缅甸之旅:一个全新的前沿国家
Travels in Myanmar: A New Frontier
2355字
2019-12-16 10:33
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火星译客

This post is also available in: Chinese (Simplified), French, German, Spanish

本帖另外提供中文(简体)、法文、德文、西班牙文版

Myanmar represents one of the newest frontier markets, and is one I've been anxious to learn more about.  Long isolated with a military regime, Myanmar has been undergoing a transition over the past few years. After five decades of military dictatorship, it is now under civilian rule. Thousands of political prisoners were released, economic and legal reforms were initiated and some societal restrictions were eased. The lifting of Western sanctions also helped drive stronger gross domestic product growth and foreign investment.

缅甸作为最新的前沿市场之一,我一直渴望对其有深入的了解。缅甸因军事独裁政权长期与世隔绝,过去几年才发生了变革。缅甸经历了50年的军事独裁统治后,现在是文官统治社会。成千上万的政治犯被释放,经济和法制改革启动,某些社会限制也被放宽。西方制裁的解除也推动国内生产总值和外国投资强劲增长。

On my most recent visit to Myanmar this summer, I decided to start in the more remote city of Mandalay, which was the seat of the ancient kingdom. Mandalay has an incredible history, and I wanted to get a feel for how people outside the more major city of Yangon lived.

在今年夏天最近一次访问缅甸的旅途中,我决定从较偏远的古都城市曼德勒开始。曼德勒有一段不可思议的历史,我想了解一下最大城市仰光以外人们的生活。

A poem English writer Rudyard Kipling published in 1890 put Mandalay on the map so to speak. The poem expressed the thoughts of a British soldier's nostalgia for the place. Compared with the cold climates and social restrictions of the United Kingdom at the time, Southeast Asia was considered to be “exotic.”

一八九零年,英国作家拉迪亚德·吉卜林(Rudyard Kipling)发表了一首可以说是令曼德勒出名的诗。这首诗表达了英国士兵对曼德勒的怀念之情。与当时英国的寒冷气候和社会限制相比,东南亚被认为是“异国情调”。

Mandalay was the capital city of what was then called Burma, a British protectorate from 1885 to 1948. Kipling portrayed Burma as a place of beauty—not only the country but also its people. Kipling's words have since reappeared a number of times in popular culture, including in the song, “On the Road to Mandalay,” which Frank Sinatra sung.

曼德勒曾是当时人称“Burma(缅甸)”时的首都,缅甸在一八八五年至一九四八年为英国保护国。吉卜林将缅甸描绘成一个美丽的地方 — 不仅国家美,人民也美。后来吉卜林的描述在流行文化中多次出现,包括弗兰克·辛纳屈(Frank Sinatra)演唱的歌曲《通往曼德勒的路上》(On the Road to Mandalay)。

Kipling wasn't the only Westerner enamored with the country. The beauty of Burma and its people also impressed George Orwell, who many know as the author of the novel “1984.” He also wrote a book called “Burmese Days,” first published in 1934.

吉卜林并不是唯一一个迷恋这个国家的西方人。缅甸及其子民的美丽也给乔治·奥威尔(George Orwell)留下深刻的印象,他因小说《一九八四》(1984)而闻名。他还写了一本名为《缅甸岁月》(Burmese Days)的书,最早出版于一九三四年。

Other places around the world have acquired the name “Mandalay” (including a casino in the United States) to suggest something exotic and beautiful.

世界上还有其他“曼德勒”(包括美国的一个赌场),人们用这个名字来描述一些充满异国情调又美丽的事物。

Today Mandalay has a population of more than a million people, but still has a bustling small-town charm. An enormous walled and moated palace dominates the center of the city, evidence of its position as the last royal capital. Situated on the Irrawaddy River smack in the middle of Myanmar and about 700 kilometers from Yangon, Mandalay has been called the center of Burmese culture.

