今年的世界
The World This Year
1605字
2019-12-29 21:34
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火星译客

I wear the chain I forged in life

我戴着我在生活中锻造的锁链

Protests against autocratic rule also broke out in other countries, leading to the ouster of Omar al-Bashir in Sudan and the resignation of Evo Morales in Bolivia after a contentious election there. Mass demonstrations caused Ecuador’s government to reinstate fuel subsidies and Chile’s president to promise a new constitution. Algeria’s octogenarian leader, Abdelaziz Bouteflika, called it a day in the face of huge protests. Iraq’s prime minister, Adel Abdul-Mahdi, did the same. But there was no sign of Iran’s mullahs loosening their grip in response to people power. A crackdown on protests there left as many as 450 people dead.

其他国家也爆发了反对独裁统治的抗/议活动,导致苏丹总统奥马尔·巴希尔 (Omar al-Bashir) 下台,玻利维亚总统埃沃·莫拉莱斯 (Evo Morales) 因竞选引发争议而辞职。大规模的示/威游/行迫使厄瓜多尔政府恢复燃料补贴政策,智利总统不得不承诺修订宪法。阿尔及利亚年过八旬的领导人布特弗利卡 (Abdelaziz Bouteflika) 表示这一天他面临着连续的大规模抗/议。伊拉克总理阿德尔·阿卜杜勒·马赫迪(Adel Abdul-Mahdi) 也采取了同样的做法。但没有迹象表明伊朗毛拉们会放松对人民力量的控制。镇压抗/议活动造成450人丧生。

    Warnings about a slowing world economy were a consideration for the Federal Reserve when it decided to cut interest rates for the first time since the financial crisis. Two more reductions followed. Mr Trump quarrelled openly with the Fed for not cutting sooner, calling it a “stubborn child”.

尽管受到全球经济放缓的警告,美联储 (Fed) 仍做出了实行金融危机后首次降息的决定。在这之后还进行了两次降息。特朗普曾公开斥责美联储,称美联储没有及早实行降息政策,像是一个 “ 固执的孩子 ” 。

    The European Central Bank launched a new round of stimulus, much to the chagrin of the German finance minister. It was one of Mario Draghi’s last acts as ECB president before handing over to Christine Lagarde, who is launching only the second strategic review of monetary policy at the ECB. Jean-Claude Juncker, the bogeyman of British Brexiteers, retired as president of the European Commission and was replaced by Ursula von der Leyen, who was the longest-serving member of Angela Merkel’s cabinet in Germany.

欧洲央行推出了新一轮刺激计划,令德国财政部长颇为懊恼。这是马里奥·德拉吉 (Mario Draghi) 移交克里斯蒂娜·拉加德 (Christine Lagarde) 之前任欧洲央行行长最后期间颁布的几则措施之一。拉加德将在欧洲央行启动第二轮货币政策战略评估。持脱欧立场的 “ 怪物 ” 让-克洛德·容克 (Jean-Claude Juncker) 宣告退休,卸任欧盟委员会(European Commission)主席一职,由为德国总理安格拉·默克尔(Angela Merkel) 政府服务、任职时间最长的内阁成员乌苏拉·冯·德莱恩 (Ursula von der Leyen) 接替。

    A horrified world watched on TV as a fire destroyed the roof and some of the interior of Notre Dame cathedral in Paris. A vigorous debate ensued about the extensive refurbishment works. The general overseeing the rebuilding told the chief architect to “shut his mouth” for resisting a modernist plan to replace the spire.

当大火烧毁巴黎圣母院的屋顶和一些内部建筑时,这个世界在电视上看到了这震惊的一幕。随之而来的是一场关于大规模翻新工程的激烈辩论。监督重建工作的将军对首席建筑师说, “ 闭嘴 ”,因为他否决了一项取代尖塔的现代主义计划。

It’s all humbug I tell you!

我告诉你这全是骗人的鬼话!

    Two years in the making, the report into Russian meddling in American politics was at last completed by Robert Mueller. Donald Trump’s critics were disappointed by a lack of evidence tying him to the Russian provocateurs. After all the fuss over the Mueller report, it was Mr Trump’s request to Volodymyr Zelensky, the Ukrainian president, to “do us a favour” and dig up dirt on the Bidens that led to impeachment proceedings. Mr Zelensky won office by trouncing Petro Poroshenko in an election.

这份关于俄罗斯干预美国政治的报告酝酿了两年,最终是由罗伯特·穆勒 (Robert Mueller) 完成的。唐纳德·特朗普(Donald Trump)的批评者为拿不出足以证明其与俄罗斯挑衅者相勾连的材料而倍感挫败。在穆勒的报告闹得沸沸扬扬之后,特朗普请求乌克兰总统弗拉基米尔·泽伦斯基(Volodymyr Zelensky) “ 帮我们一个忙”,挖出比登斯夫妇的丑事,然而最终作茧自缚,受到了弹劾。泽伦斯基在选举中痛击佩特罗·波罗申科而赢得竞选的胜利。

    Some of the runners in the Democratic presidential race fell before reaching the first hurdle. Kamala Harris, one of the early favourites, pulled out after spending all her money.

