法国发生亵渎百位犹太人墓地事件,美国正针对网站煽动仇恨情绪的行动展开调查
100 Jewish graves were desecrated in France. A search for the websites that fueled the hate led to the US
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2019-12-20 16:02
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火星译客

Westhoffen, France (CNN)Guillaume Debré didn't know how to break it to his young daughters and has yet to show them a photograph of the swastika. "They are markings on sacred stones, that spell out hate and in this country, we understand what that means and what it can lead to," he says.

法国(CNN报道),纪尧姆·德布雷(GuillaumeDebré )不知道如何将这件事告诉他的小女儿,并且尚未向他们展示纳粹的照片。他说:“它们是神圣石头上的标记,可以清楚地表明仇恨,在这个国家,我们理解这意味着什么以及可能导致什么。”

"To my daughters it's just a peaceful area where their family comes from. It's difficult for them to understand that their family, that their grave has become a yo/utube-harassment-policy-update/index.html">target of hate."

“对我的女儿们来说,这只是一个家庭的宁静地区。他们很难理解他们的家庭,坟墓已成为仇恨的目标。”
 

But in early December, that is exactly what happened in the small village of Westhoffen in the Bas-Rhin region of Alsace, in eastern France. No one knows exactly when swastikas and anti-Semitic graffiti were spray-painted onto 107 tombstones in the village's ancient Jewish cemetery -- the 42nd anti-Semitic attack in the region in just 18 months.

但是在12月初,这正是法国东部阿尔萨斯省下莱茵省小村庄西霍芬的真实情势。没有人确切知道村里古老的犹太公墓中的107座墓碑何时被刻上十字和反犹太人的涂鸦,这是该地区在短短18个月内所遭受的第42次反犹太人袭击。

French authorities are taking the matter extremely seriously. France's Interior Minister Christophe Castaner visited Westhoffen the day after the swastikas were discovered and French President Emmanuel Macron paid his respects at the cemetery of Quatzenheim after it was desecrated earlier this year. And yet, no one has been caught.

法国当局对此事极为重视。发现十字涂鸦的第二天,法国内政部长克里斯托夫·卡斯塔内尔(Christophe Castaner)赴韦斯特霍芬(Westhoffen)当地的犹太墓地视察,法国总统伊曼纽尔·马克龙(Emmanuel Macron)也在今年早些时候亲自来到遭受亵渎的Quatzenheim公墓,向亡灵表示了敬意。然而,目前这桩案件还未破解。

A source close to the investigation told CNN that locals are believed to be responsible for the recent spree and that they may have been incited by global websites. Extra police resources have been allocated to the search for the culprits and several officers are working on the cases full-time. Part of the difficulty is that the villages are remote and very quiet. And according to the man in charge of the investigation in the Bas-Rhin, the culprits are not your average criminals.

接近调查的消息人士告诉美国有线电视新闻网,人们相信当地人应为这次购物狂欢负责,并且他们可能是全球网站所煽动的。为搜捕肇事者,已经额外分配人力资源,扩大警方力量,几名警官正在专职处理案件。导致调查难以深入的部分原因在于村庄偏僻且非常安静。根据下莱茵省负责调查的人所说,罪魁祸首不是普通的罪犯。

"Normally," says Colonel FrancoisDespres, "it is about following the money, but this is another type of criminal and people who are used to adopting a low profile both in society and when they commit acts. So that's why it's a question of patience and we are patient and that patience will pay."

“通常是这样,”弗朗索瓦· 德斯普雷斯上校说,“他们是为了求取钱财,但这是另一种类型的罪犯,这类罪犯在行为处事上一贯低调,在犯案时也不例外。因此,这就是为什么我们得耐下心来,但这种耐心可能会付出代价。”

For now, 42 attacks -- on graveyards, town halls, schools and cultural centers -- remain unpunished and the threat of more remains. While the hunt for the culprits continued on the ground, CNN began to investigate who might be influencing them from afar. What we found was a trail that led us from Alsace, through the Bahamas and Panama, and on to the United States.

到目前为止,对墓地,市政厅,学校和文化中心造成42起袭击的罪犯仍未受到惩处,另外我们还面临着更多的威胁。在继续搜寻罪魁祸首的同时,CNN开始调查是谁在远处影响他们。我们发现了一条小路,沿着这条小路从阿尔萨斯出发,经过巴哈马和巴拿马,就到达了美国。

Searching the internet, CNN found two French-language websites posting celebratory articles and photographs about the attacks in Alsace. "White Europe" and "Participatory democracy," are both domiciled outside of France -- in the Bahamas and Panama -- and therefore beyond the reach of France's anti-hate speech laws. Both are openly anti-Semitic, with "White Europe" hailing the work of "the proud people of Alsace who are leading the way."