如今曼德勒有一百多万人口,但仍有繁华小镇的魅力。由巨大的城墙和护城河环绕的宫殿矗立在城市的中心,证明了其作为最后一座皇城的地位。曼德勒坐落于贯穿穿缅甸中部的伊洛瓦底江畔,距仰光约700公里,一直被称为缅甸的文化中心。

However, an influx of Chinese immigrants (mainly from Yunnan Province) has exerted a cultural influence on Mandalay. One Burmese writer once said that Mandalay felt like “an undeclared colony of Yunnan.” Today, Chinese immigrants represent about 30%–40% of the city.

然而,中国移民(主要来自云南省)的大量涌入对曼德勒的文化造成了影响。一位缅甸作家曾说过,曼德勒感觉像是“云南的一个未申报的殖民地”。目前,中国移民占该市人口约30%至40%。

China has held a strong influence on the country, and today, Myanmar plays a crucial part in China's “One-Belt One-Road” initiative. Joint projects include a pipeline, port and industrial park as part of a special economic zone.

中国对缅甸产生了巨大的影响,如今,缅甸在中国“一带一路”计划中扮演至关重要的角色。两国合资的项目包括管道、港口和工业园区(经济特区的一部分)。

Burmese is still the principal language of Mandalay, although Mandarin Chinese is increasingly heard in the city's commercial centers. English is a distant third language.

缅甸语仍然是曼德勒的主要语言,但普通话在该市的商业中心日益流行。英语则是第三语言。

King Mindon founded the city in 1857 in the shadow of Mandalay Hill to be a new royal capital. It remained the royal capital until the British fully annexed Burma following three Anglo-Burmese wars. In 1885, King Thibaw and his queen Supayalat were sent into exile. I visited the impressive palace, but there was not much inside since the British had carted away the treasures which can now be seen in London's Victoria and Albert Museum.

一八五七年,敏东王(King Mindon)在曼德勒山脚下建立了这座城市,作为新的王朝都城。在三次英缅战争,英国完全吞并缅甸之前,她一直是王朝都城。一八八五年,锡袍王(King Thibaw)和他的王后苏佩亚拉(Supayalat)被流放。我参观了这座令人印象深刻的宫殿,但里面没有多少东西,因为当年英国人将宝物带走了,现在陈列在伦敦维多利亚和阿尔伯特博物馆。

During World War II, the Japanese were fighting the British and conducted air raids on the city. Resulting fires destroyed a large part of the city. Then, when the Japanese occupied the city from 1942 to 1945, they turned the palace grounds into a supply depot. Allied bombing then turned it into rubble. In 1948, the country obtained its independence from the British.

二战期间,日本人与英军作战,并对该市进行空袭。由此引发的大火烧毁了大半座城市。其后,日本从一九四二年到一九四五年期间占领了这座城市,他们将宫廷广场变为补给站。盟军的轰炸将它变成废墟。一九四八年,该国从英国人手中获得独立。

The current buildings on the site are replicas constructed in the 1990s, although the watchtower (which I climbed up) survived. It's quite a beautiful piece of wood construction. Probably the most impressive thing about the palace is the absence of stone that one would typically associate with palaces. Everything was made of wood. Also, the palace grounds—located in the heart of the city—are enormous. It was almost like being in another village, complete with barracks for soldiers and shops.

现在看到的建筑都是二十世纪九十年代建造的复制品,但瞭望塔(我爬上去了)是幸存下来的。瞭望塔是一座相当漂亮的木楼。也许最让人印象深刻的是宫殿里没有石头,而人们通常会将宫殿与石头联想在一起,里面的一切都是木头做的。此外,位于城市中心的宫廷广场超级大。这就像在另一个村子里,配备了士兵营房,还有商店。

I also visited the famous giant Mingun Pagoda and Bell on the other side of the Irrawaddy River. My colleagues and I rented bicycles at a small shop, then cycled to the Irrawaddy River. There, we found a boat run by a husband and wife with their two children and set off on the river.