参加民主党总统竞选的一些人还没跨过第一道栏就摔倒了。早期呼声最高的卡玛拉·哈里斯 (Kamala Harris) 散尽竞选资金后宣布退出。

    In Venezuela Juan Guaidó, the leader of the opposition-controlled national assembly, proclaimed himself interim president, declaring Nicolás Maduro’s regime to be illegitimate. Mr Guaidó was recognised by 60 Western and Latin American countries, but Mr Maduro clings on to power. See article.

在委内瑞拉,由在野党控制的国民大会的领导人胡安·瓜伊多宣称就任临时总统,并指出尼古拉斯·马杜罗政权的非法性。尽管西方及拉美60个国家承认了瓜伊多的总统地位,但马杜罗仍然大权在握。请看文章。

Dead as a doornail

死得很惨

    Iran moved further away from the deal limiting its nuclear activities, saying it would no longer abide by the agreement unless the EU provided it with economic aid. Attacks on commercial shipping and Saudi oil installations were blamed on Iran. America sent more troops and weapons to the region to deter Tehran.

伊朗变本加厉,称除非欧盟提供经济援助,否则它将不再遵守限制该国核活动的协议。商业航运和沙特石油设施遭到来自伊朗的袭击。为了震慑德黑兰的猖狂行动,美国增派军队和武器运往该地区。

    Long-awaited IPOs from a host of tech unicorns turned out to be damp squibs, mostly. Uber’s was the biggest. Its share price went into reverse and is now some 30% lower than on its first day of trading. A spectacular fiasco at WeWork saw it pulling its IPO and being rescued by SoftBank. Saudi Aramco’s IPO took place in Riyadh. It was the world’s largest ever, raising $25.6bn.

人们期待已久的一大批科技 “ 独角兽 ” 公司纷纷实行首次公开募股,但结果大多都以失败告终(独角兽公司一般指投资界对于10亿美元以上估值,并且创办时间相对较短的公司)。其中优步受创最大。该公司股价持续下跌,目前以首日交易价格的70%收盘。WeWork更是经历IPO上的滑铁卢,但在取消首轮公开募股后得到了软银(SoftBank) 的资助。沙特阿拉伯国家石油公司 (Saudi Aramco) 在利雅得启动首次公开募股(IPO),这将是全球有史以来规模最大的股票发行交易,融资金额达256亿美元。

    Among the year’s big takeovers, Occidental, supported by Warren Buffett, acquired Anadarko for $55bn. AbbVie issued one of the biggest-ever bond offers to finance its $83bn purchase of Allergan. And the London Stock Exchange struck a $27bn deal to buy Refinitiv. Fiat Chrysler and Peugeot agreed to merge, after a proposed tie up between Fiat and Renault hit the skids.

再看下今年进行的大型收购活动。在沃伦·巴菲特 (Warren Buffett) 的支持下,西方石油公司(Occidental)以550亿美元收购了阿纳达科石油公司(Anadarko)。艾伯维(AbbVie) 发行债券,其交易规模突破历史记录,并为其以830亿美元收购艾尔建 (Allergan) 提供了融资。伦敦证交所以270亿美元收购 Refinitiv。在向雷诺提出合并计划遭遇挫折后,菲亚特·克莱斯勒最终和标致达成合并。

Boiled with her own pudding

用她自己的布丁煮

    In January Theresa May’s hapless government lost a crucial vote on her Brexit withdrawal agreement in the House of Commons by 230 votes, the largest government defeat on record. It went downhill from there. Three requests were made to extend the Brexit deadline, and Britain still remained in the EU.

今年1月,英国议会下院以230票的反对票否决了特蕾莎·梅 (Theresa May) 提出的退欧协议,梅政府在一场关键性的投票中遗憾落败,这是有记录以来英国政府遭遇的最大挫败。自此之后由梅领导的英国政府便开始走下坡路。在连续三次请求推迟脱欧期限后,英国仍未成功脱欧。

    Mrs May crawled on as prime minister until July. Her replacement, Boris Johnson, sparked a constitutional crisis when he prorogued Parliament in order to limit opposition manoeuvring on Brexit, but the Supreme Court said this was unlawful. Fed up Britons trekked to the polls for yet another election, and gave the Conservatives their biggest majority in 32 years. Mr Johnson took this as a mandate to “get Brexit done”.

