongshan immediately discussed the organization of the interim government with the head of the League. Sun advocated a presidential system without a prime minister; Song Jiaoren advocated a cabinet system with a prime minister. Sun Yat-sen believes: "The cabinet system is usually not to make the head of state a political impulse, so it is not appropriate for this time to take the Prime Minister's responsibility to Congress." Huang Xing supports Sun Zhongshan's opinion. At the same time, it was decided to indicate to the representatives of the provinces separately that Sun was elected interim president.

12月29日,在南京的17省代表,正式选举临时大总统。计有候选资格者3人;孙中山、黎元洪、黄兴。17省代表依次投票,孙文得16票,黄兴得1票,选举结果揭晓时,“众呼中华共和万岁三声,是时音乐大作,在场军学各界互相祝贺,喜悦之情,达于极点”。在上海的孙中山得知消息,立即复电南京,表示接受,他说:“光复中华,皆我军民之力,文孑身归国,毫发无功,竟承选举,何以克当?惟念北方未靖,民国初基,宏济艰难,凡我国民,具有责任。诸公不计功能,加文重大之服务,文敢不黾勉从国民之后,当克日赴宁就职,先此敬复。”

On December 29, the representatives of the 17 provinces in Nanjing formally elected the interim president. There are 3 candidates; Sun Yat-sen, Li Yuanhong, Huang Xing. Delegates from 17 provinces voted in turn. Sun Wen got 16 votes and Huang Xing got 1 vote. When the election results were announced, "The three voices of the Chinese Republic were long lived. It was a musical masterpiece. Congratulations from all walks of life in the military academy were present. pole". Upon hearing the news, Sun Yat-sen in Shanghai immediately reinstated Nanjing and expressed his acceptance. He said: "The restoration of China is the power of our military and civilians. Wen Hui returned to the country without any success, but he was elected. Why should he be? Wei Jing, the foundation of the Republic of China, Hongji is difficult, and all our citizens have responsibilities. Regardless of their functions, Gavin's major service, Wen dare not reluctantly resign from the nationals, and then go to Nanjing to work in the country. "

孙中山当选消息传出后,安徽军民万人集/会都督府庆贺,福州万人举行提灯游/行。南京“均色舞眉飞,互相庆祝,所有各商铺居民无不预备香花灯烛,以争迎迓。总统府内,均用五色电灯,排成花样,其光采焕然一新,虽白臾黄童,无不共称中华民国万岁云”。南京各界市民一律剪去辫发,以示庆祝。而“南洋、澳、欧美各地贺电,为日盈尺”。

After the news of Sun Yat-sen's election came out, the military and civilians in Anhui met and celebrated in the Governor's Office, and the people in Fuzhou held a lantern tour / line. Nanjing ’s “even-color dance dances and celebrates each other. All residents of all shops have prepared scented lanterns to greet them. In the presidential palace, five-color electric lights are arranged in a pattern, and their radiance is renewed. Called the Long Live Cloud of the Republic of China. " People from all walks of life in Nanjing cut their braids in celebration. And "Nanyang, Australia, Europe and the United States congratulatory telegrams, is a daily surplus."

1899年12月29日 聂荣臻元帅诞辰 

Birthday of Marshal Nie Rongzhen on December 29, 1899

中国军事家,政治家。中国人民解放/军创建人和领导人之一,中华人民共和国元帅。1899年12月29日生于四川江津。1919年底赴法国勤工俭学,1922年8月参加旅欧中国少年共产党(后改称中国社会主义青年团旅欧支部),次年春转入中国共产党。1924年10月到苏联学习。1925年8月回国后,历任黄埔军校政治部秘书兼政治教官,中共广东区委军委成员、军委特派员,中共湖北省委军委书记。后在中共中央军事委员会参与向北伐军派遣中共党员等工作。 