CNN在互联网上搜索了两个法语网站,上面张贴了有关阿尔萨斯袭击事件的庆祝文章和照片。“ 白色欧洲 ” 和 “ 分享民主制 ” 都远在法国境外(分别处于巴哈马和巴拿马),因此不在法国的反仇恨言论法的管辖范围内。两者都是公开反对犹太人的,“ 白色欧洲 ” 曾赞扬 “ 引领反犹行动的阿尔萨斯人民令人骄傲 ”。

In response to CNN's questions, "White Europe" said that although they didn't know who was responsible, they did support such actions. "Participative democracy" told us that whilst they did not condone the crimes, they believed that the attacks were staged as part of a Jewish conspiracy. Both sites promote the theories of the late American white supremacist David Lane, whose 14-word slogan -- "We must secure the existence of our people and a future for white children" -- is a rallying cry for parts of the extreme right. A reference to it was made in the attack at Westhoffen: one of the tombs had been graffitied with the number 14.

在回答美国有线电视新闻网的问题时,“白欧洲”说,尽管他们不知道这幕后的始作俑者,但他们确实支持这种行动。“ 参与式民主 ” 告诉我们,尽管他们认为这种罪行不可容忍,但在他们看来亵渎事件是犹太人策划的阴谋之一。这两个网站都宣传了已故的美国白人至上主义者大卫·莱恩(David Lane)的理论,他的14字口号 “ 我们必须确保我们的人民的生存和白人儿童的未来” 是部分追求权利的极端主义者的心声。韦斯特霍芬所遭受的某一袭击也反映出这种现象:其中一个墓葬被涂上了数字14。
 

Both sites use the American internet infrastructure company Cloudflare -- which not only allows websites to get online but helps them stay there, by shielding them from cyberattacks. In the wake of the El Paso mass shooting this summer, Cloudflare discontinued its service to 8chan after a user believed to be the killer was found to have posted a rant on it. Cloudflare also said it stopped its service to the US neo-Nazi blog Daily Stormer in 2017. Not because any laws obliged it to but because it chose to following the white nationalist rally in Charlottesville, Virginia.

这两个网站都使用美国互联网基础设施公司的Cloudflare,该设施不仅实现了网站的上线功能,而且还可以保护他们免受网络攻击,从而帮助他们保持在线状态。在今年夏天埃尔帕索发生(El Paso)大规模枪击事后,在被认定为凶手的某用户在该网站发表视频,呵斥痛骂后,Cloudflare随即停止向8chan提供服务。Cloudflare还表示,它于2017年停止了对美国新纳粹博客Daily Stormer的服务。这不是因为其内容与所有法律相悖,而是因为它选择响应在弗吉尼亚州夏洛茨维尔举行的白人民族主义集/会。
 

CNN asked the company why it was not doing the same against hate speech that happens to be in French, and much of which is illegal in France, but received no reply.

美国有线电视新闻网(CNN)曾询问该公司为何不采取同样的行动反对那些恰巧是法语的仇恨言论,因为其中很多讨论是违反法国法律的,然而该公司并未作出回复。

We also found that posts from the French sites stayed up for a while on Facebook before they were taken down, while Facebook says posts from Daily Stormer are blocked from being shared. After CNN reached out to ask about Facebook's policy, the company began blocking the French sites too. Twitter, for its part, allows the sharing of posts from both the French sites and Daily Stormer. In response to CNN's questions, the company said it will start blocking certain content in the future. Twitter also said that they take action on content that violates their policies, including hateful conduct.

我们还发现,法国网站上所发布的帖子在被删除之前在Facebook上停留了一段时间,但Facebook表示其网站禁止共享Daily Stormer的帖子。在CNN询问其网站政策后,该公司也开始屏蔽法国网站。Twitter则允许共享法国网站和Daily Stormer的帖子。为了回应CNN的问题,该公司表示,将来会开始屏蔽某些内容。Twitter还表示,他们会对违反其政策的内容采取行动,包括仇恨性的言论。

The trouble is that for the time being, with hate speech on the internet so far beyond the reach of national laws, the only restrictions that apply to it are decided by private companies and on a case-by-case basis. Guillaume Debré says it is time that this global problem received a global solution. "Without it," he says, "you're going to have more Westhoffens, more Quatzenheims and others and not just in France but in New Zealand and in America."

问题在于,目前,由于互联网上的仇恨言论远远超出了国家法律的范围,适用于该现象的唯一限制条件是由私营公司根据具体情况决定的。纪尧姆·德布雷(GuillaumeDebré)说,现在是时候解决这个全球性问题了。他说:“ 没有它,您将使用Westhoffens和Quatzenheims等网站上的更多功能,不仅在法国不受限制,而且在新西兰和美国也是。”

It is an issue on which France is seeking to lead the way in the wake of the Christchurch attack, live-streamed on the internet. Soon after, the French government announced a bill, now working its way through the parliament, that seeks to force social media platforms to be responsible for the content they distribute. Companies like Facebook would have 24 hours to take hate speech down after users flagged it or face a hefty fine.

在克赖斯特彻奇(Christchurch)袭击事件发生之后,法国正设法通过网络直播指出这一问题。不久之后,法国政府宣布了一项法案,该法案目前正在等待议会审议通过,该法案旨在要求社交媒体平台对其发布的内容承担责任。像Facebook这样的公司会在用户举报仇恨言论或面临巨额罚款后,在24小时内将仇恨言论降下来。

In an exclusive interview with France's Interior Minister, we asked whether the United States, where so many of the internet giants are based, was doing enough. "No. And my answer is clear," said Castaner, "because there is a clear difference of culture."