今年7月,梅卸任首相。为了限制反对派在英国退欧问题上的操纵,其继任者鲍里斯·约翰逊 (Boris Johnson) 宣布休会议会,由此引发了一场宪法危机,同时最高法院称约翰逊暂停议会工作的决定是非法的。因为厌倦英国选民为了又一选举大费周章地进行投票活动,约翰逊带领保守党取得32年以来的大胜。约翰逊将此视为 “ 完成英国退欧 ” 的使命。

    Argentina’s presidential election brought the Peronists back to power, when Alberto Fernández defeated Mauricio Macri. Cristina Fernández de Kirchner became vice-president, spooking investors who remember her reckless spending when she was president.

在阿尔贝托·费尔南德斯 (Alberto Fernandez) 在阿根廷总统大选中击败毛里西奥·马克里 (Mauricio Macri) 后,庇隆主义者重新上台掌权。克里斯蒂娜·费尔南德斯·德基什内尔 (Cristina Fernandez de Kirchner) 就任阿根廷副总统,引起了对其担任总统时挥霍无度的行为记忆深刻的投资者的恐慌。

    In other elections Justin Trudeau’s Liberals were returned to power in Canada, but with a minority government following a political scandal. The first election in Thailand since the coup in 2014 saw pro-military parties scrape together a majority, with help from the courts. Spain held two elections; the Socialists remain the biggest party. Narendra Modi won a second term as prime minister in India. Joko Widodo secured five more years as Indonesia’s president. The African National Congress claimed victory in South Africa, though its 58% share of the vote was its smallest ever. The Liberal Party defied the pollsters to win in Australia. In Denmark the centre-left came to power, as did the centre-right in Greece.

再看下其他国家的选举活动。贾斯廷·特鲁多带领自由党在加拿大重新掌权,但在政治丑闻后组建了少数派政府。在泰国自2014年政变以来的首次选举中,亲军方政党在法庭的帮助下勉强获得了多数席位。西班牙举行了两次选举;社会党仍然是最大的党。纳伦德拉·莫迪成功连任印度总理,这是他就任总理的第二个任期。印尼总统佐科·维多多 (Joko Widodo) 迎来其下一个五年任期。非洲人国民大会 (African National Congress,简称非国大) 在南非赢得了胜利,尽管得票率只占58%,创历史最低记录。自由党意外翻盘,打破民选预测,在澳大利亚大选中赢得胜利。中右翼政党在丹麦、希腊取得竞选胜利。

    Israel held two inconclusive elections and is heading for a third poll in March 2020. Binyamin Netanyahu was boosted by America recognising Israeli sovereignty over the Golan Heights and describing the settlements in the West Bank as lawful. In November the prime minister was indicted for bribery and fraud.

以色列将在2020年3月举行第三次选举,此前两次选举最终都无疾而终。令该国总理本雅明·内塔尼亚胡感到振奋的是,美国承认以色列在戈兰高地的主/权,并认同其将约旦河西岸作为定居点的合法性。11月,该总理被指控受贿和欺诈。

    Italy got a new government formed by the Democratic Party and Five Star Movement. Matteo Salvini, the hardline leader of the Northern League, was shut out of the coalition.

意大利新政府由民主党和五星运动联合执政。北方联盟主席、强硬派代表马泰奥·萨尔维尼被排除该执政联盟之外。

    The collapse of a dam in the Brazilian state of Minas Gerais unleashed a wave of mud that killed 270 people. The dam’s metal waste could affect local ecosystems for decades.

巴西米纳斯吉拉斯州一座大坝的倒塌引发了一波泥石流,造成270人死亡。大坝的金属废料可能会对当地生态系统造成数十年的影响。

    Media streaming took a leap forward with the release of new services from Disney, Apple and others to try to eat into Netflix’s market. Netflix got its first Oscar nomination for best picture with “Roma”, though “Green Book” won the award.

为了蚕食Netflix的市场份额,迪士尼(Disney)、苹果(Apple)等公司纷纷推出新服务,流媒体服务取得了飞跃式的进展。Netflix凭借《罗马》(Roma)首次获得奥斯卡最佳影片奖提名,不过最终《绿皮书》(Green Book)获得了该奖项。

Mankind is my business

人类事业与我义不容辞

    The Business Roundtable, representing America’s top bosses, redefined the purpose of a company away from shareholder primacy and towards the interests of customers, workers and communities. Mark Zuckerberg proclaimed “a privacy-focused vision for social networking”. But Facebook’s boss found himself at odds with global regulators about his ambitions for Libra, a cryptocurrency that he wants to launch in 2020.

代表美国最高领导人的商业圆桌会议将企业宗旨重新定义为维护客户、工人和社区的利益,而非原来的股东至上。马克·扎克伯格 (Mark Zuckerberg) 宣称,“ 社交网络有望转变为对隐私的关注 ”。但这位Facebook的老板发现,他对Libra (他希望在2020年推出的加密货币) 所抱有的期望与全球监管机构的行动相悖。

    In the worst crisis in its history, Boeing eventually suspended production of its 737 MAX jetliner, after it was grounded worldwide following a second crash within six months. Airlines are still rejigging their flight timetables. See article.

