要想更好的了解中国,你需要付出更多的努力 - 观点
To know China better, make more efforts - Opinion
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2019-12-26 13:14
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火星译客


China Global Television Network recently released a documentary film on fighting terrorism in the Xinjiang Uygur autonomous region in Northwest China, which registered close to 200,000 views on YouTube, a US video-sharing platform. Many of the comments accompanying the "likes" are telling.

中国国际电视台近期推出了一部关于位于中国西北部的新疆 维 吾 尔自治区的反恐纪录片,该片在美国视频共享平台YouTube网站上获得了近20万次的播放量。很大一部分评论都有“点赞”。

One viewer, named Jean Ou, posted a comment, saying it can be assumed that news channels such as CNN and BBC, when viewing this documentary, would simply state: "I can't see, I can't see, I can't see!"

一名叫珍·欧(Jean Ou)的观众发表评论说,可以想象到如果CNN和BBC这类的新闻频道观看该纪录片,只会一直说:“我看不到,我看不见,我看不见!”

Indeed, one big problem which China faces is being misunderstood by the outside world. Still, the foreign media are often to blame for that, as they do a poor and/or prejudiced job of presenting China to the rest of the world. Xinjiang is just one example which shows how the Western media fail, rather refuse, to give a truthful account of China to the global audience.

的确,外界对中国的误解是中国现在面临的一大问题。

外国媒体也常常因此而受到指责,因为他们在将中国展现给世界这一方面做的很糟糕和/或者带有偏见。新疆只是一个例子,它展示了西方媒体是如何未能向全球观众真实描述中国(并非拒绝描述)。

That's why it's a pity that YouTube has now banned the video.

这就是为什么对于YouTube现已禁播该视频,是一件非常遗憾的事情。

Here is a more recent example of how most of the Western media outlets function.

还有一个展示绝大多数西方媒体运作方式发生在近期的一个例子。

To mark the 70th anniversary of the founding of the People's Republic of China, the country held events throughout the day on Oct 1 in Beijing which were telecast live. But some Western media outlets focused only on specific events while putting special emphasis on their own messages.

为纪念中华人民共和国成立70周年,中国于10月1日当天在北京举行了庆祝活动并对其进行了电视直播。但是,一些西方媒体只关注在特定的活动上,并且对他们想要传达的信息进行了特别强调。

The New York Times published a report titled "Tanks, missiles and no pigeons: China to celebrate 70th birthday of the People's Republic". The report highlighted the events only to emphasize the military threat China poses to other countries. The journalist apparently filed the report too soon, because toward the end of the Oct 1 celebrations, China did release 70,000 pigeons.

《纽约 时报》发表了题为《有坦克,有导弹,没有和平鸽——中国为中华人民共和国成立70周年庆祝》的报道。这篇文章中强调这些事件仅仅是为了突出中国带给其他国家的军事威胁,但是记着们显然过早撰写了报道,因为就在10月1日庆祝活动即将结束时,中国放飞了7万羽和平鸽。

Many domestic media outlets, however, reported in detail how the pigeons were loaned from pigeon keepers across Beijing, how all of them returned home safely and that each of them was rewarded for participating in the Oct 1 festivities with a commemorative leg band. Such facts are integral to the National Day celebrations and demonstrate the sense of patriotism inherent in every Chinese national.

然而,国内多家媒体都详细报道了这些鸽子是如何从北京各地饲养者那里借来的,他们是如何安全地回家,以及每只参加10月1日庆祝活动的鸽子都获得了奖励纪念脚环。这些事实是国庆庆祝活动不可或缺的一部分,展现了每个中国人民的爱国之情。

The military parade was meant to display China's defense capability, but the Western media, thanks to its prejudice, used it to paint an aggressive and menacing picture of China's military. No Western media outlet bothered to even mention that China follows a defensive defense policy, and that capability and intention are two totally different things.

阅兵本来是要展示中国的防御能力,但西方媒体却因偏见利用它刻画出一幅中国军队具有侵略性和威胁性的画面。西方媒体没有想过提及中国奉行防御性国防政策,毕竟能力和意图是完全不同的两件事。

Chinese people take much more pride in the fact that the country's economic achievements in the past four decades have raised their living standards to a relatively high level. And they are proud of the country's military capability, because it can now defend itself against any aggressors. After all, Chinese people have unpleasant memories of colonial and imperial powers inflicting bloody wounds on the country in the 19th century, and Japanese troops committing atrocities in China before and during World War II.