Chinese strategist and politician. One of the founders and leaders of the Chinese People's Liberation Army, the Marshal of the People's Republic of China. Born in Jiangjin, Sichuan on December 29, 1899. At the end of 1919, he went to work and study in France. In August 1922, he participated in the Chinese Youth Communist Party in Europe (later renamed the Chinese Socialist Youth League's European Branch) and transferred to the Chinese Communist Party the following spring. Studying in the Soviet Union in October 1924. After returning to China in August 1925, he successively served as Secretary and Political Instructor of the Political Department of Huangpu Military Academy, member of the Military Commission of the Guangdong District Committee of the Communist Party of China, special commissioner of the Military Commission, and secretary of the Military Commission of the Hubei Provincial Committee of the Communist Party of China. Later, he participated in the dispatch of Communist Party members to the Northern Expeditionary Army in the Central Military Commission of the Communist Party of China.

  1927年7月中旬任中共前敌军委书记,参加南昌起义后任起义军第十一军党代表。同年12月,参与领导广州起义。1928年任中共广东省委军委书记,1930年初任中共顺直省委组织部部长,同年5月后在中共中央特科和中央军委工作,先后在香港、天津、上海等地坚持秘密斗争。1931年12月进入中央苏区,先后任中国工农红军总政治部副主任、第一军团政治委员,曾当选为中华苏维埃共和国中央执行委员。同年4月,作为红军东路军政治委员参与指挥漳州战役。1932年冬以后,与军团长林彪率部参加了第四、第五次反“围剿”。1935年,在遵义会议上支持毛泽东的主张。过金沙江后,任中央红军先遣队政治委员。曾率部参加直罗镇和东征、西征战役。1936年11月,参与指挥山城堡战役。 

In mid-July 1927, he served as the former Communist Party Secretary of the Communist Party of China. After joining the Nanchang Uprising, he served as the representative of the Eleventh Army Party of the Rebel Army. In December of the same year, he participated in leading the Guangzhou Uprising. In 1928, he served as Secretary of the Military Commission of the Guangdong Provincial Committee of the Communist Party of China. In early 1930, he served as the Minister of the Organization Department of the CPC Shunzhi Provincial Committee. He entered the Central Soviet Area in December 1931, and successively served as Deputy Director of the General Political Department of the Chinese Workers and Peasants Red Army and Political Member of the First Army. He was elected as the Central Executive Member of the Chinese Soviet Republic. In April of the same year, he participated in the command of the Battle of Zhangzhou as a political member of the Red Army East Road Army. After the winter of 1932, Lin Biao and the commander of the army participated in the fourth and fifth anti-encirclement campaigns. In 1935, Mao Zedong was supported at the Zunyi Conference. After crossing the Jinsha River, he served as a political member of the Central Red Army advance team. He once led a ministry to participate in the battle of Zhiluo Town and the Eastern Expedition and Western Expedition. In November 1936, he participated in commanding the Battle of Mountain Castle.

  抗日战争爆发后,任八路军第115师副师长、政治委员,参与指挥平型关战斗,取得全国抗战开始后的第一个大胜利。1937年11月,任晋察冀军区司令员兼政治委员,在晋察冀3省边界地区创建了敌后第一个抗日根据地。1939年冬指挥雁宿崖、黄土岭战斗,击毙被日军称为名将之花的阿部规秀中将旅团长。1940年8月,在百团大战中,组织指挥部队在正太、津浦、平汉、北宁等铁路线进行破击战。1943年秋回延安参加整风运动。1945年部署晋察冀军区部队对日反攻作战。 

After the outbreak of the Anti-Japanese War, he served as deputy division commander and political member of the 115th Division of the Eighth Route Army, participated in the command of the Pingxingguan battle, and achieved the first great victory after the start of the National Anti-Japanese War. In November 1937, he served as commander and political commissar of the Jinchaji Military Region, and established the first anti-Japanese base area behind the enemy in the border areas of the three provinces of Jinchaji. In the winter of 1939, he directed the battle of Yansu Cliff and Huangtuling, killing the commander of the brigade of Lieutenant General Abe Xiu, who was known by the Japanese as the flower of a famous general. In August 1940, during the Battle of the Hundred Regiments, the command and control unit was organized to conduct groundbreaking battles on the railway lines of Zhengtai, Jinpu, Pinghan, and Beining. In the autumn of 1943, he returned to Yanan to participate in the rectification movement. In 1945, the troops of the Jinchaji Military Region were deployed for counterattack operations against Japan.