我还参观了在伊洛瓦底江另一边著名的巨大的敏贡宝塔和敏贡大钟。我和同事们在一家小店租了自行车,然后骑车去了伊洛瓦底江。在那里,我们找到由一对夫妇带着两个孩子经营的一条船,然后开始渡河。

The boat trip across the river and downstream took about a half hour. We offloaded our bikes and cycled through the dusty streets to see the giant pagoda and the huge Mingun Bell. According to the local Burmese, the weight of the bell was 55,555 “viss,” a local unit of measure, which is approximately 90,000 kilograms. The bell is five meters in diameter and almost four meters high. It was in good condition with no cracks, and we could stand inside while people struck the outer edge to get a sense of the sound.

小船横渡河流然后顺流而下,用了大约半个小时。我们将自行车搬下来,骑车穿过满是尘土的街道,参观巨大的宝塔和敏贡大钟。据当地缅甸人说,大钟的重量有55,555“非斯(viss)”(一个当地的测量单位),大约为9万公斤。这个钟直径5米,高约4米。大钟被保护得很好,没有裂缝,我们可以站在里面,而人们在外边缘敲击,可以感受到钟声。

We then proceeded to the pagoda, climbing 174 steps (there was some significance to that but we never found out what it was) up a hill. We were swarmed by a lot of young hawkers trying to sell us sandalwood fans, woven grass hats and cheap jade beads. As we reached the top of the rocky hill, the boys offered to help us through an area where an 1839 earthquake had damaged the stones and created deep fissures. It was pretty dangerous, but with the boys' help we made it to the top to see the entire landscape.

然后我们爬了174级台阶(这是有含义的,但我们始终没有找到答案)上山,看到了宝塔。我们被许多年轻的小贩们包围着,他们试图向我们推销檀香扇、编织草帽和廉价玉珠。当我们到达山顶时,小伙们提出要帮助我们穿过被一八三九年地震破坏并造成很深裂缝的一个地区。这是相当危险的,但是在小伙们的帮助下,我们爬上山顶看到了整个景观。

The Almighty (Crisp) Dollar

万能 (崭新)的美元

As we came down the hill, we ended up giving the boys who helped us some cash. On the way back to the boat, we stopped at a little shack selling instant coffee from Singapore. Three cups with some bread totaled a mere US$1.80.

从山上下来后,我们给了提供帮助的男孩们一些钱。在回到船上的路上,我们在一间新加坡卖速溶咖啡的小木屋那里买咖啡。三杯咖啡和一些面包总共只需1.80美元。

When we returned to the boat to head back, we encountered further evidence that capitalism was alive and well in the country. The lady running the boat unbundled a large spread of goods and gave us her best sales pitch. We gave in and ended buying two baggy pantaloons, a Burmese-style cotton shirt, two beaded necklaces, a shawl and postcards. They did pretty well with us—and it explains why the price of the boat trip itself seemed quite cheap!

回程时,我们看到了证明资本主义在这个国家盛行的进一步证据。经营这条船的女士分类陈列着大量不同商品,向我们推销她最畅销的商品。最后我们作出让步,买了两条宽松的裤子、一件缅甸风格的棉衬衫、两条串珠项链、一条围巾和明信片。我们相处得很融洽,这也解释了为什么乘船本身的价格看起来那么便宜!

The next day, we took off for the Amarapura Temple which took about two hours of cycling. We stopped at one of the few gas stations along road to find out the price of gas. The gentleman running the station said that he sold gasoline at the equivalent of $0.80 per liter. He was very kind—he offered us the use of his pump for our bicycle tires and gave us bottled water, refusing to take payment. Since we didn't have a clue as to the exact location of the temple, he also drew a map for us to follow.