在遭受其历史上最严重的危机后,波音公司最终暂停了其737 MAX 喷气式客机的生产,此前该客机在六个月内发生了第二次坠机事故,在全球范围内停飞。航空公司仍在调整飞行时间表。请看文章。

    After a terrorist attack killed 46 paramilitary police in the Indian-controlled portion of Kashmir, Indian fighter jets struck targets inside Pakistan for the first time since 1971, claiming to hit a jihadist camp. India’s central government later revoked the special status of its part of Kashmir and split it into two territories.

在印度控制的克什米尔地区遭受恐怖袭击致使46名准军事警察丧生后,印度称其因发现圣战分子营地,而派遣战斗机向巴基斯坦发起1971年以来的首次袭击。印度中央政府后来撤销了克什米尔地区的特殊地位,并将其一分为二。

    A massacre in March of 51 people at two mosques in Christchurch, New Zealand, was linked to a rise in global white nationalism. Five months later a gunman who murdered 22 people at a Walmart in El Paso, Texas, was influenced in part by the Christchurch shootings.

今年3月,在全球白人民族主义抬头的影响下,新西兰克赖斯特彻奇 (Christchurch) 两座清/真寺引发了屠杀事件,导致51人丧生。5个月后,一名枪/手在德克萨斯州埃尔帕索的沃尔玛超市连续杀害22人,其在一定程度上是因为受到了克赖斯特彻奇枪击事件的影响。

    In Sri Lanka a series of bombings on Easter Sunday targeted Christians and tourists, killing 253 people. A claim that the jihadists were seeking revenge for the murder of Muslims in Christchurch was doubted by intelligence services. The attacks in Colombo bolstered the strongman campaign of Gotabaya Rajapaksa in the presidential election. After his victory he appointed as prime minister his brother Mahinda, a former president who had overseen the brutal crushing of a Tamil-separatist insurgency.

在周日的复活节,斯里兰卡发生了一系列针对基督徒和游客的爆炸事件,造成253人死亡。情报机构对圣战分子企图报复克赖斯特彻奇穆/斯林谋杀案的说法表示怀疑。科伦坡的袭击事件增强了哥达巴雅•拉贾帕克萨在竞选活动中的强势地位。在他获胜后,他任命他的哥哥也是斯里兰卡的前总统马欣达(Mahinda)为总理,他曾目睹了对泰米尔分离主义叛乱的残酷镇压。

    Turkey invaded northern Syria to fight Kurdish forces allied with America, after Mr Trump withdrew his troops from the area. Although widely condemned, Mr Trump defended his decision on the basis that the Kurds “didn’t help us with Normandy”. The American president also unilaterally ended peace talks with the Taliban. Afghan negotiators are struggling to get them back to the table.

在特朗普从该地区撤军后,土耳其入侵叙利亚北部,打击与美国结盟的库尔德武装力量。在受到广泛谴责后,特朗普为其辩护称,做出该决定是出于库尔德人 “ 没有在诺曼底问题上帮助我们 ”。美国总统还单方面终止了与塔/利班的和平谈判。阿富汗谈判代表正努力让他们回到谈判桌前。

    Mr Trump was able to brag about one success: Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi, the murderous rapist who led Islamic State, blew himself up when he was cornered by American forces.

特朗普值得自我吹嘘的成功之处在于:“ 伊/斯兰国 ” 首领阿布·巴克尔·巴格达迪,这名凶残的强/奸犯 (Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi) 在被美军逼得走投无路时,自己引爆了身上的炸弹。

An undigested bit of beef

一块未消化的牛肉

    Although vegetarian food seemed to be offered everywhere in 2019, Greggs, a purveyor of cheap bakery treats in Britain, was derided for selling a vegan sausage roll. But it was its critics who were left with egg on their face: its share price is up by 75% since January.

尽管2019年素食食品似乎随处可见,但英国廉价烘焙食品供应商格里格斯(Greggs)却因为出售素食香肠卷而受到嘲笑。然而自一月份以来,它的股价已经上涨了75%,这让其批评者们颜面无存。

    Could Greenland become a flashpoint in 2020? Donald Trump’s offer to buy the Danish territory was mocked in Copenhagen, causing him to cancel a state visit. Now America wants to open a consulate in Greenland for the first time since the second world war. Its staff may get a chilly reception.

2020年,格陵兰岛会成为引爆点吗?唐纳德·特朗普(Donald Trump) 购买丹麦领土的提议在哥本哈根遭到嘲笑,导致他取消了国事访问。现在,美国希望在格陵兰开设自二战以来的首个领事馆。它的员工可能会受到冷遇。

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