  解放战争时期,任华北军区司令员、中共中央华北局第二书记、中国人民解放/军军事委员会副总参谋长、平津卫戍区司令、北平(今北京)市市长等职。先后参与指挥正太、清风店、石家庄、平津等战役。 

During the liberation war, he served as commander of the North China Military Region, second secretary of the North China Bureau of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China, deputy chief of staff of the People's Liberation Army / Military Commission, commander of the Pingjin Weijing District, and mayor of Peiping (now Beijing). He has participated in commanding the battles of Zhengtai, Qingfengdian, Shijiazhuang, and Pingjin.

  1950年初任人民解放/军代总参谋长,协助中央军委领导人部署人民解放/军继续解放西南地区和东南沿海岛屿,肃清国民/党残余武装和土匪。在抗美援朝战争中,参与组织中国人民志愿军出国的部署、训练、运输、供应、轮换等工作。曾参与组建各军兵种领导机构和一批军事院校,并组织制定军事条令、条例等。1954年任中央人民政府人民革命军事委员会副主席。1955年被授予中华人民共和国元帅军衔和一级八一勋章、一级独立自由勋章、一级解放勋章。1956年11月任国务院副总理。1958年兼任国务院科学技术委员会主任。1959年兼任国防部国防科学技术委员会主任,领导科技攻关,组织全国大协作,仅用5年时间就研制成功多种导弹和原子弹,不久又研制成功氢弹。 

At the beginning of 1950, he served as the acting chief of staff of the People's Liberation Army / Army, assisting the leaders of the Central Military Commission to deploy the People's Liberation Army / Army to continue to liberate the southwestern region and southeast coastal islands, and eliminate the remnants of the National / Party and bandits. During the War to Resist US Aggression and Aid Korea, participated in the organization, deployment, training, transportation, supply, rotation, etc. of the Chinese People's Volunteer Army. He has participated in the formation of leading agencies and military academies, and organized the formulation of military regulations and regulations. In 1954 he served as Vice Chairman of the People's Revolutionary Military Committee of the Central People's Government. In 1955, he was awarded the rank of Marshal of the People's Republic of China, the first grade of Bayi Medal, the first grade of Independent Freedom Medal, and the first grade Liberation Medal. In November 1956, he was appointed Vice Premier of the State Council. In 1958, he also served as the director of the State Council Science and Technology Committee. In 1959, he also served as the director of the National Defense Science and Technology Committee of the Ministry of National Defense, leading scientific and technological research, and organizing a large-scale national collaboration. In just 5 years, he successfully developed a variety of missiles and atomic bombs, and later successfully developed a hydrogen bomb.

  文化大革命期间,同林彪、江青反革命集团进行了斗争。1983~1988年任中央军事委员会副主席。1988年7月被授予中国人民解放/军一级红星功勋荣誉章。 

During the Cultural Revolution, they fought with Lin Biao and the Jiang Qing counter-revolutionary group. From 1983 to 1988, he served as Vice Chairman of the Central Military Commission. In July 1988, he was awarded the Medal of Honor for the First Star of the Chinese People's Liberation Army.

  1992年5月14日22时43分因心力衰竭,抢救无效,在北京逝世,享年93岁。著有《聂荣臻回忆录》。是第一、二、三届国防委员会副主席,第四、五届全国人民代表大会常务委员会副委员长,中共第七~十二届中央委员,第八届中央政治局委员,第九、十届中央委员,第十一、十二届中央政治局委员。

At 22:43 on May 14, 1992, due to heart failure, the rescue was invalid. He died in Beijing at the age of 93. Author of "Memoirs of Nie Rongzhen". Vice Chairman of the First, Second and Third National Defense Committees, Vice Chairman of the Standing Committee of the Fourth and Fifth National People's Congress, Member of the 7th to 12th Central Committee of the Chinese Communist Party, Member of the 8th Central Political Bureau, 9th and 10th Member of the Central Committee, member of the Eleventh and Twelfth Central Political Bureau.