第二天,我们出发去了阿马拉布拉神庙,骑自行车用了大约两个小时。我们在路上的其中一个很少见的加油站停下,了解汽油的价格。经营加油站的先生说他卖的汽油相当于每公升0.80美元。他非常善良 — 让我们使用他的自行车打气筒,并给我们瓶装水,但拒绝收我们的钱。我们不知道寺庙的确切位置,他还画了一张地图给我们看。

Again we reached a river and had to take a boat to get to the temple complex. There was a big celebration going on there, and we enjoyed the bright costumes and flowers. Some young people were eager to exchange money and asked if we had US dollars. When we pulled out our dollars to exchange for kyat, they refused to do the exchange, which puzzled us. They said the dollars were wrinkled and they could only accept unwrinkled dollars! We discovered this was not unusual in Myanmar. While in the United States, merchants gladly accept folded, crinkled, ink-splattered or even torn bills, only crisp, unwrinkled dollars would be accepted in Myanmar. I vowed to bring a steam iron with me next time!

我们又到了河边,不得不搭船去佛寺。那里正举行盛大的庆祝活动,我们欣赏到了艳丽的服装和鲜花。一些年轻人热切地想要兑换货币,问我们是否有美元。然而,当我们拿出美元兑换缅元时,他们居然拒绝兑换,这让我们迷惑不解。他们说美元有皱褶,他们只能接受不皱的美元!我们发现这在缅甸并不罕见。在美国,商人们乐意接受折叠的、皱巴巴的、染上墨迹的、甚至是撕破的钞票,而在缅甸只接受崭新的、无皱的美元。我发誓下次一定要带个蒸汽熨斗来!

As we cycled back to the hotel, I noticed a lot of advertisements for mobile phones and mobile phone service providers. Mobile phones are becoming ubiquitous around the world, even in remote areas. I saw advertisements for foreign companies as well as local ones. When we stopped at a roadside stand in the middle of a farm area to ask for directions from some teenagers, one pulled out his smartphone and bought up Google maps to show us the directions.

骑车返回酒店时,我注意到了许多手机和手机服务提供商的广告。手机在世界各地已变得随处可见,甚至在偏远地区也是如此。我看到外国公司和本地公司的广告。当我们在一个农场中间的路边停下来向一群青少年问路时,其中一人拿出他的智能手机购买谷歌地图,然后告诉我们方向。

Back at our hotel, a European luxury automaker was having an exhibition and a seminar. A number of its new models were on display, one selling for US$330,000. Obviously only a very few people in the country could afford it, but the fact that there was an exhibition was interesting, and an indication of brand-building and perhaps some potential sales interest.

回到酒店时,我们看到一家欧洲豪华汽车制造商正在举办展览和研讨会。许多新款车型都在展出,其中一款售价33万美元。很明显,在这个国家只有极少数人能负担得起,但事实上该展览很有趣,这是在品牌建设,或许还有一些潜在的销售利益。

Since Mandalay is considered the cultural and religious center of Buddhism in the country, the next day we decided to visit some of the major Buddhist sites—of which there were many. The city boasts hundreds of pagodas and many monasteries.

曼德勒被认为是缅甸佛教的文化和宗教中心,第二天我们决定去参观一些主要的佛教景点 — 那里有很多。这座城市拥有数百座塔和许多寺院。

At the foot of Mandalay Hill, we saw the Kuthodaw Pagoda with the “Buddhist Bible,” considered the world's largest book, consisting of over 700 slabs of stone inscribed with the entire Buddhist canon. We went up Mandalay Hill which involved more climbing, but then took the convenient and tourist-filled escalators and elevator to reach the top terrace of the Sutaungpyei Pagoda.

曼德勒山脚下坐落着库克多佛塔,塔中刻有被公认为世界最大经书的“佛教圣经”,里面有700多块石头,上面刻着整个佛教的经书。我们爬了曼德勒山,那里需要攀爬更长时间,但随后乘上了满是游客的便捷自动扶梯和电梯,到达了Sutaungpyei (如意)宝塔的顶部平台。

We were met an incredible, panoramic view of the Mandalay city and plain far into the distance. The setting sun provided us with a wonderful end to our visit to this historic city.