在对法国内政部长进行独家采访时,我们询问了众多互联网巨头扎根的美国是否会做出更大的努力。卡斯塔纳说:“不,我的答案很明确,因为文化之间存在明显差异。”

"It is not about opposing French or European culture to American culture, but clearly on these subjects there is a belief in the freedom to say anything and everything. I believe that there is no freedom when it is us and our fundamental values that are being attacked."

“并不是说法国或欧洲文化与美国文化之间存在对立关系,但显然,在这些问题上,人们相信言论自由。我认为,一旦我们自身和我们的基本价值观受到攻击,就没有自由可言。

In the meantime, the French government says it is doing what it can. After visiting Westhoffen, Castaner announced a national taskforce dedicated to investigating and fighting hate crimes. This in a country that has Europe's largest Jewish population -- 550,000 people -- and where in 2018 the number of anti-Semitic attacks, which includes both threats and assaults, rose by about 75%, according to the latest interior ministry figures.

同时,法国政府表示正在尽其所能。在访问韦斯特霍芬之后,卡斯塔纳宣布成立一个全国特别工作组,专门调查和打击仇恨犯罪。根据内政部的最新数据,这个国家拥有欧洲最大的犹太人口——55万——而在2018年,包括威胁和袭击在内的反犹太袭击事件数量上升了约75%。
 

One question is why these attacks have happened in this particular area of France. Positioned on France's border with Germany and Switzerland, Alsace has changed hands several times over the centuries. A history reflected in its local dialect -- far closer to German than to French -- and in its culture. It is also a region that has one of the oldest Jewish populations in Europe, first documented in the 12th century.

问题之一是,为什么这些袭击会发生在法国的这个特定地区。阿尔萨斯位于法国与德国和瑞士的交界处,几个世纪以来几度易手。它的历史在当地方言以及文化中也有所反映——更接近德语,而不是法语。该地区也是欧洲最古老的犹太人聚居地之一,最早记录于12世纪。

Long confined to the villages by edicts that banned them from the cities, the Jewish community was an important part of rural life in the Bas-Rhin region. Relations between the communities were not always calm -- there were regular pogroms and sectarian tensions between local Protestants and Catholic populations -- but for 1,000 years they lived side by side. By the 20th century though, local Jews were migrating to Strasbourg, a rural exodus hastened by World War II, and leaving behind only their cemeteries. In all, there are just 45 cemeteries of them in the Bas-Rhin.

犹太人受到禁止进入城市的限制,长期被圈存在乡村之中,是莱茵河畔地区农村生活的重要组成部分。犹太各群体之间的关系并不总是平静的——当地的新教徒和天主教徒之间经常发生大屠杀和宗派冲突——但1000年来他们一直生活在一起。但到了20世纪,当地的犹太人开始向斯特拉斯堡迁移,只剩下先代的墓地。在莱茵河畔总共只有45个这样的墓地被保存下来。

Inside one of the largest -- and heavily guarded -- synagogues in Europe, the chief rabbi of Strasbourg, Harold Weill, told us that it was because Alsace had such a vibrant and well-integrated Jewish population that those on the extreme fringes chose to target it, warning that "hatred that begins with the Jews, never ends with the Jews."

斯特拉斯堡的首席拉比哈罗德·威尔(Harold Weill)告诉我们,这是欧洲最大的犹太教堂之一,戒备森严。正是因为阿尔萨斯聚集了如此活跃且经历过融合的犹太人口,那些极端份子才会选择将其作为攻击目标,这也警示我们,尽管仇恨从犹太人开始,但永远不会以犹太人结束。”
 

Yoav Rossano, is on the frontline of that hatred. In his role as the head of Jewish heritage in the Bas-Rhin he is often the first on the sceneof attacksand the first to be confronted by the symbols of hate.

约夫·罗萨诺(Yoav Rossano)站在爆发仇恨情绪的前线。作为莱茵河畔犹太传统的领袖,他经常是第一个遭到攻击的人,也是第一个直面仇恨象征的人。
 

"It is awaking the history," he says of the recent spate of attacks. "Part of the family line died in Auschwitz so to see here in my region, you feel a big responsibility."

“它正在唤醒历史,”他在谈到最近的一连串袭击时表示。“我们家族有人就死于奥斯维辛事件,所以看到我的家乡,你会感到责任重大。”

That responsibility both protects the history of the Jewish population here and ensures its future.

这种责任感不仅维护着当地犹太人的历史,而且保证了他们的未来。

But it is a lonely and difficult battle with ancient regional tensions now being fed by an international white supremacy movement facilitated by technology.

但这是一场孤独而艰难的战斗,技术推动下的国际白人至上运动加剧了这一古老地区的紧张局势。

Global hate is now fanning local flames and that may be harder for Rossano to stop.

扑灭这场在全球范围内愈演愈烈的仇恨之火,对罗萨诺来说是更大的挑战。

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