1885年12月29日 英外相照会清政府欲合并缅甸

On December 29, 1885, the British Foreign Minister noticed that the Qing government wanted to merge Myanmar

 1885年12月29日,英外相令英署使照会清政府总理衙门,自明年1月1日起,英国合并缅甸。缅甸与中国云南接壤。中缅两国有悠久的经济文化交往。乾隆时,缅甸国王孟云接受清朝敕封。英国在占领印度后,竭力入侵缅甸。1824年、1852年两次发动侵略战争,占领了下缅甸(缅甸南部)。此后,企图寻找一条由缅甸通往中国的道路,以便从西南方向侵入中国。1876年的《中英烟台条约》,使英国取得了达到这个目的的便利条件。法国在中法战争中所取得的侵略利益,使英法争夺中国西南的矛盾完全表面化了。吞并缅甸成了英国与法国竞争的最现实的办法。1885年8月29日,缅国王罚私运木材的英国木商公司230万卢比,取消其租山契约,英印度总督利用木商案出兵缅甸,占领京城曼德勒。英外相先照会清驻英公使曾纪泽,假称英军入缅,完全尊重中国权利,目的在于伸雪缅王对英人的虐待,予以惩处。一俟目的达到,即准备与中国谈判将来关于缅甸之处置。但11月29日,英军俘获缅王锡保后,12月29日英外相令英署使照会清总署,宣布将上缅甸并入英属印度,由此实现了对缅甸的全部占领。刚签订《中法新约》不久的清政府自然不敢表示反对。次年7月24日,中英还签订了《缅甸条款》,清政府被迫承认了英国占领缅甸的事实。英国从而在中国西南获得了与法国相当的侵略机会。

On December 29, 1885, the British Foreign Minister ordered the British Council to send a note to the Prime Minister of the Qing government, and from January 1 next year, the United Kingdom merged with Myanmar. Myanmar borders Yunnan, China. China and Myanmar have a long history of economic and cultural exchanges. During Qianlong, Burmese King Meng Yun accepted the seal of the Qing Dynasty. After the occupation of India, Britain tried to invade Myanmar. Two wars of aggression were launched in 1824 and 1852 and occupied Lower Myanmar (Southern Myanmar). Since then, attempts have been made to find a way from Myanmar to China in order to invade China from the southwest. The "Sino-British Treaty of Yantai" of 1876 enabled Britain to achieve convenient conditions for this purpose. The aggression benefits obtained by France in the Sino-French war completely superficially contradicted the conflict between Britain and France in fighting for southwest China. The annexation of Myanmar became the most realistic way for Britain to compete with France. On August 29, 1885, the King of Burma fined 2.3 million rupees for a British wood merchant company who smuggled timber and cancelled its lease of the mountain. The British and Indian governors used the wood merchant case to send troops to Myanmar and occupy Mandalay. The British Foreign Minister first noted that the Qing Minister in the UK, Zeng Jize, falsely claimed that the British army entered Myanmar and fully respected China's rights, with the aim of punishing King Xuemyan for his abuse of the British. As soon as the goal is achieved, it is ready to negotiate with China on the future disposal of Myanmar. However, on November 29, after the British army captured the king of Burma, on December 29, the British Foreign Minister ordered the British Commissioner to send a note to the General Administration of Qing Dynasty, announcing the integration of Upper Myanmar into British India, thereby realizing the entire occupation of Myanmar. Naturally, the Qing government that had just signed the "China-France New Testament" did not dare to oppose it. On July 24 of the following year, China and Britain also signed the "Myanmar Terms", and the Qing government was forced to acknowledge the fact that Britain occupied Myanmar. Britain thus obtained a chance of aggression comparable to France in southwest China.

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