我们看到了震撼人心的曼德勒市全景和远处的平原。落日为我们此次参观这座历史名城之旅画上美妙的句号。

While Myanmar faces some challenges, I'm excited to see what the future brings, and encourage travelers to explore its many cultural charms.

虽然缅甸面临一些挑战,但我乐见未来的发展,并鼓励游客探索其各种文化魅力。

Mark Mobius's comments, opinions and analyses are for informational purposes only and should not be considered individual investment advice or recommendations to invest in any security or to adopt any investment strategy. Because market and economic conditions are subject to rapid change, comments, opinions and analyses are rendered as of the date of the posting and may change without notice. The material is not intended as a complete analysis of every material fact regarding any country, region, market, industry, investment or strategy.

马克博士的评论、意见及分析仅供参考之用,不应被视为个人的投资建议或推荐投资于任何证券或采取任何投资策略的建议。由于市场和经济状况可能出现急剧变化,评论、意见和分析都以公布日期当日为准,若有更改恕不另行通知。本文材料不是针对任何国家、地区、市场、行业、投资或策略的所有重大事实的全面分析。

Important Legal Information

重要的法律信息

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The views expressed are those of the investment manager and the comments, opinions and analyses are rendered as at publication date and may change without notice. The information provided in this material is not intended as a complete analysis of every material fact regarding any country, region or market.

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What Are the Risks?

有何风险?

All investments involve risks, including the possible loss of principal. Investments in foreign securities involve special risks including currency fluctuations, economic instability and political developments. Investments in emerging markets, of which frontier markets are a subset, involve heightened risks related to the same factors, in addition to those associated with these markets' smaller size, lesser liquidity and lack of established legal, political, business and social frameworks to support securities markets. Because these frameworks are typically even less developed in frontier markets, as well as various factors including the increased potential for extreme price volatility, illiquidity, trade barriers and exchange controls, the risks associated with emerging markets are magnified in frontier markets. Stock prices fluctuate, sometimes rapidly and dramatically, due to factors affecting individual companies, particular industries or sectors, or general market conditions.

所有投资均涉及风险,包括可能损失本金。外国证券投资涉及特别风险,包括汇率波动、经济不稳定和政治发展。在新兴市场(包括前沿市场)国家的投资涉及相同因素的较高风险,以及与这些市场的规模较小、流动性较低、并缺乏既定的法律、政治、商业和社会的框架以支持证券市场的相关风险。因为前沿市场的这些框架往往更欠发达,以及各种因素,包括极端价格波动、流动性不足、贸易壁垒和外汇管制,潜在的与新兴市场相关的风险在前沿市场尤为突出。在影响个别公司、特定行业或部门或一般市场状况的因素作用下,股票价格会表现出极大的不稳定性。

To get insights from Franklin Templeton delivered to your inbox, subscribe to the Investment Adventures in Emerging Markets blog.

有意从富兰克林邓普顿(Franklin Templeton)的邮件中了解更多信息,请订阅“新兴市场的投资冒险”(Investment Adventures in Emerging Markets)博客。

For timely investing tidbits, follow us on Twitter @FTI_Emerging and on LinkedIn.

有意及时投资的话,请在推特上关注 @FTI_emerging和领英。

The technology industry can be significantly affected by obsolescence of existing technology, short product cycles, falling prices and profits, competition from new market entrants as well as general economic conditions. The technology sector has historically been volatile due to the rapid pace of product change and development within the sector.

现有技术过时、产品周期短、价格和利润下降、市场新进入者带来的竞争以及一般的经济条件都可能对技术产业产生重大影响。由于科技产品更新换代周期较短,该行业一直以来面临着巨大/波动。

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