生命的律动与城市的发展 --“生态友好”设计
Biophilia
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2019-12-24 10:34
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火星译客

Biophilia

“生态友好”设计

In downtown Singapore, where high-rises are built to their lot lines, Oasia, a new 27-­ story hotel and office building, introduces some leafy green respite from the dense urban setting. Creeping plants of 21 different species climb across the tower’s red mesh facades, hummingbirds and insects feed on nectar, and the petals of spent flowers spin down into the streets below.

在新加坡的高层建筑群中,绿洲酒店(Oasia Hotel)是一座27层的摩天大楼,像一座翠绿的高塔为密集的城市环境引入了一点森林的意境。21种不同的植物攀爬在红色的铝制外网架上,显得青翠欲滴,五彩缤纷的花果夹杂其间。在这一派热带风情中,蜂鸟和昆虫正采食着花蜜,花朵绚烂地向着下方的街道绽放着。

New research and industry trends suggest that hotels making room for nature can reap significant advantages. “A hotel’s product is its environment,” says Richard Hassell, a principal at Singapore-based WOHA, architects for Oasia. When biophilic design—design that accounts for humankind’s innate need for connection to nature—adds an extra level of comfort or promotes relaxation, it affects prospective guests’ choices. And when, as in the case of Oasia, the hotel’s facade can also serve as a marketing tool, “it’s an easy sell,” says Hassell. “Hospitality projects are advance soldiers in the fight to have more greenery on buildings.”

绿洲酒店外立面的郁郁葱葱并不难实现,尤其是在热带的新加坡。建筑物上种植植物已经有几个世纪的历史了,该酒店建筑所使用的技术也算不上什么真正的创新。酒店的外立面由一层铝合金网格组成,喷涂了红色,橙色和粉色的涂层。在网格后面,喷漆的预制混凝土板实现外环境隔离。这两层中间,建筑外墙上的攀缘植物在巨大的玻璃纤维桶中生长。这些植被根据光照、隐蔽度与风力条件占据最适于其生长的空间,逐渐形成色彩、纹理相异的立面效果。这是一种充满绿意、生机与多样性的设计手法。在未来,这里将成为鸟类与野生小动物栖息繁衍的天堂。“生态友好”设计将生态多样性带回城市的商务中心地带,同时也有效地弥补了与周边10座建筑组成的小区域内毫无绿色空间的尴尬局面。根据该酒店的设计方WOHA建筑事务所的数据,该设计的实现需要一些额外的费用,但是总的建筑成本并不太高,甚至是可以抵消的。比如,铝网和彩涂混凝土板的成本就低于玻璃幕墙。

The lush expression of Oasia, which opened last April, is not difficult to achieve, especially in tropical Singapore. There have been plants on buildings for centuries, and there’s nothing really innovative about the technology used at Oasia. The hotel’s envelope consists of an outer layer of expanded aluminum mesh, powder-coated in five shades of red, orange, and pink. Behind the mesh, painted precast-concrete panels serve as the weather barrier. Between these two layers, the creepers that climb Oasia’s facades grow in giant fiberglass tubs, with a passageway for maintenance access. There’s some additional expense, but according to WOHA, the cost isn’t prohibitive, and may even be offset by savings elsewhere, on aluminum mesh and painted concrete cladding, for example, the combined cost of which is less than curtain wall.

更有趣的是,WOHA的设计师们在绿洲酒店的垂直空间上设置了数个空中花园。空中花园是摩天大楼垂直维度上的“地平面”空间,更是现代城市中的开阔露台。内切的室外空间在建筑内部构造了充满生机与变化的景观,使得高楼环抱中的建筑无需过度依赖于外部城市环境带来的视觉景观效果。相邻而立的内切空间,层层叠叠,其间生机勃勃的绿意沐浴在阳光之中,洋溢着热带风情。自然风通过这些开阔的露台轻抚过室内空间,带来流动的新鲜空气,营造出舒适的公共空间。

The biophilic design that characterizes Oasia (and WOHA’s work in general) stems from three complementary rationales. The first is stewardship of nature as cities expand: the need to create places for nature at the same time we create floor area. With increasing urbanization, to have any kind of connection to nature, we need to wrap it into our buildings.

与WOHA的其他一般性设计比较,以绿洲酒店为代表的“生态友好”设计源于三个相辅相成的机理。 
1.城市扩张进程中的自然环境:我们创造生存空间的同时,自然环境也需要空间。随着城市化的发展,为了同自然界保持联系,我们必然把自然生态融入到建筑的整体设计中。 

The second rationale is “just that selfish delight that comes from living a more beautiful, peaceful, centered, and calm life when you’re surrounded by nature,” says Hassell. A wealth of research from many disciplines demonstrates that this effect is genuine. Since a landmark study in 1984 documented improved recovery rates and reduced requests for pain medication in hospital rooms with a view of nature, hundreds of additional studies have demonstrated the positive impacts of biophilic environments, including reduced stress, improved cognitive performance, and enhanced creativity.

2.“当你被大自然包围时,内心世界的美丽,平和以及静逸带来了真正的身心愉悦。”1984年,一项划时代的研究就证明了住院期间欣赏窗外的自然美景可以加快恢复速度和减少止痛药的用量。此后,数以百计的研究进一步验证了“生态友好”设计的积极影响,包括减轻压力,改善认知能力和增强创造力。 

The third rationale is ecosystem services—the multitude of ways natural systems support humankind. Biophilic features can often help with stormwater management, heat island reduction, and pollution mitigation, for example. Specific to the the hospitality sector, a 2014 study from the Cornell School of Hotel Administration (SHA) found that eco-certified hotels recorded higher resource efficiency for both operations and customer activities.

3.  生态系统服务--自然环境帮助人类的各种途径。“生态友好”设计通常有助于降水管理,减少热岛效应和缓解污染。

Another 2014 study from the Cornell SHA found that LEED-certified hotels achieved superior financial performance, with higher daily rates, compared to their noncertified competitors, for at least the first two years after certification. Although LEED doesn’t explicitly require the inclusion of biophilic elements, a finding that customers will pay higher rates for a green hotel suggests economic benefits from an approach that integrates nature.

一份来自康奈尔大学酒店管理学院2014年的研究报告指出具有生态认证的酒店在运营和客户活动方面表现了更高的资源利用效率。康奈尔大学的另一项研究发现,LEED认证的酒店获得了优异的财务表现。与未经认证的竞争对手相比,“生态友好”设计在客户偏好中起着重要的作用,并且为酒店带来了不错的经济效益。

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