中国人民为中国过去四十年的经济成就将他们的生活水平提高到相对较高的水平这一事实而感到更加骄傲。他们也为国家的军事能力感到自豪,因为军事能力可以保护国家抵抗外来侵略者。毕竟,中国人民对19世纪在这个国家造成过血腥伤害的殖民主义和帝国主义,以及二战前及其期间在中国实施暴行的日本军队都有着不愉快的记忆。

But Western media outlets seem totally disinterested in these facts. Such stereotypical thinking prompts them to arrive at quick conclusions based on their prejudiced views. Some sharp observers have already pointed out that, if the Western media outlets had covered the Oct 1 events live, a biased commentator would have continuously generated all kinds of negativity while the whole country was celebrating National Day. For example, after the 70,000 balloons were released toward the end of the morning events, a Western media commentator would have "pointed out" how the balloons would cause pollution and turn into waste after they burst, not realizing that organizers in China nowadays make sure such balloons are made of eco-friendly, degradable materials.

但是西方媒体似乎对这些事实完全不感兴趣。这种固定的思维方式促使他们根据自己的偏见迅速得出结论。一些敏锐的观察者已经指出,如果西方媒体报道过10月1日直播活动,一个带有偏见的评论员会在中国庆祝国庆期间不断催发各种负面情绪。例如,在当天早上活动结束前释放了70000个气球之后,一名西方社会的媒体评论员会“指出”这些气球在破裂后会造成污染和浪费,却没有意识到现今中国的举办方会确保这种气球是由环保可降解的材料制成。

The events gave some other environmental messages, too. The 24,000 square meters of red carpet used for the event, for example, was made from recycled materials. And more than 400,000 used water bottles were recycled.

这些活动也传达了其他一些环境方面的信息。比如,用于此次活动的面积达24000平方米的红地毯是由回收材料制成的,以及超过40万个用过的水瓶被回收了。

Recent years have seen China making big strides in environmental protection and promoting an eco-friendly, "recycling economy". In fact, by 2020, China's recycling business is expected to reach 3 trillion yuan per year ($428.86 billion).

近年来,中国在环境保护和促进生态友好的“循环经济”方面取得了长足的进步。实际上,到2020年,中国的回收业务有望达到3万亿元人民币每年(即4288.6亿美元)。

Poor understanding, misperception and prejudice are, of course, common in cross-cultural exchanges and reporting. Political scientist Robert Jervis' cognitive theory is illuminating in this regard. In Perception and Misperception in International Politics, Jervis says people are inclined to see what they anticipate. Cognitive theory is built around the premise that a person's thoughts control his or her actions and personality. As such, people tend to interpret received information according to their thought-frame, and they are attentive only to those messages or views that fit their pre-set frame of mind. That is how biases are formed.

当然,跨文化的交流和报道经常会发生缺乏理解、误解和偏见的情况。在这方面政治学家罗伯特·杰维斯(Robert Jervis)的认知理论很有启发性。在《国际政治中的知觉与错误知觉》中,杰维斯谈到人们倾向于看到他们期望看到的。认知理论是在一个人的行为和性格受其思想控制这一理论前提下建立的。因此,人们倾向于根据他们的思想框架来理解所接收的信息,并且他们只注意那些符合他们预想设定的消息金额观点。这就是偏见形成的方式。

Very few foreign journalists are actually objective when reporting about China, although their job is to disseminate true information. And it is due to this lack of objectivity that they cannot understand Chinese politics and society.

尽管记者的工作是报道真实的信息,但实际上很少有外国记者能够在对中国进行报道时做到客观。 正是由于缺乏客观性,他们无法理解中国的政治和社会。

The Oct 1 pageantry highlighted many aspects of China and Chinese society. Yet foreign journalists focused only on the military parade. The moral of the two stories-the Xinjiang documentary and the coverage of National Day celebrations-is that the Western media should make some real efforts to understand China better and see it for what it is, rather than judge it based on its biased views.

10月1日的盛典突出了中国和中国社会的许多方面,但外国记者们的关注点仅仅在阅兵上。 这两个故事(新疆纪录片和国庆庆典的报道)想要表达的是,西方媒体应该为了更好地了解中国而做出真正的努力,并从本质上看待中国,而不是根据偏颇的观点对其进行判断。

Wang Zhengxu is a distinguished professor of political science at Fudan University, Shanghai, and Tan Guiwen is a student of international relations in the same university. The views don't necessarily reflect those of China Daily.

王正旭是上海复旦大学的杰出政治学教授,谭桂文是复旦大学国际关系专业的学生。 以上观点不一定反映了《中国日报》的观点。

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